Proclaiming the truth as is the duty of all Christian Israelites

NOTICE FOR NON-BELIEVERS

Non-believers shouldn’t read this website. Otherwise only coincidentally some irrelevant headknowlege may be gained from reading it. For the most part it would be totally misunderstood of all points and intentions. All points and intentions are strictly Spiritual. With the Spiritual warfare going on you’ll need your Spiritual eyes and ears activated in order to process the word of God (also preserved in the King James Version). Especially the EARS as “Faith comes by HEARING THE SPOKEN WORD” (Romans 10:17). You’ll need to put on your Spiritual armor and wield your Spiritual weaponry against the devils that attack those who have the testimony of Jesus (YAHWEH Yasha) and His Commandments. Yes the Eternal God YAHWEH and all of His unchanging word that is to be honored. Our articles at the Christ’s Assembly and Watchman News are intended for fully converted Christians. It’s for those who have said the sinners prayer (turned and repented from all sin) and have recieved their born again Spirit that was purchsed for them by the blood of the Lamb. Everything is Spiritual that we deal with. So our intentions are only to be properly understood after you have been Spiritually “Born Again” (unless God is somehow really calling you to these truths and to the saving knowlege of Jesus and His laws which all creation agrees is good). We advise before reading any further you go to our “new believers” section if you’re not a believer.

If you’re a new believer, please call 714-983-6968 to pray together with a Minister.

Posted in New Believers, Statement of Faith | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on NOTICE FOR NON-BELIEVERS

New Billboards” “We Must Obey God Rather Than Men” Acts 5:29

In memory of the valiant efforts of the two bakers that defied the dictates of man, in order to serve the Living God:
COMING SOON: $10 Million dollar fines if you dare deny gay marriages in your holy sanctuaries. http://www.ChristsAssembly.com  (at the forefront, listen to mp3 from July 3rd)
We are in progress of putting up the artwork on a Nevada Billboard, more can go up with your helpful donations 
Aaron and Melissa Klein were fined $135,000 for refusing to bake a cake for a same-sex wedding.
The Christian owners of a former bakery were officially ordered Thursday by the Oregon labor commissioner to pay $135,000 in fines to a lesbian couple after the bakers declined to bake a wedding cake for the couple due to their religious beliefs…. WND.COM
America’s first seal after the Revolution. As proposed by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams. They were three of the five primary authors of the Declaration of Independence. (Moses parting the Red Sea, drowning Pharoh’s armies, and the pillar of fire.) 
TIME IS RIPE FOR SOME NEW BILBOARDS QUOTING THE WORD OF GOD:

Acts 5:29 “But Peter and the apostles answered, We MUST obey God rather than men.”
 
Latest news on Watchman of the Christ’s AssemblyLogo

Felony Hate Crimes for Churches, As Supreme Court’s Tyrannical Edict Goes Against Nature and Families

Posted On July 3, 2015 by Editor
It’s not just about civil unions. In each case, the extremist rainbow flag wavers have taken the issues ten times farther than ever dreamed. Now our beliefs and nature itself is a hate crime against a protected group”LGBT”. Now their protected new “rights” are to control our churches (or such churches can lose their 501c3 status and even be charged with felonies of hate crimes). Now we all must not only condone, but must celebrate Sodomy Marriages (a form of worship) in the Holy Sanctuaries of our churches. If any treats them different from the others, ie denying a certain portion of the sanctuary, such church is committing a felony hate crime. They can then be charged with HATE CRIMES and be imprisoned just like Jesus and all the Saints before us.

Attack Against States Rights

Many states overwhelmingly voted marriage is between a man and a woman and same sex marriage is banned. Their votes all meant nothing as radical extremist fanatical activist judges (that represent less than 0.5% of the world’s population) think they can bypass the legislative system, time and time again. Now the Supreme Court’s Edict makes it now basically a right. So any who denies this new right to be performed or celebrated in their Holy Sanctuaries, the priests can get many years in prison as a hate crime. Our votes have meant nothing, and 99.5% of the world is also being trampled under by these extreme edicts against all nature, all psychology and science fields.

Attack Against Secular Scientists

Doctors, Scientists and Psychologists (who have no religious affiliations) are now being fired in epic numbers, for simply remaining neutral and scientific on the matters. This is like Joseph Stalin’s and the most extreme Bolshevist’s wet dream.

Attack Against All Holy Sanctuaries

Now any priests who refuse to give a “marriage” between two men at the prominent place of their holy sanctuary (even if before only virgins were allowed to marry at that portion of the sanctuary), then such priests will go to jail. Lawsuits have been filed in all 50 states against the churches and priests who have faith that God and nature is correct. Now renegade public servants have decided that sodomites, trangenders and lesbians must be celebrated and taught as good to all children within the walls of any church the said wicked promoters so choose to have it held. 

Now It’s a State Sponsored Hate Gestapo

Now domestic insurrection against our inalienable rights (FROM THE CREATOR) is being waged not only by private individuals, but by the renegade public servants themselves. Obama has used the recent court decision to deny funding for children’s meals at schools that won’t radically alter their teachings to include pornographic sexual material in favor of transgenders (all nearing the realm of pedophillia).  So now in the US, if any church says they believe marriage is between a man and a woman then the state will prosecute him for hate crimes. The priests, and any who stand with him, will go to jail, and the said church would be destroyed in favor of the new state endorsement of faith against nature.

Protect Yourselves

I suggest everyone have a “Public Servant Questionnaire” onhand to ensure our fundamental rights to freedom of association and disassociation is respected by such agents. 

Ensure Privacy. Downloadable PUBLIC SERVANT’S QUESTIONNAIRE – Public Law 93-579

Please use downloadable format for any time you believe your privacy is being violated. If the person/agent signs, it demonstrates good faith that the said person/agent does not intend to violate our rights. Download: Public Servant Questionnaire in *PDF* (click here)

Remember, there will be no lukewarm in the end times, no on the fence. Just light vs darkness. This was foretold clearly in Revelation that such abominations will be exalted above everything of God, and to be worshipped in our very holy places (to exalt ABOMINATIONS with much love from the heart ie GAYNESS) rather than delighting in God’s commandments with all the heart, like David did. The agents of Satan won’t rest until all civilization (Christian civilization) is destroyed. Call on your neighbours, family, friends and community to prepare as if for Armageddon.
Learn about the groups who are the authorities in informing the Public Servants to come and persecute you. Groups such as the ADL, and their history of spying, kidnapping and torture.

Foreign ADL Hitmen Layoffs, Now With Control of All Local Law Enforcement.

Coming soon? $10 Million fines for churches who fail to perform weddings in their holy sanctuaries? **special mp3**  (also listen in on our updates on “The Kingdom Message” at Watchmen of the Christ’s Assembly | Proclaiming the truth as is the duty of all Christian Israelites
Posted in Assemblies, Babylon Politics, Covenantal Sovereignty, Cultural Breakdown, Environment, History, Israe-lie Foreign Spies and Assassins, Israel, Military-Industrial Complex, NWO Elite, Peace Institute, Pharmeceutical Industry, Preparedness, Priory of Salem, Red invasion, Renegade Public Servants, Spiritual/Religious, Texas Sovereignty / Manasseh Joseph, US Bill of Rights | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Felony Hate Crimes for Churches, As Supreme Court’s Tyrannical Edict Goes Against Nature and Families

It’s not just about civil unions. In each case, the extremist rainbow flag wavers have taken the issues ten times farther than ever dreamed. Now our beliefs and nature itself is a hate crime against a protected group”LGBT”. Now their protected new “rights” are to control our churches (or such churches can lose their 501c3 status and even be charged with felonies of hate crimes). Now we all must not only condone, but must celebrate Sodomy Marriages (a form of worship) in the Holy Sanctuaries of our churches. If any treats them different from the others, ie denying a certain portion of the sanctuary, such church is committing a felony hate crime. They can then be charged with HATE CRIMES and be imprisoned just like Jesus and all the Saints before us.

Attack Against States Rights

Many states overwhelmingly voted marriage is between a man and a woman and same sex marriage is banned. Their votes all meant nothing as radical extremist fanatical activist judges (that represent less than 0.5% of the world’s population) think they can bypass the legislative system, time and time again. Now the Supreme Court’s Edict makes it now basically a right. So any who denies this new right to be performed or celebrated in their Holy Sanctuaries, the priests can get many years in prison as a hate crime. Our votes have meant nothing, and 99.5% of the world is also being trampled under by these extreme edicts against all nature, all psychology and science fields.

Attack Against Secular Scientists

Doctors, Scientists and Psychologists (who have no religious affiliations) are now being fired in epic numbers, for simply remaining neutral and scientific on the matters. This is like Joseph Stalin’s and the most extreme Bolshevist’s wet dream.

Attack Against All Holy Sanctuaries

Now any priests who refuse to give a “marriage” between two men at the prominent place of their holy sanctuary (even if before only virgins were allowed to marry at that portion of the sanctuary), then such priests will go to jail. Lawsuits have been filed in all 50 states against the churches and priests who have faith that God and nature is correct. Now renegade public servants have decided that sodomites, trangenders and lesbians must be celebrated and taught as good to all children within the walls of any church the said wicked promoters so choose to have it held. 

Now It’s a State Sponsored Hate Gestapo

Now domestic insurrection against our inalienable rights (FROM THE CREATOR) is being waged not only by private individuals, but by the renegade public servants themselves. Obama has used the recent court decision to deny funding for children’s meals at schools that won’t radically alter their teachings to include pornographic sexual material in favor of transgenders (all nearing the realm of pedophillia).  So now in the US, if any church says they believe marriage is between a man and a woman then the state will prosecute him for hate crimes. The priests, and any who stand with him, will go to jail, and the said church would be destroyed in favor of the new state endorsement of faith against nature.

Protect Yourselves

I suggest everyone have a “Public Servant Questionnaire” onhand to ensure our fundamental rights to freedom of association and disassociation is respected by such agents. 

Ensure Privacy. Downloadable PUBLIC SERVANT’S QUESTIONNAIRE – Public Law 93-579

Please use downloadable format for any time you believe your privacy is being violated. If the person/agent signs, it demonstrates good faith that the said person/agent does not intend to violate our rights. Download: Public Servant Questionnaire in *PDF* (click here)


Remember, there will be no lukewarm in the end times, no on the fence. Just light vs darkness. This was foretold clearly in Revelation that such abominations will be exalted above everything of God, and to be worshipped in our very holy places (to exalt ABOMINATIONS with much love from the heart ie GAYNESS) rather than delighting in God’s commandments with all the heart, like David did. The agents of Satan won’t rest until all civilization (Christian civilization) is destroyed. Call on your neighbours, family, friends and community to prepare as if for Armageddon.

Learn about the groups who are the authorities in informing the Public Servants to come and persecute you. Groups such as the ADL, and their history of spying, kidnapping and torture.

Foreign ADL Hitmen Layoffs, Now With Control of All Local Law Enforcement.

Posted in Babylon Politics, Covenantal Sovereignty, Cultural Breakdown, Environment, Health, Israe-lie Foreign Spies and Assassins, Peace Institute, Preparedness, Priory of Salem, Red invasion, Special Reports, Texas Sovereignty / Manasseh Joseph, US Bill of Rights | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Never-Ending Last Days and It’s Implications on Theology

The Never-Ending Last Days?

“These are the last days” cries a radio preacher who calls himself a prophet of God; so read numerous newsletters and religious publications; so teaches the television evangelist with a book on prophecy for sale; so say and think concerned citizens throughout the land. So has it been said for 2000 years!

As the Scriptures say, there is nothing new under the sun and so it is with men and their last days theology. Gary DeMar in his book “Last Days Madness,” which shows the list of such men is long and dated, going back as early as the second and third centuries. For example, there was Montanus, a self appointed prophet of God predicting the end.

“In the third century, a prophet called Novatian gathered a huge following by crying, ‘Come, Lord Jesus!’ Donatus, a fourth-century prophet, commanded attention when he stressed that only 144,000 people would be chosen by God. He found this magic figure in Revelation 14:1 (a verse which the Jehovah’s Witnesses use to proclaim their own version of his heresy). Both Novatian and Donatus were branded as heretics by the Church.” (The Sky is Falling, in Future, John C. Souter, Wheaton, IL, Tyndale 1984)

Martin Luther wrote in 1532: “The last days is at hand. My calendar has run out. I know nothing more in my Scriptures.” (Misreading the Signs of the Times, Mark Noll; Christianity Today (February 6, 1987), pp. 10-11; Also see Mark U. Edwards, Jr., Apocalyptic Expectations: The Scourge of God, in Luther’s Last Battles: Politics and Polemics, 1531-46 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983) pp. 97-114) As the year 1000 A.D. drew near, the old St. Peter’s basilica was thronged with weeping, trembling masses awaiting the end of the world. Then there was a similar conviction in 1100, 1200 and 1245. “In 1531, Melchior Hofmann announced that the second coming would take place in the year 1533…Nicholas Casa held that the world would not last past 1734.” (The Sky is Falling, in Future, John C. Souter, Wheaton, IL, Tyndale, 1984)

The list of present day “last days proclaimers,” if properly researched and compiled, would probably be staggering. Here are just a few: Edgar C. Whisent put out a book, “88 Reasons Why the Rapture is in 1988.” In 1992, Charles R. Taylor in “Bible Prophecy News” said: “What are you starting to read probably is my final issue of Bible Prophecy News, for Bible prophecy fulfillment indicates that Jesus Christ our Lord will most likely return for us at the Rapture of the Church before the fall of 1992 issue can be printed.”

“1994?” was a writing by Harold Camping predicting Jesus would return sometime in the fall of 1994. David Allen Lewish wrote a book “Prophecy 2000: Rushing to Armageddon.” Dave Hunt wrote “Peace and the Rise of Antichrist.” Also, let’s not forget Hal Lindsey’s most profitable book “The Late Great Planet Earth” with a sale of 25,000,000 copies.

But What Does the Bible Teach Concerning the Last Days?: If that question was properly answered, the last days proclaimers wouldn’t sell many books or reap much in donations to stay on the airwaves. Last Days existed 2000 years ago, according to the Bible. Consider the words of Hebrews 1:1-2: “God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his son…” (KJV)

Following are some Bible questions for you. According to Hebrews 1:1-2, the writer of Hebrews considered the last days to be:

a). Something coming in the distant future (like 2000  A.D.)

b). The very last days in which he wrote the words “hath  in these last days.”

c). Impossible to understand and predict without reading  a book on prophecy or hearing a self proclaimed prophet.

Let’s consider another Bible passage: “But Peter, taking his stand with the eleven, raised his voice and declared to them; ‘Men of Judea, and all you who live in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and give heed to my words. For these men are not drunk, as you suppose, for it is only the third hour of the day; but this is what was spoken of through the prophet Joel; ‘And it shall be in the last days, God says, That I will pour forth of My Spirit upon all mankind; And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, And your young men shall see visions And your old men shall dream dreams…'” (Acts 2:14-17, NASV)

Now, let’s have another Bible test question. According to Acts 2:14-17, the apostle Peter considered the very day he spoke to be those days that Joel had prophesied of and called last days.

   a). True

   b). False

   c). Impossible to tell from the text.

The correct answers to these two questions are self evident just as it’s self evident these two Scriptural passages teach the last days existed nearly 2000 years ago! 2 Timothy 3:1 reads: “This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.” (KJV) 2 Peter 3:3 also seems to indicate the last days as something in the future: “knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts.” (KJV) How can it be that last days existed at the time of the writing of Hebrews 1:1-2, and Acts 2:17 and yet also be days yet to come in the future? The answer to that comes in understanding the Bible meaning of last days.

As a rule, when men use the term last days, they think in terms of the end of the world. Billy Graham, for example, wrote: “If you look in any direction, whether it is technological or physiological, the world as we know it is coming to an end. Scientists predict it, sociologists talk about it. Whether you go to the Soviet Union or anywhere in the world, they are talking about it. The world is living in a state of shock.” (The Return, Mike Evans, Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1986, p. 122)

The Bible term, “last days,” does not carry this meaning. That is why the last days could be at one time and then another. To prove that the Bible meaning of last days is not the end of the world, let’s look at how the term is used in an Old Testament Bible passage, Ezekiel chapter 38. It’s a controversial passage dealing with the invasion by Gog. We’ll not deal with the who, what, where, why of the invasion or if it’s already happened, but with the when. Verse 16 tells us when. “It will come about in the last days that I shall bring you against my land.” So then what happens? Does the world end?

Reading in chapter 38 & 39 concerning that invasion and conflict, one learns how it concludes and that the world continues on. Verse 22 of Ezekiel 39 says “And the house of Israel will know that I am the Lord their God from that day onward.” Note the words “from that day onward,” showing us the world did not end in the last days of Ezekiel 38. 

Once one understands that the Bible term, last days does not mean the end of the world, that the last days existed nearly 2000 years ago, and would exist some time in the future, then one can move on to another important Bible truth concerning last days.

There Are More Than One Last Days: In other words, there have been last days and there will be last days. If the phrase “last days” does not mean the end of the world, then what does it mean the end of? How about the end of an era or age! Hebrews 6:5 speaks of an “age to come.” If an age is to come, then that means an age will end prior to the coming of a new age; so there would be last days of an age! 1 Corinthians 10:11 says, “Now these things happened unto them by way of example and they were written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the ages are come.” (NASV)

The King James Version uses the word “world” instead of “ages.” “Upon whom the ends of the world are come.” The Greek word is “aion” and according to “Holman’s Exhaustive Concordance,” means “continued duration, a space of time, an age.” This passage clearly teaches there are ages and the end of ages had come upon those people living in Corinth, 2000 years ago. It’s unfortunate that this word is usually translated as world in the King James translation as in most instances it is far more accurate to translate it as “age.”

Take for example Hebrews 9:26. The King James says: “For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.” The New American Standard says, “…but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.” Young’s Literal Translation says, “…at the full end of the ages…” 

Noah lived in the last days, i.e., the end of an age. They were last days for people to repent and be saved from destruction. Last days of an age wherein wickedness and sin had culminated.

Moses lived in the last days: or in an end of an age. We have heard the phrase “last days of the Roman Empire.” Well Moses lived in the last days of Pharaoh’s Egyptian Empire. They were the last days for innumerable first born male children.

The apostles and their disciples lived in the last days: Just as Peter stated in Acts 2:16-17. Days just prior to the destruction of Jerusalem which ended the age of the old Levitical Priesthood and temple sacrifices. It was not only the end of an age but the “consummation of the ages.” (Hebrews 9:26, NASV) 

Many New Testament Scriptures pertain to the end of that age or the last days that existed 2000 years ago. John the Baptist warned the establishment of his day (Pharisees and Sadducees) of the end by saying, “And the axe is already laid at the root of the trees; every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire.” (Matthew 3:10, NASV)

A Most Important Point Concerning Last Days: So far, you have read some very important truths concerning the subject of last days. Let’s briefly summarize them.

1). Men have been crying out and warning that we are in  the last days for nearly 2000 years.

2). Last days existed 2000 years ago and were to exist in  the future. How can this be? Because…

3). There are more than one last days.

4). Last days means the end of an age not the end of   the world!

These are important truths to understand but more important is this: PEOPLE SURVIVED THE LAST DAYS. You see not only did Noah live in the last days, but he lived beyond them as well. Moses and his people lived in the last days and beyond. The apostle’s and the disciples lived in the last days and beyond. These people were not just SURVIVORS butOVERCOMERS and CONQUERORS! People of faith and hope.

The damnable consequence of this false modern day, (Jew)deo-Christian LAST DAYS THEOLOGY is it conquers and defeats the Christian soldiers who, themselves, should be more than conquerors. Victors taking dominion, overcoming the world through faith, hope, and love. It causes people to wring their hands in despair, believing things will get progressively worse in almost every area of life until Jesus returns with His angels.

One writer described the effect as, “Preoccupation with the end can act as a cultural sedative, leaving the world to its own inescapable eschatological certainties, giving man little impetus to effect change beyond his own isolated individualistic world. While society collapses, the population grows in its despair and joins ‘the cult of expanded consciousness, health and personal ‘growth’ so prevalent today.’ If the end is perceived as just around the corner, then why bother? ‘Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we may die.” (Last Days Madness, Gary DeMar, Atlanta, Georgia: American Vision, Inc., p. 9)

The Most Important Point Concerning Last Days: The most important point concerning the “last days” is how not to let them be your’s or your family’s last days. In other words, how to survive, overcome and be victorious.

Posted in History, Israel, Preparedness, Theology | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Ensure Privacy. Downloadable PUBLIC SERVANT’S QUESTIONNAIRE – Public Law 93-579

Please use downloadable format for any time you believe your privacy is being violated. If the person/agent signs, it demonstrates good faith that the said person/agent does not intend to violate our rights.

Download Public Servant Questionnaire in PDF (click here)

Now we all must Celebrate Sodomy Marriages (a form of worship) in the Holy Sanctuaries of our churches, or be charged with HATE CRIMES and be imprisoned just like Jesus and all the Saints before us.

Now any priests who refuse to give a “marriage” between two men at the prominent place of their holy sanctuary (even if before only virgins were allowed to marry at that portion of the sanctuary), then such priests will go to jail. Lawsuits have been filed in all 50 states against the churches and priests who have faith that God and nature is correct. Now renegade public servants have decided that sodomites, trangenders and lesbians must be celebrated and taught as good to all children within the walls of any church the said wicked promoters so choose to have it held. Now domestic insurrection against our rights is being waged not only by private individuals, but by the renegade public servants themselves. Now in the US, if any church says they believe marriage is between a man and a woman then the priests will go to jail, and the said church is destroyed. I suggest everyone have such questionnaires to ensure our fundamental rights to freedom of association and disassociation is respected by such agents.
Remember, there will be no lukewarm in the end times, no on the fence. Just light vs darkness. This was foretold clearly in Revelation that such abominations will be exalted above everything of God, and to be worshipped in our very holy places (to exalt ABOMINATIONS with much love from the heart ie GAYNESS) rather than delighting in God’s commandments with all the heart, like David did. The agents of Satan won’t rest until all civilization (Christian civilization) is destroyed. Call on your neighbours, family, friends and community to prepare as if for Armageddon.

 

This questionnaire was written by Daniel J.  Schultz.  Daniel is a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and a practicing attorney in Los Angeles, California.  He is the President, and a co-founding member of “The Lawyer’s Second Amendment Society” (LSAS), a nationwide network of pro-right to keep and bear arms attorneys.

PUBLIC SERVANT’S QUESTIONNAIRE

Title 5 of U.S. Code Annotated 552(a)

Public Law 93-579

Public Law 93-579 states in part: “The purpose of this Act is to provide certain safeguards for an individual against invasion of personal privacy requiring Federal agencies…  to permit an individual to determine what records pertaining to him are collected, maintained, used or disseminated by such agencies….”

The following questions are based upon that act and are necessary for this

individual to make a reasonable determination concerning divulgence of

information to this agency.

 

  1. Name of public servant ___________________________________________

 

  1. Residence address ______________________________________________

 

City ______________________________ State _________ Zip __________

 

  1. Name of department of government, bureau, or agency by which public

servant is employed

________________________________________________________________

 

Supervisor¹s name ______________________________________________

 

  1. It’s office mailing address:_________________________________________

 

City _______________________________ State _________ Zip _________

 

  1. Will public servant uphold the Constitution of the United States of America?

 

Yes ______ No _______

 

  1. Did public servant furnish proof of identity? Yes_______No _______

 

  1. What was the nature of proof?

 

ID No.  _____________________

 

Badge No.  _________________

 

Driver¹s License No.  ____________

 

  1. Will public servant furnish a copy of the law or regulation which authorizes this

investigation?                                                  Yes _______ No __________

 

  1. Will the public servant read aloud that portion of the law authorizing

the questions he will ask?

Yes __________ No _________

 

  1. Are the citizen’s answers voluntary? _____ Or Mandatory?  ____

 

  1. Are the questions to be asked based upon a specific law or regulation?

Yes __________ No _________

 

Are they being used as a discovery process?

Yes __________ No _________

 

  1. What other uses may be made of this information?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

  1. What other agencies may have access to this information?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

  1. What will be the effect upon me if I should choose to not answer any part of

these questions?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

  1. Name of person in government requesting that this investigation be made?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

 

  1. Is this investigation “general?” ______ or is it “special?” ________

 

Note: By “general” is meant any kind of blanket investigation in which a

number of persons are involved because of geography, type of business,

sex, religion, race, schooling, income, etc.

By “special” is meant any investigation of an individual nature in which

others are not involved.

 

  1. Have you consulted, questioned, interviewed, or received information

from any third party relative to this investigation?  Yes ______ No _____

 

  1. If yes, the identity of all such third parties?

 

___________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________

 

  1. Do you reasonably anticipate either a civil or criminal action to be initiated or

pursued based upon any of the information which you seek?

 

Yes ________ No _________

 

  1. Is there a file of records, information, or correspondence relating to

me being maintained by this agency?       Yes ________ No __________

 

  1. Is this agency using any information pertaining to me which was supplied by

another agency or government source?

 

Yes ________ No ________

 

If yes, which agencies and/or sources?  _____________________________

 

  1. Will the public servant guarantee that the information in these files will not be

used by any other department other than the one by whom he is employed?

 

Yes __________No _________

 

 

 

AFFIRMATION BY PUBLIC SERVANT I swear (or affirm) that the answers I have given to the foregoing questions are complete and correct in every particular.

 

________________________________________________________________

 

(Must be signed in ink.  This signature should be witnessed by two people.  Citizen may administer an oath if he or she so desires.)

 

 

Witness _______________________________________________________

 

Name Printed __________________________________________________

 

 

Witness _______________________________________________________

 

Name Printed ___________________________________________________

 

Authorities for Questions:

1,2,3,4   In order to be sure you know exactly who you are giving the

information to. Residence and business addresses are needed in case you

need to serve process in a civil or criminal action upon this individual.

5                               All public servants have taken a sworn oath to uphold and

defend the constitution.

6,7            This is standard procedure by government agents and officers.

See Internal Revenue Manual, MT-9900-26, Section 242.133.

 

8,9,10       Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (3) (A)

11                            Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (d) (5), (e) (1)

12,13        Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (3) (B), (e) (3) (C)

14                             Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (3) (D)

15                             Public Law 93-579 (b) (1)

16                             Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (3) (A)

17,18        Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (2)

19                             Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (d) (5)

20,21        Public Law 93-579 (b) (1)

21             Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (d) (1)

22                             Title 5 USC 552a, paragraph (e) (10)

 

 

If any request for information relating to me is received from any person or agency, you must advise me in writing before releasing such information. Subcontractors of US agencies are not immune to such prosecution. Filling it in completely shows good intent, that such agents or officials are not domestic or foreign “Enemies of the Constitution”. I prefer to trust and honor those who follow the laws cited herein, as evidence of their good intent.  Failure complete the form subjects such agents to possible civil or criminal action pursuant to the Privacy Act, Public Law and the US codes cited herein.

 

 

 

Posted in Covenantal Sovereignty, Priory of Salem, US Bill of Rights | 1 Comment

Foreign ADL Hitmen Layoffs, Now With Control of All Local Law Enforcement.

The ADL has been a primary wing of oppression, abusing hate crimes laws, in order to attack the Constitutional rights of every American (who are not in the minority). In the past they have hired foreign Israeli spies and hitmen to execute pro-American sovereign patriots. However now with the recent court decisions they fully control all branches of the department of Justice system.

There is no oversight of the ADL’s actions as they are foreign based, and at any time can subcontract with other enemy states.

If you now merely refuse to Celebrate Sodomy Marriages (a form of worship) in the Holy Sanctuaries of our churches, you can absolutely be charged with HATE CRIMES and be imprisoned just like Jesus and all the Saints were before us.
Any kind of discrimination against the rights of ANY person (especially protected groups) is a HATE CRIME punishable by several years in prison. With the new supreme court decision, sodomites now have the rights to marriage in any church they so choose, and taught to all children to be just as regular as all other marriages within all churches.

So do you agree that Sodomites can choose any portion of the sanctuary they so choose for this blasphemous form of worship? They want to do exactly what it says Satan would do. It says Satan would make it so that such abominations will be exalted above everything of God, and to be worshipped in our very holy places (ie. to exalt ABOMINATIONS with much love from the heart ie GAYNESS); rather than delighting in God’s commandments with all the heart, like David did. The agents of Satan won’t rest until all civilization (Christian civilization) is destroyed. Call on your neighbours, family, friends and community to prepare as if for Armageddon.

So are you one of those who will alert the local police to round up the congregants who want their sanctuary to remain holy from such blasphemous gay worship(high praise and adoration)? We suggest you print and store away a copy of a “Public Servant Questionnaire” to ensure the police won’t violate your freedom of assembly and the rights of Assocation and Dis-association. Download Public Servant Questionnaire in PDF (or go to the web version here:

Ensure Privacy. Downloadable PUBLIC SERVANT’S QUESTIONNAIRE – Public Law 93-579)

The third party sub-contracted intelligence company called the ADL is based out of Israel. They’re the foremost hate specialists used by present law enforcement. With the new rights over worship in all churches to force such abominable and blasphemous actions to be worshipped and LOVED in the sanctuaries, they have become the new bosses of the “public servants”. Now we must hold the public servants to account. Give them some way they can still follow their oaths, by having them fill out this questionnaire.

The ADL has often come into disrepute. Many began to suspect once they started categorizing everyone as anti-semitic. Their questionnaire for anti-semitism had questions such as do you believe Jews like to get ahead in business, etc. You’re labled a hater basically just for living and breathing. Now they are going to be the chief prosecutors of Churches who simply respect their sanctuaries, and the sacraments that are performed there.  They have conspired for a long time to take away all rights we have under the Constitution. Now with the supreme court decision that sodomite marriages is a “right” all churches can be charged with a hate crime if they simply don’t worship and bow down, love and celebrate the most forbidden tabos and blasphemies in our most holy places.

This is a warning to our members to look out for the ADL spies who seek to disrupt Christian worship services, and post slanderous articles about regular Christians. You can get on their list of haters, and perhaps even get fired from your job if you simply believe sin is sin, and that God or that even nature itself has always been correct.

Here is an older article from the Christ’s Assembly, highlighting the ADL’s 48 felony convictions for spying on American citizens and sending their information to foreign Israeli hitmen.

– ADL CRIME CONVICTIONS –

(48 Felony Charges in San Francisco alone. Convicted of spying and obtaining info illegally, libel, defamation, and slander.)

Posted: August 21, 2005 (revised 9.20.05)

By Minister

ADL CRIME CONVICTIONS

The ADL has been found guilty of SPYING by a California court, after 9 years of judicial roadblocks a decision was finally made, but should have had no less than 48 felony convictions committed in the city of San Francisco.

The Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (ADL) is an unregistered foreign agency fostering a group of foreign agents who operate unlawfully within America as a spy network for the Jew’s Mossad and the bandit state of Israeli.

In December 1992 the ADL [Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith] were caught red-handed and were exposed acting as a “SECRET POLICE FORCE!”

The Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith (ADL) has long been suspected of subversive, criminal and illegal activities. However, up to this time, solid evidence had been minimal. Now Americans are confronted with the evidence of A NATIONAL POLICE FORCE, OPERATING ABOVE THE LAW, NOT ONLY IN ONE OR TWO LOCATIONS, BUT ACROSS THE ENTIRE COUNTRY!

It has been discovered that the ADL operates more than 42 regional offices across the United States, in addition to offices in Jerusalem, Paris, Rome and Ontario, Canada. In addition to that, they have a national office at 823 United Nations Plaza, New York City. Testimony has been taken stating that ADL offices across the United State ARE INVOLVED IN ILLEGAL CRIMINAL ACTIVITY.

It has been reported that ILLEGAL FILES WERE COLLECTED AND KEPT ON MORE THAN 12-MILLION AMERICANS, with more than 12,000 in the San Francisco area alone. What’s more, the files were illegally obtained by BRIBING police officials in both San Francisco and Los Angels. Court documents released in March (1993) by the San Francisco District Attorney showed the ADL paid a full-time informer $170,000, between 1985 and 1993, for spying on over 10,000 people and 500 political and ethnic groups.

The ADL openly influences the Congress and most state legislators through lobbying. They are the HIDDEN FORCE that dominate certain important {key} court cases througout America. Their mission is to use their colorable law system and any other means within their power TO DESTROY CHRISTIAN NATIONS. Go to http://hatelawsexposed.org to see how average mainstream churches and talkshows are being attacked that could now become criminals under the new ADL legislation (if it passes).

The ADL B’nai B’rith International, the superpowerful Jewish religious, educational, fraternal, and charitable organization, has persuaded 55 nations (in which it has 2100 lodges and a half million Jewish members) to unite under the authority of a central European hate crimes command center. It is called OSCE, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, where it is now internationally is persuading governments to classify anyone who shows “bias” toward a transgendered or jewish person to be considered a potential hate criminal.

The following are excerpts from the Spotlight Newspaper, April 26, 1993. “Spying Exposed Nationally. The ADL spy scandal that erupted in San Francisco is finally receiving national exposure. As national news organizatons begin to dig into the affair, the police investigation is turning up a number of shocking new details of the massive extent of the ADL’s espionage effort. ADL officials could face 48 felony counts. By Michael Collins Piper, On April 8 the story of the illegal spying operations of the Anti-Defamation league (ADL) of B’nai B’rith were finally reported in surprising detail by one of the major television news networks. And the story is beginning to receive national exposure, after a long silence broken only by the San Francisco papers and the Spotlight.

ABC’s Nightly News broadcasted a lengthy, detailed report on the scandal, which first erupted in San Francisco but which spread nationwide. ABC-News reporter James Walker brought some 18 million estimated TV viewers a story that has been told by the Spotlight and its publisher Libery Lobby since 1955; that the ADL has been operating a massive and permanent espionage apparatus in this country, taking orders from and acting as proxy for a foreign  intelligence agency – Israel’s Mossad.
A second article from the Los Angeles Times, 13th April, 1993, by Richard C. Paddock, details the ADL’s chief west coast spy Roy Bullock and his possible role in death squads, torture and kidnapping.

The article introduces another ADL spy, Tom Gerard, a former CIA agent and San Francisco police officer who was accused of providing confidential material from police files to the Anti-Defamation League.

Gerard fled to the Philippines after the FBI interviewed him, but left behind a briefcase in his police locker. Its contents, according to the Los Angeles Times, included passports, driver’s licenses, and identification cards in 10 different names; identification cards in his own name for four different embassies in Central America; and a collection of blank birth certificates, Army discharge papers, and official stationery from various agencies.

Also in Tom Gerard’s briefcase was extensive information on death squads, a black hood, apparently for use in interrogations, and photos of blindfolded and chained men.

Investigators suspect that Gerard and other police sources gave the ADL confidential driver’s license or vehicle registration information on a vast number of people, including as many as 4,500 members of just one target group of interest to the ADL, the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee.

“ADL agent Roy Bullock was discovered to have a floor plan of murdered Los Angeles Arab American leader Alex Odeh and a key to his office.”
Source:
http://www.counterpunch.org/adlspying2.html

ADL received monies from Marc Rich From the article “Upholding most of a $10 million defamation suit against the Anti-Defamation League, a federal judge …” Don’t let the irony of that sentence be lost on you. Also note that the ADL encouraged this couple to illegally wiretap their neighbors’ phone conversations and this was AFTER the ADL had been caught spying in 1993.http://www.forward.com/issues/2001/01.04.13/news3.html

Arab Americans Spied On by ADL Sue Three Police Departments
http://washington-report.org/backissues/0993/9309015.html

Posted in Babylon Politics, Israe-lie Foreign Spies and Assassins, Red invasion | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Dietary Laws in the Orthodox Catholic Church

INTRODUCTION:

Most denominations of Christianity are divided on the subject of whether pork is still a sin, etc. We need only go to 1John 3:4 to read “sin is the transgression of the law”. Christians of any denomination or church will say pork eating is their only sin. However they forget that God said we must confess and repent of sin (Confessing any sin, till we grow more and be transformed more into the image of Christ).

Some even go so far as to say we can now eat abominations found in the sea like crabs and toxic barnicles etc. The typical response of today’s Christians is they can eat pork now because we have refrigerators, and it doesn’t go bad. The farther you go back in time the more it was unimaginable to eat it.  Even the Greeks and Romans limited their pork to very few special festivals, where it was eaten quickly.

However it has remained in the historic church a known factor. Several Bishops have been excommunicated from Rome based on their stance of rejecting the new traditions of pork eating, and telling Christians to turn against the Sabbath and feast days of YAHWEH. The purpose of this article is to show there have always been leaders in the historic church who remained true to the word in regards to pork.

Although we need only read from the word of God to form our opinions, this article is to show it has been historically understood.

 

Eastern Orthodox

The Eastern Orthodox still have major traditions in all branches for abstaining from all meat. In most monastic orders they often have only one day per week for eating fish. Still in either case, food laws even in Hebrew times were relaxed for the greater festivals, like Tabernacles where it says to eat whatsoever your soul lusteth after. There has remained a tradition on festival days to eat more than you eat on a normal day, even foods that would be considered only a delicacy. However while under no circumstance would I recommend pork, there are those who interpret it in Hebrew theology to include eating of pork on such larger week festivals as Tabernacles.

The historical understanding of Peter’s sheet was NOT understood to mean that now everyone can eat everything. The verse itself in fact says it had to do with people, not with foods (Acts 10:9-16).

The early church father Saint Jerome wrote expounding upon the paraphrased verse  “..forbidding to marry…. ..every creature of God is good, and none are to be refused if received with thanksgiving” (1Timothy 4:4) He wrote that this was NOT referring to swines flesh, but that it referred to marriage to a spouse, and partaking in all the cares of having a family.

Jerome said it was a “precept” that indeed had to do with all the belly desires (like marriage) that concern our lives in this world.

This agrees with 1Timothy 4:3 “..forbidding to marry and abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.”(note “commanding” is not in the original) Verse 4-5 speaks of having “prayerful intercourse” with the meats?? which couldn’t be referring of speaking together with the pork meal…

Saint Jerome wrote to the Imperial Lady Salvina who had just been widowed and was still attractive. He said she is one who rightfully “rejects pork”. He praised her piety in rejecting pork, however, said that it’s even more pious if she will now as a widow be continuously fasting and reject other more savory and expensive meats like the black cocks of Iona, etc.

He further elaborated about abstaining from meats, wines, etc, and even the verse that “every creature of God is good, and none are to be refused if received with thanksgiving” he equated all to be a part of the precepts of when we are serving the fleshly life rather than the spiritual life. He said it referred more to all the concerns of bearing children, having a spouse and serving the flesh. However, admonished her, although she was still youthful to remain a widow and abstain from all meats (remarriages/flesh desires) and wines to be a deaconess for the church. Which she did do under ArchBishop Chrystom of Constantinople.

Source: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3001079.htm (Letter from Jerome to Imperial Lady Salvina)

 

Nestorians

The Nestorians (who came out of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Constantinople) continued to guard the dietary laws. As we can prove, the rest of the orthodox have continued to believe it’s a sin. The Nestorians are known for keeping the Sabbath day and the dietary laws.

“The Nestorians eat no pork and keep the Sabbath. They believe in neither auricular confession nor purgatory.” Schaff-Herzog, The New Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, art. “Nestorians”

“They(Nestorians) abstain from pork and every other meat prohibited in the law of Moses.” (Wolff’s Researches, p. 469).

The Seven Maccabean Saints who were tortured and Martyred for refusing to eat pork.

Gregory of Nazianzus in his fiftheenth oration, commemorated their Martyrdom for abstaining from pork. He said that such civil disobedience in order to keep the dietary laws was to be “living in accordance with the cross.”

Augustine of Hippo said “the Maccabees really are martyrs of Christ”.

John Chrystom of Constantinople argued in favor of the martyrs saying that “people who were killed for the Law shed their blood for the giver of the Law, (Jesus the Christ)”

The Celtic Church was Hebrew and Eastern Orthodox

The Celtic Church which occupied Ireland, Scotland, and Britain, had the Syriac (Byzantine) scriptures instead of the Latin vulgate of Rome. The Celtic Church, with the Waldenses and the Eastern empire, kept the seventh-day Sabbath.

The hundreds of pre-schism Orthodox Saints of Great Britain bear the strongest testimony of these facts. Today the Eastern churches still venerate most of these. For Britain alone we have cataloged 130 official Saints of England who pre-dated Augustine. An example of the most popular pre-schism Orthodox Saints of England can be found online on such sites as http://www.oodegr.co/english/istorika/britain/British_Saints.htm. Our list of the 130 English Saints before Augustine can be found at http://glastonburyculdee.org/130%20british%20Saints%20before%20augustine.pdf

Hebrew Celtic Law

Not only was the Celtic church using a Syriac Byzantine Bible, but they were more successful in guarding the whole law of YAHWEH.

One example of the Hebrew Celtic Law is the Ex Lieber Moisi.

The Liber ex Lege Moisi, was distributed by Saint Patrick and his successors at every Celtic church, whether in England, Scotland or Ireland.

 

Summary of contents:

  1. The seventh day Sabbath.
  2. Slavery and the relationship of master to servants
  3. Various capital offences.
  4. Compensation in money of “kind” for different crimes.
  5. Animals’ offences against person and property.
  6. Animals used as food, clean and unclean, and slaughtering.
  7. Sex and marriage.
  8. Feminine hygiene.
  9. Tithes, first-fruits, vows, and offerings of all kinds.
  10. Justice, bribery, witnesses, traduction, and usury.
  11. Cities of refuge, asylum, and hospitality.
  12. Wizards and necromancy and human sacrifices.
  13. Inheritance, and the Sabbatical and Jubilees years, debts.
  14. Sights of a true prophet.
  15. Cursing and blessing.

This formed the basis of beliefs by the Celtic Christians.

The regulations of Adamnan, accepted that people could eat the unclean swine, but not if it was too fat. The pigs must be lean.

The dietary habits of Columba were clearly described as abstaining from meat and ale. (see “Old-Irish Life of Columba”, or “Amhra Chulimb Chille”.)

 

EARLY ROMAN CHURCH FATHERS 

Often the records of their dealings with the early Celtic Culdee church are quite telling.

Irenaeus, A.D. 178, says that the church in his time was spread throughout the World; and especially mentions the churches in Germany, Spain, Gaul, and Britain. He adds: “There is no difference of faith or tradition in any of these countries.”…

The credit of introducing Christianity into Britain region has been claimed not only for Paul, but also for Peter, Philip, John, Simon Zelotes, and Joseph of Arimathea…

Venantius Fortunatus, A.D. 560, says: “St. Paul passed over the ocean to the Island of Britain, and to Thule, the extremity of the earth.” (Ireland)

…In the biography of Augustine who came from Rome A.D. 596, to convert the heathen Saxons, we are told that he found the people of Britain in the most grievous and intolerable heresies, “being given to Judaizing, but ignorant of the holy sacraments and festivals of the church.” i.e. (Didn’t know of December 25, pork eating, etc.) (Mrs. Tamar Davis : “History of Sabbatarian Churches,” p. 108. Phila 1851.) ..

 

CONCLUSION

While most know in their own practices to at least limit pork, we believe it’s important to show that it’s still a sin that should be completely turned from.

 

Today’s Mainstream Larger Churches

Today there are still many denominations who claim apostolic succession and teach that we should not eat pork as official doctrine. Some examples are:

Syrian Orthodox Church

Coptic Church of Alexandria

Ethiopian Orthodox Church

 

Western Protestant denominations with more than 100,000 members:

The United Church of God (formerly Worldwide Church of God)

The Seventh Day Adventist Church

Israelite Jewish/Hebrew Messianic Assemblies

 

If this was a blessing to you, then please send it along, or request our larger writings that include how the Orthodox Church has widely kept Sabbath and rejected December 25th in preference of Tabernacles as found athttp://christsassembly.com .
Yours in Christ
+++ Abp. Rev. Stephen M.K.
Posted in Assemblies, Assembly Startup, Health, Original Baptist, Statement of Faith, TCAWW, Theology | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Dietary Laws in the Orthodox Catholic Church

Elijah Style Dought Ended. Now Epic FLOODS

Since 2013 the Witchita Falls region of Texas has been in a stage 5 drought (worst possible rating), and has been considered a Natural Disaster. This is nearby our church headquarters in Texas. Finally we convened a conference to pray about the rain. This was about 1 month ago, and we prayed for this, the worst drought in America, to be ended. From that moment forward it has been the heaviest and non-stop downpour. For about a solid month it has been nonstop rain Halelujah! And it’s now one of the worst floods ever. All rivers overflowing their banks for this whole region of Texas around our church. http://www.wfaa.com/story/weather/2015/05/21/wichita-falls-mandatory-evacuations/27696799/

Posted in Disasters, Environment | Comments Off on Elijah Style Dought Ended. Now Epic FLOODS

Ireland Changes Definition of Marriage (loses all ability to govern)

TODAY IRELAND FALLS.. Today Ireland Promotes sexual divergency officially by their “government” as discriminating against the traditional form of marriage that our Creator has given His good creation. For this to be called “governing”, I remind you this only proves their illegitimacy, lack of authority, and lack of power. As it says in the book of Romans that the only powers that exist are those that are ordained of God. (They have no power, just vaccum of attacking nature… which always has consequence.) Their current government has also lost all power to govern, in that they’re experiencing some of the worst times of poverty by really all definitions, as well as a very high rate of disease. All proof it failed, and that they no longer govern. They’ve reverted to the quick credit they can get for selling out the last of their few healthy Christians to be preyed upon. The bank uses those credits to pay back the interest debt as well as look to future securing themselves in a more easy to control mongrel society. – +++ Rev Stephen M.K. http://ChristsAssembly.com

Posted in Babylon Politics, Covenantal Sovereignty, Cultural Breakdown, Environment, Peace Institute, Pharmeceutical Industry | Tagged , | Comments Off on Ireland Changes Definition of Marriage (loses all ability to govern)

Honoring of the Sabbath in the Historic Orthodox Church

YAHWEH has preserved the national “sign” in every generation of His church on earth.
 
“It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.”
 
“There is no private inerpretation” but is clear to all and in the mainstream, and well known in every generation.
A Commandment so Great as to be cataloged in the “BIG 10″ would never be a mystery of which day it is, not to any one of His people. However it will be widely and chiefly held and known as central to their faith, by the whole nation, whether in rebellion or in obedience. A commandment that even carries the death penalty would not be unknown to any,  not at any point of the history of His true people. Not to even a single member of his people. It is the sign of our status as his great and mighty nations.
Honoring of the Sabbath in the Historic Orthodox Church
The Eastern (and Western) Orthodox Church Kept Sabbath on Saturday (the 7th day of the week)
Eastern Orthodox Regard Saturday as the Sabbath 
In previous articles I have highlighted Sabbath keeping in the Western Churches. However this article will demonstrate how the Seventh Day, Saturday, was the norm at Constantinople (the center of virtually all Eastern Orthodox) up until the Laodecian council. Since then it has remained a holy festival day above the other days of the week.  
Liturgical services on the Saturday Sabbath are testified to by many sources which describe Eastern liturgy. Few others but the Eastern Orthodox have preserved official Saturday Sabbath blessings. Specifically the Syrian and Byzantine Rites have preserved honour of the Sabbath.
 
The Great Schism between Eastern and Western Churches
Several scholars believe that Rome’s forcing populations to make the Sabbath a day of fasting (rather than Biblical feasting) contributed greatly to the historic break between the Eastern and Western Christian Church which occurred in 1054 A.D.. To this day, the tradition to honour the Sabbath apart from the other days of the week, remains within the Orthodox church.
Still Regarded A Festal Day
Christians were very careful in the observation of Saturday, or the seventh day, which was the ancient Jewish sabbath… In the Eastern church it was ever observed as a festival… From hence it is plain, that all the Oriental churches, and the greatest part of the world, observed the sabbath as a festival. And the Greek writers are unanimous in their testimony. The author of the Constitutions, who describes the customs chiefly of the Oriental church, frequently speaks of it…Athanasius likewise tells us, that they held religious assemblies on the sabbath, not because they were infected with Judaism, but to worship Jesus the Lord of the sabbath. Epiphanius says the same, That it was a day of public assembly in many churches, meaning the Oriental churches, where it was kept a festival (Bingham J. Origines Ecclesiasticæ: The Antiquities of the Christian Church. With Two Sermons and Two Letters on the Nature and Necessity of Absolution. H. G. Bohn, 1856. Original from Harvard University Digitized Oct 19, 2006, pp. 1137-1138).
“In the tradition of our Church, Saturday like Sunday is considered a festal day. Even during the Great Lent the rules of fasting are relaxed on Saturdays and Sundays” (Calivas A. The Great and Holy Saturday. Copyright: 2002-2003 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America).
Early Church Fathers
Many hints of the popularity of Sabbath keeping is found in the writings of early church fathers.
Polycarp, the second century Bishop of Smyrna taught the feast days and the Sabbath.
In the “Vita Polycarpi”(3rd Century), the Christian community of Vita Polycarpi is demonstrated to have been keeping the Saturday Sabbath in the same manner the Jews do. They gathered for Biblical instruction and to celebrate Sabbath as a feast day with their bretheren.
Eusebius spoke of “Ebionites” who  “used to observe the Sabbath and the rest of the Jewish ceremonial, but on Sunday celebrated rites like ours in commemoration of the Saviour’s resurrection.”
Socrates Scholasticus (fifth century) claimed: “For although almost all churches throughout the world celebrate the sacred mysteries [the Lord’s Supper] on the Sabbath [Saturday] of every week, yet the Christians of Alexandria and at Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, have ceased to do this.
Sozomen (fifth century) similarly acknowledged, “Assemblies are not held in all churches on the same time or manner. The people of Constantinople, and almost everywhere, assemble together on the Sabbath, as well as on the first day of the week, which custom is never observed at Rome or at Alexandria.
In 3rd Century Rome Sabbath observance still occurred (though not as strongly as in the Eastern and Celtic churches) as the following from the Catholic theologian Hippolytus attests, as well as Sunday:
20:7 Those who are to receive baptism shall fast on the Preparation of the Sabbath b. On the Sabbath c, those who are to receive baptism shall all gather together in one place…
b Friday
c Saturday
22:1 On the first day of the week the bishop, if possible, shall deliver the oblation to all  the people with his own hand, while the deacons break the bread.
(Hippolytus. The Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus of Rome. From the work of Bernard Botte (La Tradition Apostolique. Sources Chretiennes, 11 bis. Paris, Editions du Cerf, 1984) and of Gregory Dix (The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St. Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop and Martyr. London: Alban Press, 1992) as translated by Kevin P. Edgecomb http://www.bombaxo.com/hippolytus.html viewed 08/06/09)
In the fourth century, Sabbath-keeping was still going on in Jerusalem:
St. Cyril of Jerusalem, or as some believe, his successor John II…the saint…adds “…Keep away from all sabbathical observances, and do not call some foods clean and unclean because they are all indifferent”[note: Preferring to call all meat indifferent, was the common teaching in abstaining from “all meats”, not just pork. Nevertheless it shows the teaching of rejecting pork was popular enough to speak on. See our article on dietary laws in the ancient church.] (Bagatti, Bellarmino.  Translated by Eugene Hoade.  The Church from the Circumcision. Nihil obstat: Marcus Adinolfi, 13 Maii 1970. Imprimi potest: Herminius Roncari, 14 Junii 1970. Imprimatur: +Albertus Gori, die 26 Junii 1970.  Franciscan Printing Press, Jerusalem, 1971, p. 89).
John Chrystosom in his “Eight Homilies Against the Jews” wrote that there are “many in our ranks” who think alike about the Hebrew feasts and sabbaths, and they observe and keep them together with the Jews.
All the Hebrew feast days as well as the Sabbath was fully expected and celebrated.
Polycarp (died circa 156AD) wrote in favor of keeping the Biblical seventh daySabbathPassover, the Days of Unleavened BreadPentecost, and the Last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

The Second Century Bishop Polycrates of Ephesus was spokesman for the whole of Asia Minor, and indicates his synod of Bishops convened for the purpose of defending the literal celebration of the Hebrew festivals. In his letter to the Roman Bishop Victor, he earnestly defended all the old testament aspects of keeping Passover, including removing leaven out of your house etc. In the letter he names his succession as the 8th Bishop since the Apostle John and his willingness to disobey the external pressures to change the observance of God’s festivals against Rome’s pagan festival days.  His letter is very telling, and I suggest any get a copy of it. It can be found online, as was copied originally by Eusebius, and is in “The History of the Church, Book V, Chapter XXIV”,Verses 2-7 . Translated by A. Cushman McGiffert. Digireads.com or in wikipedia.

The letter enraged Pope Victor and made him excommunicate him and all Bishops of Asia Minor from the Roman communion.

However history demonstrates that the next several centuries Asia-Minor continued to follow the Hebrew festivals rather than Rome’s pagan festivals.

Saint Apollinaris, Bishop of Hierapolisalso wrote in favor of the Biblical Hebrew festival dates, rather than theRoman Pagan days.

3rd-4th Century Saint and Bishop Methodius of Olympus declared “For since in six days God made the heaven and the earth, and finished the whole world, and rested on the seventh day from all His works which He had made, and blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, so by a figure in the seventh month…, the great resurrection-day, it is commanded that the Feast of our Tabernacles shall be celebrated to the Lord……..” (Methodius. Banquet of the Ten Virgins (Discourse 9, Chapter 1). Translated by William R. Clark.From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 6. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co.,1886.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/062309.htm>).
In EGYPT (OXYRHYNCHUS PAPYRUS – 200-250 A.D.)
“Except ye make the Sabbath a real Sabbath [sabbatize the Sabbath, Greek], ye shall not see the father.” The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, pt. L, p. 3, Logion 2, verse 4-11 (London: Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1898)…
In SPAIN – Council Elvira (A.D. 305)
Canon 26 of the Council of Elvira reveals that the Church of Spain at that time kept Saturday, the seventh day. “As to fasting every Sabbath: Resolved, that the error be corrected of fasting every Sabbath.” This resolution of the council is in direct opposition to the policy the church at Rome had inaugurated, that of commanding Sabbath as a fast day in order to humiliate it and make it repugnant to the people…
In PERSIA – A.D. 335-375:
“They despise our sun god. Did not Zoroaster, the sainted founder of our divine beliefs, institute Sunday one thousand years ago in honour of the sun and supplant the Sabbath of the Old Testament. Yet these Christians have divine services on Saturday.” O’Leary, The Syriac Church and Fathers, pp. 83, 84. (Coltheart JF. The Sabbath of God Through the Centuries. Leaves-of-Autumn Books, Inc. Payson, Arizona, 1954. http://www.giveshare.org/churchhistory/sabbaththrucenturies.html 6/24/06).
Sabbath-keeping in Asia Minor was publicly still going on to at least 364 A.D. or else the Eastern Church would not have convened a Council in Laodicea to excommunicate any who rested on the seventh day.
Notice what the Council of Laodicea declared in English and Latin,
CANON XXIX. CHRISTIANS must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honouring the Lord’s Day; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ (THE COMPLETE CANONS OF THE SYNOD OF LAODICEA IN PHRYGIA PACATIANA).
Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in Sabbato, sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum diem si vacare voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat ; quod si reperti fuerint Judaizare Anathema sin a Christo (Cited in Andrews, p. 362).
But although that Council tried to abolish the Sabbath, sabbath-keeping continued among the faithful. 
Around 404 A.D. Jerome wrote,
“…the believing Jews do well in observing the precepts of the law, i.e….keeping the Jewish Sabbath…there exists a sect among… the synagogues of the East, which is called the sect of the Minei, and is even now condemned by the Pharisees. The adherents to this sect are known commonly as Nazarenes; they believe in Christ the Son of God, born of , the Virgin Mary; and they say that He who suffered under Pontius Pilate and rose again, is the same as the one in whom we believe” (Jerome. Translated by J.G. Cunningham, M.A. From Jerome to Augustine (A.D. 404); LETTER 75 (AUGUSTINE) OR 112 (JEROME). Excerpted from Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series One, Volume 1. Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D. American Edition, 1887. Online Edition Copyright © 2004 by K. Knight).
 
There were Semi-Arians in Armenia who also kept the seventh-day Sabbath in the late fourth century:
Eustathius was succeeded by Erius, a semi-Arian…he urged a purer morality and a stricter observance of the Sabbath (Davis, Tamar. A General History of the Sabbatarian Churches. 1851; Reprinted 1995 by Commonwealth Publishing, Salt Lake City, p. 20).
One text known as the “Apostolic Constitutions” (written in circa 250AD) spelled out that the Sabbath (7th day) and Sunday (1st day) both were festal days where we must neither fast, nor work, but is a day of celebration at with local assembly.
The Apostolic Constituitions (circa 250AD), record:
XXIII…But keep the Sabbath, and the Lord’s day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, and the latter of the resurrection (Apostolic Constitutions – Didascalia Apostolorum Book VII, Section II. As cited in Andrews J.N. in History of the Sabbath, 3rd editon, 1887. Reprint Teach Services, Brushton (NY), 1998, p. 329 and Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, Bk. 7, Sec. 2, Ch. 23, trans. in ANF, Vol. 7, 1885.  Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody (MA), printing 1999, p. 469)…
XXXIII…Let the slaves work five days; but on the Sabbath-day and the Lord’s day let them have leisure to go to church for instruction in piety. We have said that the Sabbath is on account of the creation, and the Lord’s day of the resurrection (Apostolic Constitutions – Didascalia Apostolorum Book VIII, Section IV).
XXXVI. O Lord Almighty Thou hast created the world by Christ, and hast appointed the Sabbath in memory thereof, because that on that day Thou hast made us rest from our works, for the meditation upon Thy laws…Thou didst give them the law or decalogue, which was pronounced by Thy voice and written with Thy hand. Thou didst enjoin the observation of the Sabbath, not affording them an occasion of idleness, but an opportunity of piety, for their knowledge of Thy power, and the prohibition of evils; having limited them as within an holy circuit for the sake of doctrine, for the rejoicing upon the seventh period…On this account He permitted men every Sabbath to rest, that so no one might be willing to send one word out of his mouth in anger on the day of the Sabbath. For the Sabbath is the ceasing of the creation, the completion of the world, the inquiry after laws, and the grateful praise to God for the blessings He has bestowed upon men (Apostolic Constitutions – Didascalia Apostolorum Book VII, Section II)
There is a seventh book of the Apostolic Constitutions which contains seventeen Sabbath blessings in six prayers that are identical to the Jewish “Amidah of the Sabbath”. This is pre-rabbinic liturgy put together by Ezra the Scribe.
 
The Celtic Church was Hebrew and Orthodox
The Celtic Church which occupied Ireland, Scotland, and Britain, had the Syriac (Byzantine) scriptures instead of the Latin vulgate of Rome. The Celtic Church, with the Waldenses and the Eastern empire, kept the seventh-day Sabbath.
 
The hundreds of pre-schism Orthodox Saints of Great Britain bear the strongest testimony of these facts. Today the Eastern churches still venerate most of these. For Britain alone we have cataloged 130 official Saints of England who pre-dated Augustine. An example of the most popular pre-schism Orthodox Saints of England can be found online on such sites ashttp://www.oodegr.co/english/istorika/britain/British_Saints.htm. Our list of the 130 English Saints before Augustine can be found athttp://glastonburyculdee.org/130%20british%20Saints%20before%20augustine.pdf
 
Hebrew Celtic Law
 Not only was the Celtic church using a Syriac Byzantine Bible, but they were more successful in guarding the whole law of YAHWEH.
 
One example of the Hebrew Celtic Law is the Ex Lieber Moisi.
The Liber ex Lege Moisi, was distributed by Saint Patrick and his successors at every Celtic church, whether in England, Scotland or Ireland.
 
Summary of contents:
1.       The seventh day Sabbath.
2.       Slavery and the relationship of master to servants
3.       Various capital offences.
4.       Compensation in money of “kind” for different crimes.
5.       Animals’ offences against person and property.
6.       Animals used as food, clean and unclean, and slaughtering.
7.       Sex and marriage.
8.       Feminine hygiene.
9.       Tithes, first-fruits, vows, and offerings of all kinds.
10.   Justice, bribery, witnesses, traduction, and usury.
11.   Cities of refuge, asylum, and hospitality.
12.   Wizards and necromancy and human sacrifices.
13.   Inheritance, and the Sabbatical and Jubilees years, debts.
14.   Sights of a true prophet.
15.   Cursing and blessing.
 
This formed the basis of beliefs by the Celtic Christians.
 
The regulations of Adamnan, accepted that people could eat the unclean swine, but not if it was too fat. The pigs must be lean.
The dietary habits of Columba were clearly described as abstaining from meat and ale. (see “Old-Irish Life of Columba”, or “Amhra Chulimb Chille”.) 
 
EARLY ROMAN CHURCH FATHERS 
Often the records of their dealings with the early celtic Culdee church are quite telling.
 
Irenaeus, A.D. 178, says that the church in his time was spread throughout the World; and especially mentions the churches in Germany, Spain, Gaul, and Britain. He adds: “There is no difference of faith or tradition in any of these countries.”…
 
The credit of introducing Christianity into this region has been claimed not only for Paul, but also for Peter, Philip, John, Simon Zelotes, and Joseph of Arimathea… 
 
Venantius Fortunatus, A.D. 560, says: “St. Paul passed over the ocean to the Island of Britain, and to Thule, the extremity of the earth.” (Ireland)
 
…In the biography of Augustine who came from Rome A.D. 596, to convert the heathen Saxons, we are told that he found the people of Britain in the most grievous and intolerable heresies, “being given to Judaizing, but ignorant of the holy sacraments and festivals of the church.” That is to say, they kept the Bible Sabbath and were ignorant of the Roman “Sunday-festival.” (Mrs. Tamar Davis : “History of Sabbatarian Churches,” p. 108. Phila 1851.) …
 
John Price, in “The Ancient British Church,” (pp 90, 94. Note), says: “The original difference (about Easter) was that the Western church, followed herein by the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch and Alexandria, observed Good Friday either on the 14th of the month Nisan, if it fell on Friday, or, if not, on the next Friday; and Easter on the following Sunday. The Eastern church did not do that way.” and then he adds, “There is, however, an unfair insinuation that the British Christians were Judaic in their observance of Easter day, in a letter of Pope elect, John (A.D. 634), to the Scoti; and in Aldhelm’s Epistle to Geruntius.” This “insinuation,” far from being unfair, is rather the more a true statement of the Sabbath observance of the Celtic church, which even celebrated its Easter or resurrection festival on the day which the Scriptures point out as the one on which the Saviour rose from the grave, (which was “late on the Sabbath.” Matt. 28:1-4) (Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America” Volume 1, 1910 pp 21-39).
“Adomnan’s use of sabbatum for Satur­day, the seventh day of the week, is clear indication from ‘Columba’s mouth’ that ‘Sabbath was not Sunday.’ Sunday, the first day of the week is ‘Lord’s day.’ Adomnan’s attitude to Sunday is important, because he wrote at a time when there was controversy over the question whether the ritual of the Biblical Sabbath was to be transferred to the Christians’ Lord’s-day.’ — A.O. and M.O. Anderson (editors) Adomnan’s Life of Columba, Thomas Nelson’s Medieval Texts, 1961, pages 25-26.
 
“The Old Testament required seventh-day Sabbath observance and, reason Adomnan’s editors, since the New Testament nowhere repealed the fourth commandment, the seventh-day was observed by all early Christians. The evidence they adduce suggests that no actual confusion between Sunday and ‘the Sabbath’ occurred until the early sixth century, and then in the writings of the rather obscure Caesarius of Arles. (Ibid., page 26.)…”
 
The Roman ‘movement’ to supersede the Celtic Sabbath with Sunday ‘culminated in the production of an (apocryphal) ‘Letter of Jesus’, or ‘Letter of Lord’s day’, alleged to have been found on the altar of Peter in Rome; and is said in the annals to have been brought to Ireland by a pilgrim (c. 886). Upon this basis laws were promulgated, imposing heavy penalties for those that violated on Sunday certain regulations derived from Jewish prohibitions for Sabbath. . . . There is in fact no historical evidence that Ninian, or Patrick, or Columba, or any of their con­temporaries in Ireland, kept Sunday as a Sabbath.’ (Ibid., page 28.) (Celtic Sabbath-Keeping Study No. 264, from Cherith Chronicle, April-June 1998, pp. 46-47. http://www.giveshare.org/BibleStudy/264.celtic-sabbath-keeping.html 6/24/06).
 
People in the British Isles, including Ireland, may be shocked to learn this, but the Sabbath was kept in them by many until an English woman married Malcom III king of the Scots, and later forced Sunday upon her husband’s subjects.
 
Noted theologian James Moffat reported:
 
It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labor, and Sunday, commemorative of the Lord’s resurrection, as one of rejoicing, with exercises of public worship.  In that case they obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of the week…
 
The queen insisted upon the single and strict observance of the Lord’s Day. People and clergy alike submitted, but without entirely giving up their reverence for Saturday, which subsequently sank into a half-holy day preparatory for Sunday (Moffat , James Clement.  The Church in Scotland: A History of Its Antecedents, it Conflicts, and Its Advocates, from the Earliest Recorded Times to the First Assembly of the Reformed Church. Published by Presbyterian Board of Education, 1882.  Original from the University of Wisconsin – Madison. Digitized Mar 13, 2008, p. 140).
 
The queen mentioned above was Margaret who died in 1093.  Margaret (who was technically “the Queen consort of Malcolm III”) was canonized a Roman Catholic saint in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV.  Thus, once again political power was used to try to stop people from following the biblical practices of early Christianity.
 
Thomas Bampfield…contended that the seventh day had been kept in England in unbroken succession until the thirteenth century (Ball B.  Seventh Day Men: Sabbatarians and Sabbatarianism in England and Wales, 1600-1800, 2nd edition.  James Clark & Co., 2009, p. 21).
 
It should be noted that because of practices of a few of the Lollards in the British Isles, some Sabbath-keeping would have apparently occurred from the thirteenth through seventeenth centuries (Ball, pp. 30-31 ), so it would havce been unbroken for even more centuries that Thomas Bampfield contended about
 
Notice a that in 1719 England, John Ozell, a non-Sabbath-keeper wrote the following about some of the Sabbath-keepers:
 
…People, who…go by the name Sabbatarian make Profession of expecting a Reign of a Thousand Years…These Sabbatarians are so call’d, because they will not remove the Day of Rest from Saturday to Sunday…They administer Baptism only to adult People…The major part of them will not eat Pork, nor blood…their outward conduct is pious and Christian-like (Ozell J.   M. Mission Observations in His Travels over England.  1719.  As cited in Ball, p. 9).
 
There even was Sabbath-keeping in China probably beginning no later than 635, as well as beyond:
 
“It was in the year 1625; the Jesuits had infiltrated the fabric of the Chinese cultured classes, when a sensational discovery was made. A large monument stone inscribed with nineteen hundred Chinese characters, and fifty Syrian words, was unearthed just outside the walls of Chang-An, the ancient capital of the Tang Dynasty. The news of this discovery caused a bustle of excitement in the ancient metropolitan city, and thousands were anxious to know what information about their cultural heritage was hidden in the writing.
 
The Jesuits, who were regarded as the teachers and scholars, were immediately summoned to decipher the inscriptions. To the astonishment of these haughty priests, there before their eyes, was a description of the prestigious position, and vast extent of the seventh-day Sabbath-keeping Christian Church of the East of a millennia before!
 
The ancient Chinese characters were inscribed in 781 AD, at the command of Emperor Tae-Tsung, to honor the arrival of an Assyrian missionary and his companions to the capitol in the year 635 AD from Ta Tsin, or Judea. The stone revealed beliefs and practices of the primitive Christian church, which were unrelated and out of harmony with the Roman Catholic beliefs. …
 
1837…The Taipings also learned from the Bible that they should observe the Sabbath. It is amazing that although Monday is called Day One and Saturday is called Day Six by the Chinese, yet the Taipings were able to recognize Saturday as the correct Seventh Day Sabbath…The Taiping Christians were asked why they observed the seventh day Sabbath, replied that it was, first, because the Bible taught it, and second, because their ancestors observed it as a day of worship.” – A Critical History of the Sabbath and Sunday…Due to their resolute stand for biblical truths the Taipings were confronted by opposition on every side. The Manchurian dynasty regarded them as rebels and fought against them. In abolishing idols, the Taipings naturally destroyed the images of Mary and the Saints as well as those of the Buddhists. The Jesuits became angry at them. They persuaded the French forces in China to support the ruling Manchus to crush them. (Wong P. THE SEVENTH DAY SABBATH MOVEMENT IN CHINA. Sabbath Sentinel. September-October 2000http://www.giveshare.org/churchhistory/sabbathchina.html 6/24/06).
 
The Albigneses in France were condemned by various councils. And one, the Council of Albi (sometimes spelled Alby) in 1254 apparently stated:
 
They savour of Judaism…they observe the Jewish sabbath, but say that the holy Dominical day is no better than any other day; let them be accursed (Quoted in Davis, Tamar. A General History of the Sabbatarian Churches. 1851; Reprinted 1995 by Commonwealth Publishing, Salt Lake City, p. 64).
 
Others in France were also later subject to the inquisitors. Notice the following account:
 
On the 14th of September, 1492, about thirty persons were committed to the inquisitional dungeons of Toulouse upon a charge of Judaism…Of there was Anthony Ferrar, who had been a pastor or teacher in the Sabbatarian church of that city. After remaining in prision ten days, he received a visit from an Italian monk named Gregory…
 
Greg.–But Anthony, you must be a liar and a deceiver, for I have been credibly informed that yourself, and all of your friends, were of the cursed race of Israel.
 
An.–It is false, we were honest Frenchmen, and Christians, followers of Jesus…
 
An.–We say that the ten commandments are still binding.
 
Greg.–Yes, and instead of observing the festivals of the Holy Church, and honouring the holy day of the Lord, on which he rose from the dead, you were accustomed to meet for worship upon the old Sabbath, or Saturday.
 
An.–We did, indeed, rest and attend divine worship upon the seventh day, even as God commanded (Quoted in Davis, Tamar. A General History of the Sabbatarian Churches. 1851; Reprinted 1995 by Commonwealth Publishing, Salt Lake City, pp. 87-88).
 
In German-speaking Europe, there were separate groups among those called Anabaptists that were Sabbath-keepers in the 16th and 17th centuries:
 
During the years 1526 to 1535, then, eight Anabaptist groups may be identified as existing in Moravia…Sabbatarians…
 
A recent investigation has shown that a few congregations made up of the followers of Marbeck, the Sabbatarians and of Cornelians also continued to exist after 1550…
 
Even as late as the early seventeenth century Austerlitz was known for its religious confusion. According to one report, there were twelve sects in the town, four of which seemed to have been Anabaptist: Sabbatarians, fratest flebiles (ejulantes), Cornelians and Anabaptists (Clasen CP. Anabaptist Sects in the Sixteenth Century: A Research Report. Mennonite Quarterly Review, VOl. XLVI, July 1972, pp. 256-279).
 
From Africa, Ethiopia claims a very long history of Sabbath-keeping.
 
Notice some of the statements by Ethiopian Emperor Galawdewos (A.D. 1540-1559):
 
We do celebrate the Sabbath, because God, after He had finished the Creation of the World, rested thereon…and that especially, since Christ came not to dissolve the law but to fulfill it. It is therefore not in the imitation of the Jews, but in obedience to Christ, and His holy Apostles, that we observe that day (Quoted in Bradford C.E. Sabbath Roots, The African Connection. L. Brown and Sons, Barre (VT), 1999, p. 26).
 
Franciscans of Oxford
 This order of Glastonbury Culdee Monks, being governed from Glastonbury and Oxford , were known for teaching Hebrew law throughout England and the world.
At the height of the global influence of the Franciscan Order from Glastonbury , the Sabbath was at the foundation of our teachings.
Roger Bacon the Franciscan Friar and Professor at Oxford was also renown as “Proctor of Glastonbury ”. His tomb at Glastonbury  testifies to this fact.
The previous Bishops of Lincoln were all closely connected to Glastonbury . ie Hugh of Wells (part of Glastonbury ), Hugh of Avalon, etc. This all proves again Glastonbury being a main source of inspiration for Christenom Globally. (see our numerous Royal and Church Charters that affirm Glasonbury was independent and autonomous from all earthly powers, or any claimed heavenly institutions).
Gilbert of Bytham a successor of the great Oxford chancellor and teacher of the Hebrew law, “the Bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grossetste”. and his was  the height of the Oxford Franciscan Priesthood(teaching Scriptural Hebrew law). Bytham was “Chancellor of Oxford ” and “Proctor of Glastonbury ”. (see fn. 1 and 2)
The Chancellor of Oxford at that time (Robert Grosseteste) expounded and testified often to these facts, for example, as cited by Coxe on Sabbath Laws and Sabbath Duties, 284, and Cook’s Historical and General View of Christianity, ii, 301:
“The Great English Friar and Professor at Oxford(and Glastonbury Abbey), Roger Bacon, in the thirteenth century, went under great efforts asserting that Christians should work and hold fairs on Sunday, while Saturday was the proper day for rest.” (Emphasis added)    We must take heed, as the Chancellor Grosseteste wrote in his letter “Mon. Franciscana” that our only TRUE foundation is the Mosaic law (the rest are frauds), as he wrote,   “the foundation-stones of the building of which you are the architects — and no one can find others or set others in the foundation — are the books of the Prophets, amongst whom we must count Moses, the law-giver, and the books of the Apostles and Evange- lists. These foundation-stones you place and set in the foundation of your building, when by the gift of dis- cerning spirits you expound these books to your hearers according to the mind of the writers. Take heed there- fore with all diligence not to put among the foundation- stones, nor to use as foundation-stones what are not such, lest the strength of your building, made to rest upon what is no true foundation, is first shaken and then falls to ruin.”  Deeply rooted in the 13th Century, Robert Grosseteste k Bishop of Lincoln  Here is an excerpt from the larger article written by Bishop Robert Grosseteste (Chancellor of Oxford) in ‘ Cf. Brewer, Mon. Franciscana, i, pp. Ixxx, li.. With Bacon’s quotes:   Grosseteste, the founder of this renowned body of teachers, cannot have failed to impress upon the mind of Roger Bacon his own veneration and love of Holy Scripture. Frequently, says Eccleston, the Bishop of Lincohi urged the friars to study and sedulously to occupy themselves in working at the Holy Bible.’ Nor were his exhortations confined to the circle of his imme- diate pupils among the Franciscans. As Chancellor of the University he addressed his letters to the teachers in the theological schools of Oxford , urging them to make the Bible the foundation of all their lectures. ” The skilful builder,” he says, “sees carefully that all the stones put into a foundation are really proper for the purpose ; namely, that they are such as by their solidity are fit and useful to support the building to be raised upon them. You are the builders of the house of God, raising it upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, etc. ; and the foundation-stones of the building of which you are the architects — and no one can find others or set others in the foundation — are the books of the Prophets, amongst whom we must count Moses, the law-giver, and the books of the Apostles and Evange- lists. These foundation-stones you place and set in the foundation of your building, when by the gift of dis- cerning spirits you expound these books to your hearers according to the mind of the writers. Take heed there- fore with all diligence not to put among the foundation- stones, nor to use as foundation-stones what are not such, lest the strength of your building, made to rest upon what is no true foundation, is first shaken and then falls to ruin. The most proper time, moreover, for placing and setting the said stones in the foundation (for there is a fitting time for laying the foundation and one for raising the building) is the morning hour when you commonly read your lectures. It is proper, there- ‘ Cf. Brewer, Mon. Franciscana, i, p. 64.   fore, that all your lectures be taken especially at that time, from the books of the Old or New Testament, lest otherwise what are not really foundation-stones be laid as if they were.” * 
 
St. Joseph and the Culdees
 The absolute facts of the Culdee ministers is they all had strict genealogical inheritance as recorded in “the Welsh Genealogies of Saints”. The Culdees have demonstrated the best documentation on Levitical ancestry known to man. (There is more on inheritance of autonomous Abbeys from father-to-son in our other articles.)
 
Another absolute fact of the Culdees is they never considered themselves to be under another foreign Bishop, whether in England or abroad. The Culdee Abbots especially fought for this at Glastonbury , where since Saint Patrick they demonstrated a policy of marriage for Priests and Abbots. That is until the abbey was destroyed and Henry VIII started his new religion for England .
 
Another other absolute fact about the Culdees is under much peril they fought for the Mosaic law. Under much effort they preserved the Sabbath in every generation, and we have them to thank for the future generations of Christendom. Many documented Culdee families are known for being Seventh Day Baptist and Congregationalists who promoted the freedom to keep the Sabbath, against all odds an threats by the government. Even against laws that banned the Sabbath, they made a way to preserve it under harsh circumstances.
 
As is most clear from the early Culdee priests, and later documents, they believed in the literal Hebrew Sabbath. The Culdees regarded Saturday, the seventh day of the week, to be the only Sabbath of Christendom.
 
Later on in this book we cover 130 other Saints from the first few Centuries in Great Britain known to be from the “Old Church” setup by Saint Joseph of Arimathea.
 
Saint Joseph of Arimathea
 The first Culdee at Glastonbury , Saint Joseph of Arimathea, was a member of the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem , and the holder of the Twelve Hides at Glastonbury . In the first century he mounted his Hebrew staff of authority in the ground, which blossomed into a tree. Today it is still regarded as the ultimate symbol of Hebrew law over England , through his Levitical (Zadokian lineage) that passed to their chief heir in the order of MelchiZadok, finally to Yahshua Ha Machiac (Jesus the Christ).
 
Saint Columba, the Culdee
Saint Columba, the Culdee, in following after his compatriots Patrick and Bride, made Glastonbury his headquarters for a period of time (according to Malmesbury). His effects on Glastonbury are evident with the two chapels in the vicinity, named after him (or his successor Columbanus). Being the Culdee, Irish and English Royal descended priest, and Apostle to Europe, surely his headquarters was at Glastonbury before moving to Iona.
At his death bed, his last words were solely to respect and honour the Sabbath of YAHWEH on Saturday. In his dying moments he reiterated that Saturday, the seventh day of the week was the Sabbath. This has been recorded by numerous sources.
 
Historical Account On Culdee “Primitive” Christians
In “Dialogue on the Lord’s Day”, p.189. Published in London: 1701. By Dr. T.H. Morer (Church of England):
“The primitive Christians had a great veneration for the Sabbath, and spent the day in devotion and sermons. And it is not to be doubted but they derived this practice from the Apostles themselves, as appears by several scriptures to that purpose.” 
 
In Blair’s translation of the Catholic historian, Bellesheim, we read:
“We seem to see here an allusion to the custom, observed in the early monastic Church of Ireland, of keeping the day of rest on Saturday, or the Sabbath”–”History of the Catholic Church in Scotland,” Vol. I, p. 86. Professor James C. Moffatt, D.  D. , Professor of Church History at Princeton, says: “It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland  as well as Scotland , to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labor. They obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of the week.”–”The Church in Scotland ,” p. 140. Philadelphia :1882.
 
In “History of Scotland,” Vol. I, p. 96. Prof. Andrew Lang says:
“The Scottish Church, then, when Malcolm wedded the sainted English Margaret, was Celtic, and presented peculiarities odious to the English lady, strongly attached to the establishment as she knew it at home …. The Celtic priests must have disliked the interference of an Englishwoman. “First there was a difference in keeping Lent. The Kelts did not begin it on Ash Wednesday …. They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a sabbatical manner”
 
In “Celtic Scotland ,” Vol. II, p. 349. Edinburgh : David Douglas, printer, 1877. William F. Skene says:
“Her next point was that they did not duly reverence the Lord’s day, but in this latter instance they seem to have followed a custom of which we find traces in the early Monastic Church of Ireland, by which they held Saturday to be the ‘Sabbath on which they rested from all their labours.”–”Celtic Scotland ,” Vol. II, p. 349. Edinburgh : David Douglas, printer, 1877. “They held that Saturday was properly the Sabbath on which they abstained from work.”– Id. , p. 350.
 
Michael Herren in his book “Christ in Celtic Christianity”, page 37, wrote:
“…the Culdees not only kept the Sabbath on Saturday but they kept it in accordance with the Mosaic law.”
 
In “The Celtic Memory – Gaeldom Revisited” , Wayne Lawrence wrote:
The Celtic Sabbath (‘day of repose’) was celebrated on a Saturday, the last day of the week and Hebrew holy day. 
 
The Liber ex Lege Moisi (condensed version of the law of Moses), was distributed by Saint Patrick and his successors at every Celtic church, whether in England, Scotland or Ireland.  
 
In Jamison’s “Ancient Culdees”, Chapter 2 “..like the priests under the law(Rabbis), they were succeeded by inheritance”
“..in the church of Saint Andrews the Culdees came into the office hereditarily”
“The Culdees of Ireland practiced hereditary succession, the Bishopric of Armagh, could demonstrate fifteen generations.” (more)
 
Flick (The Rise of the Medi’al Church, p. 237) says that:
The Celts used a Latin Bible unlike the Vulgate (R.C.) and kept Saturday as a day of rest, with special religious services on Sunday.
 
Andrew Lang, in “A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation”, Vol. I, p. 96, wrote: 
In Scotland until the tenth and eleventh centuries it was asserted that: They worked on Sunday but kept Saturday in a Sabbatical manner … These things Margaret abolished.
 
Lewis, in “Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America”, Vol. 1, p. 29) wrote:
There is much evidence that the Sabbath prevailed in Wales universally until AD 1115, when the first Roman bishop was seated at St. David’s. The old Welsh Sabbath-keeping churches did not then altogether bow the knee to Rome, but fled to their hiding places.
 
Thomas Bampfield, Speaker in one of Cromwell’s parliaments, wrote on behalf of seventh day Sabbath observance and was imprisoned in Ilchester jail (Calamy 2, 260). According to Stennet’s letters, 1668 and 1670, there were about nine or ten churches that keep the Sabbath, besides many scattered disciples, who have been eminently preserved (R. Cox, Sabbath Laws, ibid., Vol. I, p. 268).
 
J. Bailey, in in “History of the Seventh Day Baptist General Conference”, pp. 237-238 wrote:
By and large, from this period, Sabbath-keeping incurred an almost enforced migration to America. According to Jas. Bailey, Stephen Mumford, the first Sabbath-keeper in America came from London in 1664. In 1671 the Seventh Day Baptists had broken from the Baptist Church in order to keep Sabbath (see Bailey History, pp. 9-10). However, the Pilgrim Fathers were from a Sabbath-keeping tradition (cf. the paper The Dutch Connection of the Pilgrim Fathers (No. 264)).
 
Several authors mention how the Culdees incorporated into their models, the canons the Hibernenses. In specific, their attachments of the seventh day and the whole law of Moses. They had a strict observance of the Sabbath in like manner as the Jews. See, Hughes, The Church, 178-9) and the “Irish Canon”(Hibernenses) (ed. Bieler, The Irish Pentinentials, 16-75).
 
Saint David
SAINT DAVID, of Menevia Wales was consecrated by John III, Bishop of Jerusalem. Saint David as the first to add on to the church at Glastonbury since the wattle church which Jesus had built. This is through the lines of St. James the Just, and Bishops of Jerusalem, he was following in the footsteps of the many Apostles who moved to Glastonbury. James was made the first Bishop of Jerusalem, as recognized by all the Apostles, see Acts 14: vs 12 and 19.
Nothing is considered more Celtic than the Welsh. The Flower of the Celtic culture being contained in the Welsh Triads, their genealogy of Saints etc. Welsh priests have carefully recorded their genealogies for millennia to prove they stem from the Levites. Native Welsh have no need of translations when reading from original Hebrew Texts. The languages are similar enough.  
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TABERNACLES (RATHER THAN DECEMBER 25TH) WAS KEPT BY THE MAJORITY MAIN STREAM IN ASIA MINOR FOR 400 YEARS

TABERNACLES (RATHER THAN DECEMBER 25TH) WAS KEPT BY THE MAJORITY MAIN STREAM IN ASIA MINOR FOR 400 YEARS

Polycarp (died circa 156AD) wrote in favor of keeping the Biblical seventh daySabbathPassover, the Days of Unleavened BreadPentecost, and the Last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

The Second Century Bishop Polycrates of Ephesus was spokesman for the whole of Asia Minor, and indicates his synod of Bishops convened for the purpose of defending the literal celebration of the Hebrew feasts. In his letter to the Roman Bishop Victor, he earnestly defended all the old testament aspects of keeping Passover, including removing leaven out of your house etc. In the letter he names his succession as the 8th Bishop since the Apostle John and his willingness to disobey the external pressures to change the observance of the feast to come in line with Roman pagan festival days.  His letter is very telling, and I suggest any get a copy of it. It can be found online, as was copied originally by Eusebius, and is in “The History of the Church, Book V, Chapter XXIV”,Verses 2-7 . Translated by A. Cushman McGiffert. Digireads.com

Publishing, Stilwell (KS), 2005, p. 114). Also see deeper analysis of his synod in Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus. Translated by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Excerpted from The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, editors); American Edition copyright © 1885. Copyright © 2001 Peter Kirby.

The letter made Pope Victor excommunicate him and all Bishops of Asia Minor from the Roman church.

However history demonstrates that the next severalcenturies Asia-Minor continued to follow the Hebrew festivals rather than Rome’s pagan festivals.

Saint Apollinaris, Bishop of Hierapolisalso wrote in favor of the Biblical Hebrew festival dates, rather than theRoman Pagan days.

The 3rd-4th Century Saint and Bishop Methodius of Olympus declared ” …these things, being like air and phantom shadows, foretell theresurrection and the putting up of our tabernacle that had fallen upon the earth, which at length, in the seventh thousand of years, resuming again immortal, we shall celebrate the great feast of true tabernacles in the new and indissoluble creation, the fruits of the earth having been gathered in, and men no longer begetting and begotten, but God resting from the works of creation. …For since in six days God made the heaven and the earth, and finished the whole world, and rested on the seventh day from all His works which He had made, and blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, so by a figure in the seventh month…, the great resurrection-day, it is commanded that the Feast of our Tabernacles shall be celebrated to the Lord……..” (Methodius. Banquetof the Ten Virgins (Discourse 9, Chapter 1). Translated by William R. Clark.From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 6. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co.,1886.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/062309.htm

Tabernacles being the Biblical day we celebrate Christ’s Birth.

It wasn’t until late in the 4th Century that John Chrysostom, began to make great strides against the public’s observance of the Hebrew feasts(the feasts of YAHWEH). Using mercilous and dishonourable tactics He slanders what is called “the Feasts of YAHWEH” that h eadmits were observed by the whole of Asia Minor, and he calls these mere “jewish festivals”. He wrote several “Homilies against the Jews” where he admits that the majority did not keep the Roman festivals, but kept the the Biblical and Hebrew festivals of YAHWEH.

In 387 at Antioch John Chrysostom dissented,

“…Jews are soon to march upon us one after the other and in quick succession: the feast of Trumpets, the feast of Tabernacles,the fasts. There are many in our ranks who say they think as we do. Yet some of these are going to watch the festivals and others will join the Jews in keeping their feasts and observing their fasts.” (John Chrysostom. Homily I Against the Jews I:5;VI:5;VII:2. Preached at Antioch, Syria in the Fall of 387 AD. Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom(c.347-407) : Eight Homilies Against the Jews. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/chrysostom-jews6.html12/10/05).

He further proclaimed,

“The wicked and unclean fast of the Jews is now at our doors. Thought it is a fast, do not wonder that I have called it unclean…But now that the devil summons your wives to the feast of the Trumpets and they turn aready ear to this call, you do not restrain them. You let them entangle themselves in accusations of ungodliness, you let them be dragged off intolicentious ways.”(John Chrysostom. Homily II Against the Jews I:1; III:4.Preached at Antioch, Syria on Sunday, September 5, 387 A.D.)

And,

“So also the Law fixed the feast of Tabernacles.” (JohnChrysostom. Homily IV Against the Jews IV:3. Catholic Christians of AntiochTurning to Sabbath and The New Moon Day and Other Holy Days. 387 A.D.)

However, as far as all the Holy Days go, John Chrysostom wrote infavor about another “festival of YAHWEH, which he wrongfully has been calling “Jewish days” “:

When, it says, the day of Pentecost was fully come: that is, when at the Pentecost, while about it, in short. For it was essential that the present events likewise should take place during the feast, that those who had witnessed the crucifixion of Christ, might also behold these… And, it says, there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men. The fact of their dwelling there was a sign of piety: that being of so many nations they should have left country, and home, and relations, and be abiding therefor it was Pentecost. (Chrysostom J. The homilies of S. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople: on the Acts of the Apostles, Volume 1, Homily IV. John Henry Parker, 1851. Original from Harvard University. Digitized, Apr 12, 2008, pp. 53, 55, 56).

John Chrysostom was the first to get the Orthodox in Constantinople to observe Christmas on December 25:

We may take it as certain that the feast of Christ’s Nativity was kept in Rome on 25 December… It was introduced by St. John Chrysostum into Constantinople and definitively adopted in 395 (Thurston. H. Transcribed byRick McCarty. Christian Calendar. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.Published 1908. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, November 1,1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley,Archbishop of New York).

John Chrysostom admitted Christmas was not part of his church’s tradition in a sermon:

St. Chrysostom in a Christmas sermon, delivered at Antioch in the year 386, says, ” it is not ten years since this day [Christmas Day on December 25] was clearly known to us, but it has been familiar from the beginning to those who dwell in the West.” “The Romans who have celebrated it for a long time, and from ancient tradition, and have transmitted the knowledge of it to us.” (Addis WE, Arnold T. A Catholic Dictionary: Containing Some Account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. Benziger Brothers, 1893. Original from Columbia University, Digitized Sep 15, 2009, p. 178)

The Catholic Encyclopedia freely admits that Christmas on December 25 wasnot celebrated by the early church and that it was Mithra whose birthday was observed anciently on Devember 25th:

Mithraism A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-godMithra…Sunday was kept holy in honour of Mithra, and the sixteenth of each month was sacred to him as mediator. The 25 December was observed as his birthday, the natalis invicti, the rebirth of the winter-sun, unconquered by the rigours of the season (Arendzen. J.P. Transcribed by John Looby. Mithraism. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911. NewYork: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Remy Lafort,S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York).

Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church (Martindale C. Transcribed by Susanti A. Suastika.Christmas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III. Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company. Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight. Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York).

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Nine Covenant Names of YAHWEH – Culdee Liturgical Prayer

From our most vital Prayer Network having researched and carefully added these to our prayer services.
Praying with you as you pray with us. For an easier to print and use version click here: NINE COVENANTAL PRAYER NAMES OF YAHWEH-modern. for Chanting-Version click here – NINE COVENANTAL PRAYER NAMES OF YAHWEH.
For beautiful for printing and framing.
Nine-covenant-names-prayer-modern
Simply INSERT These Covenant Names of YAHWEH at whatever points you want in your prayer:

NINE COVENANTAL PRAYER NAMES OF YAHWEH

 For You Are   YAHWEH Yireh (YAHWEH our provider) Genesis 22:13-14

YAHWEH provideth all of our need according to His riches in glory by Ha Meschiac Yahshua – Jesus the Christ. (From Philipians 4:19)

For You Are   YAHWEH Nissi (our banner) Exodus 17:15-16

YAHWEH fights for us. (from Nehemiah 4:20)

For You Are   YAHWEH Rapha (our healer) Exodus 15:26

By His stripes we were healed. (From Isaiah 53:5 and 1Peter 2:24)

 For You Are   YAHWEH Sabaoth (of hosts) 1 Samuel 17:45

Thus saith YAHWEH the King of Israel, redeemer YAHWEH of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no god. (From Isaiah 44:6)

 For You Are   YAHWEH Shalom (our peace) Judges 6:23-24

And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen. (From Romans 16:20)

For You Are   YAHWEH Tsidkenu (our righteousness) Jeremiah 23:6
No weapon that is formed against us shall prosper for our righteousness is of YAHWEH Yahshua. (From Isaiah 54:17)

For You Are   YAHWEH Rohi our Shepherd) Psalm 23:1-4

Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. (From Psalms 121:4)

For You Are   YAHWEH Shammah (YAH is with us.) Ezekiel 48:35

He shall never leave us nor forsake us. (from Hebrews 13:5)

For You Are   YAHWEH MiKadishkim (our holiness.) Leviticus 20:8

For both He (Yahshua) that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause He(Yahshua) is not ashamed to call them brethren, (from Hebrews 2:11)

 

Yours in Christ,
+++ Abp Stephen MK
AchBishop of the Netherlands, AOCC-WR
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem
Lord Prior, Culdee of Glastonbury

 

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Jesus Said the First Comandment is “THE SHAMA” CULDEE LITURGICAL PRAYER

Hebrew First Century Culdee prayer

Culdee Liturgy Daily Shama Prayer

THE FIRST AND GREATEST COMMANDMENT

by

Jesus the Christ: “ THE DAILY SHAMA”

In Mark 12:29 Jesus quotes the First Century Hebrew

Prayer called the “SHAMA”, of Deuteronomy 6:4.

And Jesus said: “The First of all the commandments is,

HEAR O ISRAEL, THE LORD (YAHWEH) OUR GOD IS

ONE YAHWEH. And thou shalt love YAHWEH thy God

with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all

thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first

commandment.”

The full prayer from Deuteronomy 6:4 (in KJV):

“Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God [is] one LORD:

And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine

heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

And these words, which I command thee this day, shall

be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently

unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou

sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the

way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest

And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand,

and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house,

and on thy gates.”

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The Culdee Sabbath Service

The Culdee Sabbath Service

Adapted Anglican together with original practices of the First Century Hebrew Apostles.

 

Main Order of Service

  • Opening Prayer and/or Scriptural Declaration
  • Opening Shofar (Trumpet) Blast
  • Two or more Hymns
  • Recite Apostles Creed
  • Scripture Readings
  • Two or More Hymns  (specialized)
  • Book of Common Prayer Readings (as appropriate for the day)
  • One More Hymn
  • Recite the “Shama” in Hebrew and English
  • Teaching/Sermon
  • Closing Prayer or Hymn
  • Communion Bread Blessing in Hebrew and English
  • Communion Cup Blessing in Hebrew and English
  • Aaronic Benediction in Hebrew (or English if more appropriate to audience)
  • (no one leaves without TEN HUGS!)
  • Meal and Fellowship
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Why Become a Monk of Glastonbury? HEBREW APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION

Rome’s Loose Apostolic Succession 
vs 
Culdee Rite of Apostolic Succession
 
Glastonbury Monks had 10 times more rights than any Knights Templars ever had. Several international Kings recruited their Monks to be their court Bishops. Other Kings wished to retire one day and become a Glastonbury Monk. Many English Kings brought copies of the ancient charters of Glastonbury to the Pope. Often these popes would immediately make a papal bull to recognize the pertual rights of Glastonbury Clerics to command nearly all of England, as well as be independent from all Roman jurisdictions.
Our annual pilgrimages and sattelite intstitutions of Glastonbury have been flourishing. The sovereign inheritance rights were claimed and remained intact. Glastonbury Monk John Nott was the only monk who refused to sign King Henry VIII’s act of supremacy and retained the long list of inheritance rights cataloged in numerous charters and papal bulls. His sucessor John Nott in 1639 wrote America’s first constitution at the New Glastonbury in America. This new Glastonbury in Connecticut is not well known, except for it’s mineral and gem quarries. He was judge, lawman and surveyor there, and he alloted part of Wethersfield to be the Glastonbury of America. He also drew the first orders for assembling the militia of Glastonbury.  It was by his decree as judge (which God enabled) that the new Glastonbury in America was formed. He drafted the text of America’s first constitution which read “for maintaining the purity of the gospel of Jesus Christ”.  The fact that John Nott refused to recognize any worldly authority in this constitution, further substantiated the claim of the Culdee of Glastonbury. Connecticut is known as the constitution state of America. This paved the way for all subsequent constitutions to be held back from interfering in our inalienable rights to serve Jesus first. The struggle was secured and there wasn’t much else to do but enjoy in all the benefits which stem from the Glastonbury Apostolic See. 
Most are so ignorant about the fact that England had the most Bishops, and they followed the true succession as outlined in the Welsh Pedigrees of Saints. Download “the 130 Saints of Great Britain before the coming of Augustine” also at http://glastonburyculdee.org
If you feel called, you too can unite with us in the daily services as Monks of Glastonbury. Come with us on an upcoming Pilgrimage to this Holy Land.
     As known the world over: “the most hallowed ground on earth”, “The Sacred Isle”, “The Motherland”, “the Old Church”, “the Mother of Saints” “the Second Rome”,  “the Cradle of Christianity”, “Built by the Hands of God Himself”“the fountain and origin of all  religion”, “built by the hands of Christ Himself”.
 
In your service, for His Kingdom governance on earth,
 
Rev Stephen MK
Lord Prior, Glastonbury Abbey
Join us every week on the Kingdom Message athttp://ChristsAssembly.com
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10 Years of Sharia Jihad in France and the Imperial Peace Corps of Europe

10 Years of Sharia Jihad in France and the Imperial Peace Corps of Europe 

As in the below video this week with Sean Hannity and Andem Choudary, there’s a full implementation of Sharia law in numerous neighborhoods of Europe. More than 300 villages in France have special “Sharia Zones” where police, social, and even emergency medical and fire services are not allowed to enter.
Sharia law requires Muslims to fight in these ways until the host country allows their Sharia state and land to be setup. Anyone who blocks it, they’re allowed to kill. UK Muslim Cleric, Andem Choudary also said such similar language this week on Fox News, 

The video cannot be shown at the moment. Please try again later.

This isn’t limited to France or the UK. Look at the Ferguson riots. Speaking of the Ferguson riots, Muslim leader, Louis Farrakhan said:
 

We want some of this earth or we’ll tear this godd**n country up!”

 

Muslims burn 40,000 cars in France, every year since the 2005 Muslim riots started this aweful trend

 Starting with the Muslim riots of November-December 2005 more than 300 French villages participated in the Muslim rioting and burning of buildings and cars. More than 30,000 cars were counted burned in the first weeks. Within months I counted the figures reaching to around 90,000 cars, trucks and buses were burned.
  
On January 1, 2013, Interior Minister Manuel Valls announced that a total of 1,193 cars and trucks were torched across France on New Year’s Eve. He also said he was “shocked” by an RTL Radio report which estimated that more than 40,000 cars are burned in France every year.
 
Again, a big day, on January 1st 2015:

Media thinks everyone is too dumb to know what is really going on TOP CONSERVATIVE NEWS
 
 
According to Jean-Paul Gourévitch (fr), there were 7.7 million Muslims( about 11 percent of the population) in metropolitan France in 2011.[12][13]
 

Good Alternative to the Forced Mixing / Integration Failed Strategy

 Politicians on the right and on the left say they must integrate our Christian society to become half/half with Muslim society. Not only this, but they think still the radical viewpoints of Atheism that even go against regular science, and nature itself, say all the churches must embrace this new form of radical faith known as Atheism. This introduces another “half” that both Christian and Muslims are supposed to live subjugated and enslaved under the radical faith of Atheism. The forced mixing with Atheism and Islam is supposed to be promoted in every church under painful laws against Christianity. These acts include the obligation to promote extreme acts of blasphemy like sodomy. If we refuse to promote this or any other form of blasphemy in our worship and prayer services, we run the risk of being in breach of these forced-mixing laws.
 

Forced Mixing Doesn’t Work

So far this mixing strategy of the last 50 years has utterly failed. The Absolute Forced cross-cultural mixing has caused far worse problems. The Priory of Salem, Peace Institute published the following telling article: “Where Right and Left Converge: End the Fed and Hault Immigration”. It demonstrates how far Americans fail to realize the Liberal Left Wingers Like Germany’s “Pediga” are also protesting against immigration now. It shows how perilous things have become. Even a liberal left wing group like Pegida is active, and they protest against all more traditionalist German Nationalist groups, saying they aren’t integrating with their view of the modern mixing up of the cultures into one. So naturally they will take against the Islamic groups, as Islam itself s a separatist type of nationalism.

Freedom and Independence Works

According to the study by the Priory of Salem Peace Insitute, granting more freedom to fully exercise our unadulterated faiths will be the most peaceful solution.

Separate Christian lands, Separate Atheist lands, and Separate Muslim lands where all can live in harmony.

The Priory of Salem is now welcoming new members to form Imperial Peace Corps for the mounting Atheist vs Christian vs Islam Crisis in Europe. Harmony for everyone! In full love, honour and tolerance for the laws, the ethnic identity, and cultural heritage of every people, creed and race. Without forcing anyone to give up their freedoms to speak the truth, to worship, and honour the laws of nature and of nature’s God.

Peace Without Blasphemy

The motto of the Priory of Salem, “Peace without Blasphemy”. Don’t ask Christians to commit blasphemy. Especially don’t demand us to promote blasphemy, as is now becoming expected in the new social experiments of forced mixing. Those experiments have utterly failed. The sacred cows of the atheist faith can no more be forced to be celebrated within the churches of Christendom. There will need to become a tolerance for Christianity once again, and not be under a gazillion laws that forbid our reading of the literal word of our Bibles. Those who fear the truth being read from our full King James Version Bibles should be the ones who are questioned, not the Minister or the believers.

Membership

If you’re interested in joining our “Special Marshals” who are implementing the Peace Missions of our Imperial Peace Corps, write to marshalofsalem@yahoo.com. Currently the Priory of Salem has no operating budget and no missions other than what volunteer support there is for the overall Ben Zadok priestly plan of implementing the law of Moses for the Kingdom law Governance of Jesus Christ on earth, at some place where YAHWEH will protect the land, etc. As is in God’s law, we do annual festival Pilgrimages 3 times per year to our holy sites around the world. You can follow and join us at http://ChristsAssembly.com. For the Priory of Salem, we have many positions open, from Special Marshal, Marshal, Priest, Deacon, Porter, Knight, Porter, Special Officer, or for those with a long track record to be nominated as Grand Marshals (or higher) within the Priory of Salem. A Peace Institute at His Jerusalem. The Christ’s Assembly welcomes you.
Find us on Facebook: http://facebook.com/prioryofsalem
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Pts 5-7 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Parts 5-7 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Are you ready? The Bible tells us in dozens of places that all the old Saints of True Christian Israel (not the one tribe called Jews, but 13 Christian tribes of true Israel!) are going to ressurrect and come back before the Hebrew millennium. If you’re not ready they’re (or we are) going to kick your butt to get you ready for the coming of Christ who will rule on the earth from David’s throne for 1,000 years. He’s coming back for a church that is without spot or wrinkle and will step down when His enemies are made His footstool (and as in TCAWW’s study, all the Majesty/Elders/Marshals are feeding those that trust in YAHWEH).

I would like to send you the notes from Peters in his “The Theocratic Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
These writings about the ressurection may later become part 2 on His Ekklesia Will Be Stronger Than It Has Ever Been on christsassembly.com “
(You can download the full text of “Theocratic Kingdom” if you have e-sword (all freely downloadable). The best part is you can click on each verse if you have e-sword and it opens up the full reference Bible texts. Ignore most of these references to any Jews. None of the Bible text says “Jews”, I don’t know how he mixes that part up with the saints. However, it’s the part on the ressurection I want to share. There are several parts all below. )
Rev Stephen MK
Minister, The Christ’s Assembly
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem

Prop. 129. The Jewish view of a Pre-Millennium resurrection requisite for the introduction of the Messianic Kingdom is fully sustained by the grammatical sense of the New Testament.

ATTENTION IS THUS PROMINENTLY CALLED TO THE FACT, THAT THE AGREEMENT EXISTING BETWEEN JEWISH BELIEF AND THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT MOST EFFECTUALLY SUPPORTS OAR DOCTRINAL POSITION.
OBS. 1. TO AVOID REPEATING, THE READER IS REQUESTED TO NOTICE HOW UNDER THE PRECEDING PROPOSITIONS RELATING TO THE RESURRECTION TAUGHT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, THE APOCALYPSE, AND THE GOSPELS AND EPISTLES, THE CONSTANT REFERENCE WAS MADE TO THE JEWISH BELIEF PREVAILING, AND QUOTATIONS WERE GIVEN FULLY SUSTAINING THE SAME FROM CRITICS, HISTORIANS, COMMENTATORS, ETC. NOW, WE ASK THE READER TO CONSIDER HOW IT WAS POSSIBLE FOR JESUS AND THE INSPIRED WRITERS TO EMPLOY LANGUAGE, IN VIEW OF SUCH AN EXISTING BELIEF, FULLY CORROBORATING IT, UNLESS THE BELIEF WAS A CORRECT ONE, IN STRICT ACCORD WITH THE DIVINE PURPOSE. WRITERS OF ALL SHADES OF OPINION, OPPOSERS TO CHILIASM INCLUDED, TELL US THAT THE JEWS DID NOT EXPECT A FULFILLMENT OF THE MESSIANIC PREDICTIONS, OF THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT AND THE PROMISES BASED UPON IT, WITHOUT A RESURRECTION, ECLECTIC IN ITS NATURE, ACCESSORY AND INITIATORY TO THEIR REALIZATION. THE STUDENT, IF HONEST AND SINCERE, MUST, BEFORE REJECTING OUR DOCTRINE, GIVE A SATISFACTORY REASON WHY THE STATEMENTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THEIR PLAIN GRAMMATICAL SENSE (FOR THIS SENSE IS ADMITTED, BUT A SPIRITUAL ONE IS SUBSTITUTED) TEACH THE SAME KIND OF AN ECLECTIC RESURRECTION, ASSOCIATED WITH A FUTURE REIGN OF THE MESSIAH. HE MUST ALSO, IF CONSIDERATE, SHOW WHY THIS JEWISH BELIEF, THUS CORROBORATED BY A SENSE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, WAS UNIVERSALLY HELD BY THE CHURCHES ESTABLISHED UNDER APOSTOLIC GUIDANCE, IF AN ERROR. THIS NO ONE CAN DO, WITHOUT IMPEACHING THE DIVINE INSTRUCTION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT AND THE DIVINE GUIDANCE MANIFESTED IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. THE CONCLUSION, INEVITABLE, TO WHICH WE ARE FORCED IS THIS: THAT THE DOCTRINE IS TRUTH, FOUNDED ON DIVINE UTTERANCES AND ASSURANCES, AND COMMITTED TO THE CHURCH TO STIMULATE FAITH AND HOPE.
As to the Jewish belief, we only need to quote one authority hostile to Pre-Millenarianism, viz., Prof. Stuart, who (Com. Apoc., vol. 1, p. 177) says: “That the great mass of Jewish Rabbins have believed and taught the doctrine of the resurrection of the just, in the days of the Messiah’s development, there can be no doubt on the part of him who has made any considerable investigation of this matter.”
Obs. 2. Again, there is no question concerning the grammatical sense, for that is admitted even by our opponents, many of whom we have quoted. But we are assured that that sense is not the one intended; that a typical or spiritual meaning is the one to be received. Hence the doctrine of a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection is derided as “antiquated,” “Jewish,” etc., and utterly unfitted for the advanced thought of the age. A question, however, arises, which we will do well to ponder, viz., which is the safest to accept of, a God-given sense, or of one which is at the option of the interpreter? If a Pre-Millennial resurrection is an error, then it is one contained in the letter of the Word, and given by inspired men under the guidance of God Himself, and we are justifiable in entertaining it; but, on the other hand, if it be a truth, thus plainly declared, we are inexcusable in its rejection.
Obs. 3. Infidels object to the New Testament on the ground that it unmistakably teaches this previous existing Jewish view (so Strauss, Bauer, Renan, etc), and reject the whole as evidence of superstition and ignorance. Apologists lamely strive, by the application of spiritualistic interpretation, to avoid such a conclusion, while admitting (1) the Jewish view as existing at the First Advent, and (2) the grammatical sense expressing it, but which is, they say, merely an accommodation to existing prejudice, and must be understood in a higher and nobler sense. No wonder that many apologies only confirm the unbeliever in his state of unbelief, seeing that they are utterly unfair to the Record and derogatory to the divine teaching of the Master and the Apostles. We, on the other hand, fully admit the infidel’s objection grounded on Jewish belief and corroborative New Testament teaching, and, instead of apologizing for the same and explaining it away, we account for it as a matter grounded in God’s Redemptive Plan, contained in the covenants and predictions, and which simple consistency and unity requires to be taught in the New Testament.
Obs. 4. Judge Jones (Notes, p. 284) remarks of the Jewish opinion: “They understood that the promises (in covenants) which God made to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob were absolute; and they believed that He would surely perform them, even to those of former generations, who had part in them; and on this ground, mainly, they taught the resurrection of the dead, Act_24:15.” “Three opinions touching the resurrection prevailed to a greater or less extent among the Jews. (1) Some maintained that only the just or righteous of their nation would be raised; (2) others maintained that the whole of their race (all Israelites) would be raised; (3) and some maintained that all Israelites and some Gentiles would be raised. It is evident from Act_24:14-15, that the Jews of Paul’s day did not adopt the first of these opinions, but they appear to have limited the resurrection to their nation. In Rom_9:2-5, Paul teaches that the adoption, by which he meant the resurrection, Rom_8:23, pertained to Israelites; and hence it would seem that the resurrection, as a term of the original covenant, was limited to Israel. Rabbi Bechai says, God granted four special honors to Israel, viz., (1) the land of Canaan; (2) the law; (3) prophecy; (4) the resurrection of the dead. Josephus, though obscure, evidently did not believe the resurrection would be universal.”
Aside from the authorities quoted under previous Props., the student may refer to Lardner’s Works, Harmer’s Mis. Works, etc., and it will be found that in the various opinions expressed there still remained the idea of a limited, eclectic resurrection over against that of a universal one. In the resurrection pertaining to the Messianic Kingdom and Millennial blessedness, the prevailing view, based on covenant promises given to the nation, was that Israelites (and Gentiles incorporated by adoption) alone participated in it. Now this conception of the Pre-Millennial resurrection is retained in the New Testament, because, as we have shown in detail, the Gentiles called also experience its power and blessedness in view of their being received and acknowledged as the children of Abraham (see Props. 61-65). In numerous works we find references to this Jewish belief in a limited resurrection, as e.g. Pressense (The Early Days, etc., p. 74, quoting from Grimm’s Die Samariter) refers to the Talmud, declaring respecting the Samaritans, “this accursed people shall have no part in the resurrection of the dead.” The Book of Enoch (regarded by able critics as pre-Christian-see art. on M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop.) expressly (Enoch 61:5; 91:10; 92:3; 100:5) teaches that the righteous shall be raised up and share in the blessedness of the Messiah’s Kingdom. Later works of a mixed character, as the Testament of Judah in the Twelve Patriarchs, allude to the resurrection and exaltation of the Patriarchs in the time of the Messiah, and express the faith: “They who have died in grief shall arise in joy, and they who have lived in poverty for the Lord’s sake shall be made rich, and they who have been in want shall be filled, and they who have been weak shall be made strong, and they who have been put to death for the Lord’s sake shall awake in life.” Jewish-Christian writings have varied references. The ancient Jews (Cudworth’s Intel. System, p. 797) called the resurrection of the body “the angelic clothing of the soul,” which reminds one of the saying of Jesus, “made equal unto the angels.” 
 
 
Prop. 130. This Kingdom is preceded by a translation of the living saints.
THIS IS A PREREQUISITE, IN ORDER THAT THOSE ACCOUNTED WORTHY TO INHERIT THE KINGDOM, AND RULE THE NATIONS WITH CHRIST, MAY BE GATHERED. IN REFERENCE TO THE DEAD SAINTS, A PRE-MILLENNIAL RESURRECTION (PROPS. 125-129) IS PROMISED BY WHICH TO ATTAIN THIS OBJECT; AND WITH SUCH A RESURRECTION (I.E. AT THAT TIME) A TRANSLATION OF THE LIVING SAINTS IS ALSO CONNECTED IN 1TH_4:17, “THE DEAD IN CHRIST SHALL RISE FIRST (OR AWAY);378 [Note: 78 378.  Comp. Act_8:39; Mat_13:19, etc.]  THEN WE WHICH ARE ALIVE AND REMAIN SHALL BE CAUGHT UP TOGETHER WITH THEM IN THE CLOUDS (OR, IN CLOUDS)379 [Note: 79 379.  Barnes, Com. loci, says: “Greek: ‘in clouds’-without the article. This may mean ‘in clouds;’ that is, in such numbers and in such grouping as to resemble clouds. So it is rendered by Macknight, Koppe, Rosenmüller, Bush, and others. The absence of the article here would rather seem to demand this interpretation.” Compare Lange, Alford, etc.]  TO MEET THE LORD IN THE AIR”380 [Note: 80 380.  Many critics have “into the air” connected with the verb “caught away.” Compare Lange, Alford, Ellicott, Vaughan, etc. The phrase, with the suggested amendments supported by critical authority, would be as follows: “Then we which are alive and remain (who are living, who are left over) shall together with them be caught away (or snatched away) into the air in clouds to meet the Lord; and so shall we ever be with the Lord.”]  ETC. THE SAME IS REPEATED IN 1CO_15:51-52, IN UNION ONLY WITH THE RESURRECTION OF BELIEVERS: “BEHOLD, I SHEW YOU A MYSTERY: WE SHALL NOT ALL SLEEP, BUT WE SHALL ALL BE CHANGED” ETC.381 [Note: 81 381.  Some writers (as Rev. Wilson in Proph. Times, vol. 12, p. 131) make the language (Joh_11:25-26) of Jesus to Martha applicable to this period: “I am the resurrection and the life. He that believeth on me, though he were dead, yet shall he live” (i.e. by the power of the resurrection); “and whoever liveth and believeth on me” (i.e. at the time of resurrection) “shall never die” (i.e. he shall experience a translation).]
Obs. 1. While all writers on prophecy insist upon the translation of living saints at the Advent of Jesus, and the Millenarian authors direct especial attention to it; while it was a special object of hope and desire to the early believers and to succeeding ones, it is only more recently, since eschatology has received remarkable study and investigation, that important additions (resulting from comparing Scripture with Scripture) have been made to our knowledge respecting it. Our work would be incomplete without noticing this feature, and adding something to a subject imperfectly comprehended by many.382 [Note: 82 382.  A writer in the N. Y. Evangelist, under the title of “Pre-Millennial Incongruities,” not observing how we distinguish between the concealed and the open, visible Coming, finds fault with Dr. Brookes and “the Proph. Conference,” for saying in one place that the Advent may be immediate, and then in another place substituting events as preceding the visible Advent. The “incongruity” is in the critic, simply because he is ignorant of the doctrine that we hold. Again, in Lange’s Com. I Thessalonians 4, doc. 7, the two stages, resulting in a translation previous to the tribulation, is stigmatized as an “Irvingite interpretation” (because taught by E. L. Geering of the “Catholic Apostolic Church,” in his work Mahnung und Trost der Schrift in Beireff der Wiederkunft Christi). Not having seen Geering’s work, we still express a doubt whether he, as alleged, sets this up as a dogma having “salvation connected with the acceptance of it,” because our acquaintance with writers of this class indicates that not “salvation,” but great privilege and honor and deliverance is connected with its acceptance. The question, after all, is this: What is the teaching of the Word on the subject? Brookes (Maranatha, p. 493) aptly remarks of this opposition: “The objection to the truth advocated in this chapter is urged with a bad grace by those who insist that Christ has come thousands and millions of times since His ascension from the Mt. of Olives in every startling providence, in every revival, in every death during the last eighteen hundred years.”]  A few preliminary remarks are necessary in order to appreciate some things pertaining to it. Thus e.g. the common view that the resurrection will be a public affair, to be witnessed by the world, is now discarded as untenable in the light of Christ’s (also pertaining to “the first-fruits”) resurrection, which was strictly private. It is now held, and properly, that the members will be raised like the Head was (for if a public resurrection, humanly speaking, is desirable, then surely it ought to have been that of Christ’s), in order that the preparatory events for the coming judgment of the world may be introduced in such a manner (privately) as to establish “the snare” and “the net” intended for the unbelieving and wicked. Leading prophetical writers justly have no hesitancy in asserting that no mortal eye of unbelief shall behold the resurrection. This at once places the translation of the saints in a new aspect, and indicates, as it accompanies the resurrection, that it also is unseen (like Enoch’s and Elijah’s) by the world. Again, careful students of the Word felt satisfied that the resurrection of the saints in Rev_20:4-6 was specifically that of those who passed through the great tribulation under the culminated Antichrist, and was preceded by that of others, as implied in Rev_14:1-5, etc. This is corroborated by the fact already presented (Prop. 127), that the word “first” applied to the resurrection has reference not to its being first in time (which would be incorrect, seeing that Christ’s resurrection and that of saints, Mat_27:52-53, preceded), but of its being a resurrection which also brings those who participated in it within the privileges of “the first-born,” viz., a double portion, Deu_21:17; priesthood, Num_3:13; and government or dominion, Gen_27:29:383 [Note: 83 383.  This fact of several resurrections, all relating to the one specially promised to the brethren of Christ, has even led some writers to advocate a kind of continuous one. Thus e.g. Dr. Seiss, without, however, subscribing to it as a truth, says: “Selnecker, one of Germany’s greatest divines, of the age next succeeding the Reformation, quotes Ambrose as teaching that every year some saints are raised from their graves, and ascribes the same opinion to Luther, as well as accepts the same as his own.” Selnecker, however, most appropriately remarks: “To this resurrection belongs everything that is raised to immortality before the last day.”]  The subject of the resurrection, for a long time, was not clear to the writer until he observed the real scriptural application of the word “first,” as just given. The first resurrection, viz., that resurrection pertaining to “the first-born,” “the first-fruits,” commenced with the resurrection of Jesus, and it receives its accessions as stated e.g. in 1Th_4:16-17, and in Rev_20:4-6. This also serves to illustrate the translation, preparing us, in view of several resurrections (belonging to that of the just), to appreciate references, allusions, and implications which indicate more than one translation. Again, prophetical writers are also agreed that what is called the Second Advent (the Advent itself as distinguished from the reign and Kingdom that follows) is not to be regarded as simply one act, but embracing a series of acts connected with the one Coming (for when Jesus comes again He remains upon earth). That is, the Second Advent is to be considered more in the light of the First Advent (which latter embraced not less than thirty-three years, and numerous acts predicted as related to His Coming), as something which, owing to a variety of things prophesied concerning it, cannot possibly be limited to a few years. Comparing all the events that are included in the Second Advent, it is simply impossible, without great violation of order, etc., to crowd them all together as the instantaneous resultants of such a Coming. This, then, impresses caution in not compressing what is intimated concerning the translation or removal of saints necessarily to one transaction or day. Again, admitting the requirement of not confining the Advent to a single act, or day, or brief period, previous to the establishment of the Kingdom in all its glory, writers now generally attribute to this introductory manifestation a period of seven years, of forty years, and of (thirty and forty conjoined) seventy years. (Considering the events to follow the Advent before the overthrow of Antichrist, such as the development of the confederation, the return of a portion of the Jews to Palestine, the doom of the harlot, etc., the longer periods are preferable.) This at once enables us to see how such resurrections and translations harmonize with the specific introductory period, in which God’s power and love is manifested at the time when the power of His enemies shall be also formidably exhibited and broken. Again, analogy favors the removal of the righteous in a time of severe and terrible judgment intended for the wicked, as in the case of Noah, Lot, the early believers at Jerusalem, etc., while previous translations are not lacking, as in the case of Enoch and Elijah. The Second Advent inaugurates a series of most tremendous judgments, both upon the Church and the world-so terrific that they are constantly pointed out as the culmination of God’s wrath-and it is reasonable to suppose, judging from God’s past dealings, that He again will grant special deliverance to those who are devoted to Him. At this time also, the removal being designed not only to save out of tribulation, but to prepare the saints, deemed worthy of it, for promised rulership then to be instituted, and for joint participation in the administration of judgments upon the nations, a translation accompanied by the same transforming change, glorification, which the resurrected saints experience, is precisely that which we ought to anticipate. Again, it is universally admitted by Millenarians that “the day of the Lord Jesus” is preceded not only by “a morning,” but that it virtually begins in “the night;” Christ representing His Coming to be when it is yet “night,” He being “the morning star,” which ushers in “the morning” of the glorious day. This refers the resurrection and translation of a chosen body to “the night,” i.e. to the close of this dispensation, as preparatory to the introduction of an incoming one.384 [Note: 84 384.  The “morning star” comes before “the day” dawns; the “sun” shines during “the day;” Jesus is both. As the morning star, He is seen by few: as the sun, He is seen by all. Those who watch not merely for the sun, but for the morning star, properly heed the cautions and injunctions relating to the posture of watching.]  Or, in other words, it warns us that, as the past shows, dispensations may overlap each other to some extent, in that certain initiatory movements of the incoming one commence and are in progress before the other entirely closes. This prepares us then to accept of the wonderful things which are predicted to occur at the winding up of this dispensation, and to regard them in their relationship to the One to come. Again, critical writers in investigating 2Th_2:2 have shown that the word translated “is at hand” (in the phrase “the day of Christ (or Lord) is at hand”) means, correctly rendered, “is come,” or “has come,” i.e. is something already present, and not something still future.385 [Note: 85 385.  In Props. 121 and 123 this feature was only incidentally alluded to as our line of reasoning, referred mainly to the one verse showing a visible personal Coming as a distinctive event also connected with “the day of Christ.” Here, however, we bring out prominently this characteristic. The verb translated “is at hand,” in the sense of impending or near, is elsewhere translated “present,” its proper meaning. McKnight (who certainly has no sympathy for our views) translates it “hath come.” Alford (see Alford’s remarks) and Lange, “is present,” and so Bengel and Olshausen, “what is present.” Ellicott and Lünemann explain it as something already begun, i.e. present or “is now come.” Syriac version has it “is come,” so the Swiss version, Luther’s “vorhanden sei,” which may be taken either as “to be present” or as impending, at hand. Dr. Lillie says the word, as far as he can trace it, “invariably denotes actual presence.” The Revision has it “is now present.”]  This correctly explains the trouble and alarm of the Thessalonian brethren, who were certainly not afraid of “the blessed hope,” which Paul says they waited for (1Th_1:10), and for which they were prepared (1Th_2:19; 1Th_3:13; 1Th_5:4-5), but apprehending that “the day of Christ” had already come, and they not having experienced the promised translation, and their pious dead being still with them without an experienced resurrection, they were troubled and distressed at the thought. Those brethren with hearts full of love for the Savior were not so fearful that they would desire and pray (as multitudes now) that the blessed Lord should delay His Coming, but, in some way misapprehending the real state of affairs, they believed that the initiatory proceedings belonging to the day of Christ had already commenced, and that they and their pious dead were left without realizing the exceeding precious promises given to them. This simple change in a single word, supported too by the strongest of evidence, explains not only the cause of the Thessalonians’ trouble (which Paul proceeds to remove by showing that an apostasy must first come to develop into the predicted Antichrist, implying that such an apostasy with its result necessarily required time, still in the future, before “the day of Christ” came), but throws much light, corroborative, on the subject of the resurrection and the translation of the saints. For, to cause such trouble they must have believed that “the day of Christ” would be inaugurated by preliminaries unseen by the world, and that the resurrection and translation would both be invisible, and they, not participating were doomed to terrible tribulation, or that the predictions were false. We say nothing respecting the source from whence they derived such thoughts, but one thing is impressive, viz., that the Apostle does not correct such impressions, but rather by his silence confirms them in them. Yea, more, in beseeching them “by our gathering together unto Him,” he virtually endorses the views entertained by them respecting this gathering.386 [Note: 86 386.  One of the editors of the Proph. Times, vol. 5, p. 43, has so appropriately written upon this point that we reproduce it. “This passage also shows the very different manner in which the early Christians must have conceived of the Day of the Lord and the Coming of Christ, from that which now obtains, in order to have been liable to such an erroneous impression on the subject. With the present popular conceptions of the sudden grandeur, conspicuity, and universal publicity of the Coming of Christ, it would be utterly impossible to obtain currency for the idea that it was already present or accomplished. People now are looking for the world to come to an end-for an utter break-up of the whole system of nature-for a complete wreck of the universe. When we talk to them of the last day and the return of Christ, they begin to think of the burning up of all sublunary things, and of the complete extinction of human life, and even of the whole dwelling-place of man and all created things. But if the early Christians had thought of this subject after this style, how is it possible that they could have believed the last day had come, when the world still stood and the stars remained in. their places, and the whole course of nature was still going on as before?” etc.]
Obs. 2. But some other things, also introductory to the subject, must be attentively considered before we come to a decisive conclusion. Thus, as has been pointed out by many writers, the Scriptures describe a Coming of Jesus for or in behalf of His saints (as e.g. 1Th_3:14-17; 1Co_15:51-52), and then again another with all His saints (as e.g. Zec_14:5; Rev_19:14; 1Th_3:13; Jud_1:14-15), and these two, differing thus in an important particular, indicate separate stages or manifestations pertaining to the same Second Advent. Without allowing something of this kind, several acts pertaining to the one great Coming to this earth, it is impossible to reconcile such passages. For they are sustained in their difference not only by the simple act of coming for and with the saints, but in the design of such a Coming, viz., as to the former, for the purpose of salvation and glorification, and as to the latter, for the direct overthrow of the enemies of God, the restoration of the Jewish nation, and the glory (thereby promoted) of the saints. This is still more confirmed by the conclusive statements which the Spirit gives of this one Second Advent, when it is represented to us under two aspects, viz., one, a coming when men are at peace, buying, selling, marrying, etc., and anticipating no evil, but only “peace and safety,” all things apparently promising continued prosperity and happiness (so e.g. Luk_17:26-30; Mat_24:36-39; 1Th_5:3, etc.); the other, a coming in a time of war, of great distress and suffering (as e.g. Zechariah 14, Revelation 19, Joel 3, Luk_21:27, etc.); the one, a coming in a concealed, thief like manner, i.e. unobserved, unnoticed, unheralded (1Th_5:2; Mat_24:43-44; Luk_12:37-40; Rev_3:3, etc.); the other, a coming so open, conspicuous, that all shall witness it (as e.g. Mat_24:30; Revelation 19; Mat_25:31, etc.). The more students come to weigh and compare Scripture referring to this period, the more are they convinced that it would be presumptuous for us to limit all these varied utterances to one single act, and that we must allow a series of events to be comprehended under this Coming; the Spirit directing us now to one and then to another of them; the order of which is only to be attained by a careful comparison. It also is a fact that these “first-born,” to whom the honor of aiding in the execution of God’s judgments (and the translated belong to them) are given (e.g. Psa_149:9, comp. Prop. 154), must be both resurrected (and remember that the translation is connected with the resurrection) and translated before they can participate in inflicting “the judgment written” upon the nations (as Dan_7:22; Rev_2:26-27, etc.). Besides this, the significance of “the first-fruits” (which embrace not merely resurrected saints, but, as we have seen, translated ones, as both are cojoined by the Spirit) would be entirely lost, i.e. as something preceding a general harvest which is to follow, if we did not allow that the one necessarily goes before the other, leaving an interval between them, although “the first-fruits” and “the harvest” are both included under the same general Advent,387 [Note: 87 387.  That we are to distinguish between “the first-fruits” and “the harvest” is self-evident, for they are separated and treated distinctively in Holy Writ, as e.g. Rev_14:1-5, where a specific number is designated “the first fruits unto God and to the Lamb” (to which Jam_1:18 evidently refers), and then afterward comes (Rev_14:14-15) “the harvest.” Rev. Dr. Newton (Proph. Times, vol. 3, p. 18) correctly thinks that this language and result is based on a typical Levitical ordinance, viz., the gathering of the wave sheaf and presenting it, as specially holy and relating to the sanctuary, to God as “the first-fruits of the harvest,” before the harvest itself was gathered. Perhaps we will find in those Levitical ordinances much that is typical of the future, to which we are now blind or short-sighted. Thus e.g. it is found that two leavened wheaten loaves were also waved, and called “the first-fruits unto the Lord,” which may adumbrate-for aught we know to the contrary-the resurrected and translated saints, who, “being many are one loaf” in their twofold, Jewish and Gentile character and dispensation. This field is an interesting one, but liable to abuse and perversion, as the past has taught us.]  thus again showing that just as at the First Advent Jesus was only manifested to a few favored ones, and an interval of years elapsed before His final public manifestation, so at His Second Advent He will only be exhibited to those accounted worthy, and after a set interval ultimately to the world. It is by observing this characteristic of the Second Advent that the true force of the injunction to constantly look and watch for the Coming of Jesus can be appreciated. Not distinguishing that several aspects of this Coming, including separate acts, etc., are given, has led eminent writers to lay down certain things (such as a partial restoration of the Jews, a covenant with the Jews, etc.) as prerequisites to such an Advent, and they are correct, but only in reference to one aspect of it, viz,, the visible Coming or manifestation of the Son of Man with His saints, as e.g. Zechariah 14. On the other hand, we have assurances given to us not to interpose any event whatever between us and such an Advent, but to regard it as an event that may occur at any moment without any notification of its approach (excepting only such as are given by approximative signs), and these two representations of the same Advent are only reconcilable by noticing what a comparison of Scripture inculcates, that the first aspect of this Coming refers to a concealed, hidden Coming for specific purposes (viz., to raise, translate, and glorify His saints, to inaugurate the preliminaries of his Kingdom, etc.), which takes place before the events predicted as pertaining to His visible manifestation.388 [Note: 88 388.  The student can well obtain a hint of this unseen (to the world) stage of the Advent, from the manner in which angels have come unseen and yet influenced kings, as e.g. Daniel 10 (comp. remarks of Barnes, Com. loci). From this last passage, which contains things beyond human knowledge, it may be conjectured that one reason why no greater details are given, why no minute unsymbolical exhibition of the coming order of events is presented, arises from the fact that in some way beyond our comprehension spiritual powers (as e.g. this same Michael, Dan_12:1) shall be enlisted in advancing the Divine Purpose in the coming Theocracy. In reference to the First Advent, the reader will observe that it is predicted that the Messiah comes as the Babe of Bethlehem, as entering the temple, as riding on an ass, as coming to Jerusalem, as appearing in Galilee, etc., and the history of Jesus embraces their respective fulfillment in separated stages of the same Advent. So careful comparison evidences a similar succession of acts in the Second Advent-two of which are held up-owing to their significance and results-with great prominency, viz., the thief-like Coming or presence, and the open, visible Coming or presence.]
Obs. 3. We now come to a passage which directly teaches a translation, viz., Luk_17:34-37, “I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken and the other left. Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken and the other left. And they answered and said unto Him, Where, Lord? And He said unto them: Wheresoever the body is, thither will the eagles be gathered together” (see Mat_24:28). The context shows (1) that this relates to the personal Second Advent, and (2) occurs in a time of peace and apparent prosperity, precisely similar to that of the Antediluvian era just before the flood, and to that of Sodom before Lot’s removal. The passage itself teaches (1) that this translation is to be expected “in that night,” as if purposely to conceal it from the eye of unbelief; (2) that this is no gathering of nations, but of individuals, one here and one there; (3) that it is a separation of parties, one being taken and another being left; (4) this taking of one party and leaving of another indicates a previous judgment (just as the sudden taking and changing “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,” 1Co_15:52, also evidences), and not such an one as is recorded e.g. in Mat_25:31-46; (5) that the removal of the one party is designed as a particular blessing in averting incoming evil, and the leaving of the other must be in order that they may experience it. Next, follows the much disputed verse respecting the eagles, and before discussing its meaning it is necessary to decide its location in point of time. It is very easy, as some do, to refer it to the Romans in Matthew 24, but it is rather difficult to apply this verse in Luke the same way, because in the context there is no allusion, even the most distant, to the Romans. On the other hand, Jesus pointedly links it with His own personal Advent (comp. Prop. 114), as the context plainly (Luk_17:22-30) proclaims. This effectually disposes of the Roman theory, but still leaves the verse subject to a variety of conflicting opinions.389 [Note: 89 389.  For, aside from the Roman application (viz., that the eagles are the Roman legions, and the carcass or body the Jewish nation or Jerusalem, so Lightfoot, etc.), other interpretations are given, as e.g. a writer (“C.C.” Proph. Times, vol. 4, p. 22), owing to the first meaning of the word rendered “carcass” (viz., “a fall” or “thing fallen,” then “failure,” “fault,” and last, “carcass or corpse”) makes “carcass” in Matthew 24: “Where the fall (or failure, or fallen thing) is, there shall the eagles (saints) be convoked,” and applies this “fall” to that of Satan at the end, which the saints are to witness. The “body” in Luke he refers to the body of Christ. Reineke (Proph. Times, vol. 3, p. 129) makes “the carcass” in Matthew “the corrupt ecclesiastical systems established by the harlot and her daughters,” and the eagles are the saints, etc., while “the body” in Luke is “the Church,” and the eagles the saints gathered to it, etc. Another writer (Proph. Times, vol. 4, p. 26) interprets the eagles as representing the angels and the body Christ’s elect. Fritzsche (Olshausen, Com., vol. 2, p. 245) interprets the eagles of believers and the body or carcass of Christ. Olshausen makes the eagles Christ and the angels, and the body corrupt Israel; Fleck makes the body corruption, and the eagles false Christs. Augustine makes the body Christ (“because He died for us”), and the eagles saints (who “hereafter, as eagles, will be caught up to Him in the clouds”). Several writers (in Proph. Times) make the eagles saints, and both “the carcass” and “the body” to be Christ. This last interpretation, while consistently preserving both passages as parallel, certainly gives a harshness to it by making “the carcass,” i.e. the slain body, refer to Christ, because it is against fact, the saints not being gathered to a slain body, but to a living Christ. Comp. Rev_1:18, etc., or as Dr. Schaff (note, p. 227, Lange’s Com.), rejecting Wordsworth’s view, says: “A reference of carcass to the sacred body of the Savior, which never saw corruption, violates every principle of good taste and propriety.” Dr. West, in his Lect. “A Voice from Olivet,” makes the “carcass” to be “Gentile Christendom.” Rev. Brown, the Evangelist, presents this view: the prediction is future; the body or carcass being the Jewish nation, and the eagles that future anti-Christian power which shall assault the nation just before the open parousia of Jesus and His saints. Such an interpretation and application is not in conflict with the time and the order of events. Nast (Com. loci) makes the carcass to be “the condition of nominal Christianity-not of the true believers-when the times of the Gentiles are coming to a close;” and the eagles represent the judicial visitation of Christ. Dr. Rutter (Roman Catholic) in Life of Jesus, p. 415, interprets “the body” to be Christ, and “the eagles” to be elect, and in a note says that others, as Manduit, make “the body” to be “the soul of a reprobate,” and “the eagles” to be “devils.” He refers the gathering to the time specified in 1Th_4:16. Lange’s Com., Luk_17:37, touches it delicately, making it a proverbial expression, and simply indicative (Steir) of “where the corruption of death is, there must the eagles come,” but on Mat_24:28, “the figure of the eagles will express the necessity and inevitableness of the Advent,” and “the carcass must represent the moral corruption and decay of the world itself, and the eagles the judgment, not only in its personal but also in its physical elements and forces.” Alford (Com. loci) makes the carcass the whole world, the eagles the angels of vengeance, and the time at the Second Advent. Few now entertain the view of Grotius, that “the carcass means those who die to themselves; the eagles the gifts of the Holy Spirit.” Meyer (Com. loci) says, “the carcass is a figure of the spiritually dead,” and the eagles “represent the same as is described in Luk_13:41, that is, the angels sent out by Christ.” We have laid no stress (leaving that to the discretion of the reader) on the symbolical or figurative import of the eagle as presented in dictionaries and typologies, but this certainly adds materially to our view.]  Without assuming that the explanation following is infallibly the correct one, yet we give it as commending itself as reasonably the one containing the sense intended. And first: “the eagles” mentioned we must make, with numerous writers,390 [Note: 90 390.  Vide quotations from Chrysostom, Origen, Jerome, Augustine, Hilary, Luther (as e.g. “as the eagles are gathered where the carcass is, so shall Christ’s people be gathered where He is”), in Proph. Times, vol. 9, p. 106 and 107, and references to others who teach the same, as Ambrose, Theophylact, Euthemius, Calvin, Brentius, Bullinger, Bucer, Gaulter, Beza, Pellican, Flaeius, Musculus, Pardfeus, Piscator, Cocceius, Jansenius, Quesael, Du Veil, Calovius, Suicer, Ravanell, Poole, Trapp, Cartwright, Pearce, Leigh, Andrews, Wordsworth. This list could readily be swelled to a vast extent, and we only refer to a few writers who have specially treated of it, as Seiss, Reineke, Bell, Chester, Brookes, Baxter, Ross, Purdon, Birks, Hunter, Phillips, Kelly, and others.]  to denote the saints. Saints are represented by “eagles” in Isa_40:31; Deu_32:11-12; Psa_103:5, even as God Himself is likened to an eagle (Exo_19:4; Deu_32:11) and Christ to a hen (Mat_23:37). Such comparisons are not to be rejected because of any supposed incongruity (as e.g. being birds of prey), seeing that it is applied to messengers of the Divine procedure in Rev_4:7; in Rev_8:13 (the leading mss. and critics reading “eagle” instead of “angel”), and that similar comparisons are applied to Christ, as Rev_5:5. Scripture usage sustains such an interpretation, and even if the idea is made prominent that eagles prey, this itself would only confirm the application, because the saints accounted worthy of resurrection and glorification are to assist Christ in His judgments upon the nations (when Zep_3:8, the Lord “riseth up to the prey”). It may be that Jesus had in mind Isa_40:31 (Delitzsch’s transl.), “They who wait for Jehovah gain fresh strength, lift up their wings as eagles, run and are not weary, go forward and do not faint,” as applicable to the saints at this period. In the next place, what are we to understand by “the carcass” of Matthew and “the body” of Luke? One thing is self-evident, that they refer to the same thing-the passages being parallels-and hence all interpretations, no matter how plausibly presented, which makes “the carcass” one thing and “the body” quite another, must be avoided. The passage in Matthew is related to the Coming of the Son of Man; that in Luke to the Coming and a predicted translation or removal, and both make out a gathering of the saints to a certain place. Now, if we leave Scripture describe this gathering at the time of the end, we find that the saints or eagles are gathered (Zechariah 14, Revelation 19, Joel 3, etc.) to execute vengeance upon the confederation of wickedness. That this great confederation of the mighty of the earth is intended by “the carcass” and “the body” is apparent from two things: (1) such a manifestation of the saints really answers the question in Luke, for after the announcement of the removal of some the question was asked, “Where, Lord?” (i.e. when shall this be witnessed or be made known?) and the answer comes that as this is done “in the night,” not visible, the evidence of such a removal will be openly shown when these very ones shall be gathered together at the overthrow of Antichrist. (2) This is confirmed by the meaning of the word rendered “carcass” (although even the word “carcass” might be retained as indicative of both contempt and doom); the primary significations denoting “a fall, or fallen thing, or failure,” and thus directly referring to the fearful fall and overthrow of Antichrist which the saints are not only gathered to witness, but exultantly to participate in. The “body” of Luke refers to the same confederation, because, as Scripture informs us, “the body” of it, its congregated armies under the leadership of Antichrist, the vast bulk of it will be assembled together in Palestine or the East, where the Word assures us Christ and these eagles will come, Zec_14:5. It only remains to say that, considering the promise to these translated or removed ones to participate in the gathering of the saints at the overthrow or fall of Antichrist (and his “body,” Dan_7:11, is “destroyed”), it follows that such a removal must necessarily precede, by some interval of time, the formation of this confederacy, viz., in a time of peace, etc. The reader may, for himself, consider what power and ministrations may be included under this comparison of “eagles,” and whether, during the interval, it may not become an exceeding precious promise to suffering believers.391 [Note: 91 391.  The Savior, no doubt, referred to this very translation and deliverance from incoming evil, when, after delineating the evils culminating in the vengeance of His open Coming, He said: “When these things begin to come to pass, then look up and lift up your heads,” etc. Before the end itself, then already glorious deliverance comes. Before e.g. Psa_149:6-9 can be verified, there must be a previous resurrection and translation of those accounted worthy to participate in the promise. The Coming “as a thief in the night” is certainly not the Coming with His angels and saints in great glory and power-so that all shall, “every eye,” see Him-for vengeance, for the former is a secret, and the latter an open Coming. The Coming e.g. of Rev_16:15, which brings a blessing to them that watch, is certainly different from the Coming of Revelation 19, which is to take vengeance upon His enemies. Some hold to one stage alone of the Advent, referring us to Revelation 19 as the Advent which will result in the translation promised. But, aside from the Coming with His saints, the entire representation is one of Coming to judgment (in which His saints participate). The object of the Coming is specifically stated to be, not to resurrect and translate the saints, but, to “judge and make war,” “to smite the nations,” etc., and therefore simple consistency requires a proper discrimination of the stages of the Second Advent and of the events respectively related to one or the other.]
Obs. 4. Other passages either directly teach such a translation or removal, or else strongly imply it as a resultant or prerequisite. Take Revelation 14, and the order of events is in the highest degree corroborative of our position. Without discussing the relation that this chapter sustains to previous predictions, it is sufficient for our present purpose to notice that a time arrives before the final end when a certain specified number of saints, viz., the 144,000 (a symbolic number?) mentioned, are separated from among men, forming a chosen body called “the first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb.” These “first-fruits” go before the incoming harvest, an interval of time (which includes (1) the proclamation of the particular message that God’s judgments are to be poured out, and insisting upon the worship of God in view of the Antichristian worship that will be required; (2) the downfall of Babylon, and (3) the fearful persecution and martyrdom of believers) being placed between the two, at the close of which the harvest comes, and the dreadful vintage follows. This teaches us then to expect that a gathering of saints before the harvest is indeed one of the Divine procedures pertaining to the last things of this dispensation.392 [Note: 92 392.  It is a matter of amazement how coolly and deliberately men can appropriate Scripture to themselves which relates to the future. Sects, at various times, have professed to be those sealed ones of Revelation 14, as e.g. Joanna Southcote, who had her followers sealed, etc. Error constantly repeats itself; and today we have some of the Seventh Day Adventists (as e.g. seen in the writings of a Mrs. White) claiming that the Adventists of their party constitute this number. Others adopt the same view in respect to their own particular sect or organization. This is simply a perversion of the Scripture promise, which confines it to no special sect or denomination now existing, but to a gathering out of God’s favored ones wherever they may be in faith and love at the time of resurrection and translation. The translation itself is perverted by some, as e.g. evidenced in John Asgill (a.d. 1700), who published a work entitled “Argument, proving that men may be translated to heaven without dying,” etc., but applying it to the then present time (and not where the Scriptures locate it). Its absurdity was sufficiently manifested by his own death. In reference to the application by the Seventh Day Adventists of the 144,000 to themselves, this is based on a misconception of the time of the ten horns, of the Antichrist, of the two-horned beast, etc. Aside from the lack of propriety in appropriating such a magnificent portraiture to their present condition, these “first-fruits,” that precede the harvest, are not left here, as they pretend to do, to deliver the angel messages. It is simply amazing what self-confidence and credulity can do in the way of Scripture application to sect in order to bring forth claims of professed purity and pre-eminence. On the other hand, the Plymouth Brethren hold these 144,000 to be literally Jews. Thus e.g. Lincoln (Lects. on Rev.) correctly makes the enumeration of Revelation 7 and 14 identical, but overlooking the continuation of the election and the engrafting into the elect nation, he has these not the Church, but a portion of the Jewish race; not the first-fruits of believers in the Church, but the first-fruits of the Jewish nation. Aside from the difficulty of reconciling this with the Scriptural idea of the election, the engrafting by which Gentiles become the seed of Abraham, the order of fulfillment, etc., it is sufficient now to say that two considerations alone forbid its reception: (1) He thus has a portion of the Jewish nation literally upon Mt. Zion, etc., before the Antichristian persecution, which is amply rebutted by the prediction of Zechariah 14; (2) on his hypothesis it is impossible to reconcile the omission of the tribe of Dan, for Dan, according to the original promises, will likewise be restored, but in this process of engrafting which is thus expressed, a sufficiency and distinctiveness is presented to indicate the intimate and enduring relationship. We may add: the identity of number, the sealing and withdrawal just previous to the tribulation, etc., fully shows that the two descriptions relate to the same body.]  The Parable of the Ten Virgins (Prop. 181) confirms this, for it instructs (aside from other particulars) us to anticipate at the Coming of Jesus that a certain class of persons (called the Wise Virgins in contradistinction to another class pronounced the Foolish), living at the time of the Second Advent, shall be so fortunate, owing to preparedness, as to be received by Jesus Christ at His Coming, while others shall be left. The adverb of time, “then,” binds this parable to the preceding context, and forces us to interpret it as a representation of the condition of the Church at some distinctive point of the Second Advent. Without insisting upon the explanation given by Olshausen, Alford, Stier, Seiss, etc., that the foolish virgins are even persons of some piety, who, neglecting to look for the Bridegroom, are left to endure the incoming tribulation, it is amply sufficient to say that the persons left are, at least, professing members of the Church, and. that, as the announcement of the marriage (Revelation 19) precedes the overthrow of the Antichristian powers, those left behind must necessarily endure the trials incident to the arrogance, etc., of those powers. Those going in to the marriage-living saints taken away, translated, for this purpose-precede the time of sore tribulation.393 [Note: 93 393.  For a class of advanced students, it will be well to say in this connection, that many deductions respecting the Bride and the time of marriage are set aside by our remarks under Prop. 169, obviating also objections alleged against the view which distinguishes too largely between “the first-fruits” and “the harvest,” etc. This “bride” here assumed is not the Church, the saints only being guests-guests who occupy different seats of honor, etc., in view of preparedness. The marriage is only consummated after Antichrist is overthrown; the preliminaries antecedent are of such a nature as to constitute, in view of the preparation and the gathering of guests, the time of marriage, etc. See Prop. 169.]  Passages which imply it relate to the promised participation of the saints in acts of judgment upon the living nations, to the married wife as distinguished from the barren woman, to the coming with the saints for purposes of salvation, etc. But others of a still stronger tenor are embraced in the promises that when the last great tribulation is to burst upon the Gentile nations, then certain believing ones shall escape. Thus e.g. Luk_21:36, “Watch ye therefore and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass and to stand before the Son of Man;” the escaping and being favored with nearness to Christ are united. In Rev_3:10, of a class it is said: “Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation (or trial) which shall come upon the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.”394 [Note: 94 394.  Dr. Craven (Lange’s Com. loci) points out that “It is also to be observed that the promise is not of preservation in trial (or testing), as was the promise to Peter, Luk_22:32; but of preservation from (ek) the hour or period of trial” (comp. 2Pe_2:9).]  The 144,000 described above are taken from this “the hour of trial,” comp. Rev_14:7. It is a joyful fact that when the most fearful time of trial, the flood of great waters, comes, then God interposes in behalf of His own people and saves them out of it (to which even such passages as Psa_32:6-7; Pro_3:25-26; Psa_37:38-40, etc., may refer), while another class are left to endure its terrific force and come up out of it as blood-stained martyrs, Rev_14:9-13; Rev_20:4-5, etc. It is significant also that in Revelation 7 we have first a distinct, separate number of chosen ones forming the same number, 144,000 (called Jews, because engrafted by faith and thus incorporated with the commonwealth), and then afterward a great multitude who come “out of the great tribulation,” thus again pointing out a distinction existing between certain of God’s people. Such are not given without adequate causes, and it is well to heed them.395 [Note: 95 395.  The doctrine of a translation of believing ones previous to the great tribulation is also taught by” The Cath. Apostolic Church.” This is regarded by some (Lange’s Com., 1Th_4:13-18, doc. 7) as distinctively belonging to them, having been plainly taught by Irving (as in The Apoc., vol. 2, p. 1024), but the history of Millenarianism shows that it was held and taught by others before and after the rise of that body-it being contained in the doctrine of the Pre-Millennial resurrection and removal of the saints, in their participating in judging the nations, etc. It is only since Mede’s, Bengel’s, and Irving’s time that the doctrine has been specially examined in all its details and bearings, having received the approval, because Scriptural, of the most able European and American writers, holding various denominational relationships. We have shown how e.g. it was evidently held by the Thessalonians, causing their consternation (Obs. 1). Bengel (Gnomon, I Corinthians 15) remarks that “we shall not all sleep,” 1Co_15:51, “And we shall be changed,” 1Co_15:52, “And this mortal shall put on immortality,” 1Co_15:53, “And this mortal shall have put on immortality,” 1Co_15:54, all refer to the translation, and that the two antitheses require it; so that those whom corruption has seized through death, and likewise those who are still mortal (i.e. subject to death) are included as escaping the power of death. Some writers (as Brookes in Maranatha, p. 510) make 2Th_2:2-3 illustrative of the coming and gathering of the saints antecedent to the ushering in of “the day of the Lord.” It certainly is in perfect harmony, and enforces this view. Some are misled by the expression “day of the Lord,” as if it was equivalent to “the Coming of the Lord,” and hence conclude that the last Antichrist will first be revealed, and that only a visible Coming is denoted, but a little reflection and comparison will show that they are not synonymous, seeing that the former is the result of the latter. Rev. Brown, the evangelist, makes those accounted worthy to escape to be in “rest” when Jesus comes in open Parousia, by reference to 2Th_1:7, “rest with us when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed,” etc. There may be a reference to this very deliverance in 1Th_1:10, “delivereth us from the wrath which cometh” (Variorum), or “our deliverer from the coming vengeance” (Conybeare and Howson). “Greybeard,” in his Lay Sermons, properly distinguishes those stages into “the Lord’s Coming to meet His saints in the air, and His subsequent appearing with them in glory.” Dr. Seiss has added a good note on the subject in his Appendix to the edition of The Last Times, 1878, commencing p. 341 (and see his “Apoc.,” p. 229, etc.). Various articles on the stages and translation are to be found in the Old and New Series of the Proph. Times, and the different Pre-Millennial periodicals. Dr. Brookes has some excellent remarks on the same in his Maranatha, and numerous recent works refer to both, and distinguish.]
Obs. 5. This distinction in point of favor is marked by still another set of passages which describe the hiding of the saints when this time of trouble, this storm of persecution and fury bursts upon the Church and world. Keeping in view that these outpourings of judgments at the time of the end are always represented as special manifestations of God’s wrath, we can appreciate the principle given in the language of Zep_2:2-3, in which it is promised to the meek that when “the day of the Lord’s anger” comes, by the seeking of righteousness and meekness, “it may be ye shall be hid in the day of the Lord’s anger. That this will be realized is apparent from various predictions, such as Psa_31:19-20, “Thou shalt hide them in the secret of Thy presence from the pride of man; Thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues” (or, Sep., “Thou wilt screen them in a tabernacle from the contradiction of tongues” (comp. also Psa_27:5; Mal_3:16-18). How this removal and hiding, which the Spirit states as a mark of “great goodness,” is to be accomplished may be seen under the Props. following; for at this period it will be especially true (2Pe_2:9) that “the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation.” Isaiah (ch. 26:20-21) prophesies that at the very time of a resurrection of saints, and when “the Lord cometh” to “punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity,” and to cause the earth to uncover her “slain,” then God’s people are to be protected “until the indignation be overpast.” David (Psalms 45) portrays the exultant language that such translated or removed saints can well employ in view of their entire safety when the vast flood of evil shall shake the kingdoms of the earth. Indeed, there are peculiar predictions which alone stand out with clearness in the light of such a translation of the saints, as e.g. in Psa_111:1, where it is said (so Clarke, Com. loci) that God shall be praised both “in the secret assembly of the upright” (or, as others, Lange, etc., “select assembly,” i.e. special), and also in the congregation, i.e. the general or public, which is thus verified. In Psalms 94, at the time when God shall show Himself for “vengeance” against the wicked, of some it is said, Psa_94:12-13, that they are so guided and instructed “that Thou mayest give Him rest from the days of adversity, until the pit be digged for the wicked”-i.e. they shall not experience the days of adversity which the same Psalm. informs us culminates into a “gathering themselves together against the soul of the righteous and to condemn the innocent blood” (comp. Revelation 14, 16, and 19, etc.). From the removal of these righteous to the final overthrow of the wicked, the interval with the efforts of unbelief is expressively called the digging of a pit for the wicked, i.e. preparing the way for the fearful manifestation of vengeance upon them. All such predictions, supported by the analogy taken from Enoch, Noah, Lot, etc., however inconclusive they might be when taken isolated, obtain significancy as they stand related to other Scripture.
Compare Olshausen, Com., vol. 2, p. 253, on the escape of the righteous. The Apoc. Expounded (vol. 1, p. 207, given by Seiss in The Apoc., p. 230) makes Daniel “a type of those kept out of the hour of temptation. When all nations, kindreds, and people are required to worship the image of the plain of Dura, he is not there.” See an impressive article in Proph. Times, vol. 6, p. 79, etc., “On the Responsibility of Christian Teachers” (urging fidelity to revelation on these and kindred points, lest others are misled by us into that fearful tribulation and accuse us of having deceived them by erroneous predictions of peace, etc.). That the saints would be protected in the day of tribulation is an old doctrine, as the reader can verify, e.g. by reference to 2Es_2:27-28, and in Rabbinical interpretations (e.g. see “Jewish Expos. of Malachi” in Princeton Review, Ap. 1855, p. 324; remarks on ch. 3:17). Lincoln (Lects. Rev., vol. 2, p. 55) says that “escape” imports salvation by passing through the trial, and instances 1Co_10:13, where the ability to bear trial is “escaping trial.” But this idea is set aside by the express declarations respecting a removal previous to the great tribulation in the order of events laid down. Even in Malachi 3 and 4 a certain order is preserved: (1) the making up of His jewels or possession previous to the day that burns as an oven; (2) the sparing of certain ones declared; the fearful day of vengeance in which the spared ones participate in a state of exultation. An additional strong argument might be based on the meaning of the word Parousia, denoting not merely a coming or approach, but an actual personal presence (as given e.g. often in Lange’s Com., Alford’s Com., New Revision of New Testament, Diaglott, etc.), so that He is present (in the first stage) and the world refuses to recognize His presence, although certain events (the resurrection and translation) are indicative of it. (Comp. e.g. Russell’s remarks in Object and Manner of Our Lord’s Return, p. 51.) We may add: There may be an indirect reference to this very translation in passages, which are now usually applied only to watching, as e.g. when Jesus says that we shall watch so that we may know His coming. Now as the day and the hour is unknown, this is interpreted as meaning that we should be in a posture of looking and preparedness so that we are not taken unawares. While this is true, may not a deeper significancy attach to it, that we should be in this posture, so that we may become personally, by a happy change, aware of His presence?
Obs. 6. Intimations also are given that such a translation or removal of the class of righteous, while unwitnessed, will be known to the nations. This can well be imagined, for the sudden disappearance of men and women, one here and another there, will excite general inquiry and be the subject of varied comment. It will inevitably lead to what the Spirit describes in Psa_83:3, for let these resurrected and translated ones be taken by the Lord and conveyed to a place of safety (comp. Prop. 166); let it be partially comprehended for what purpose even this removal is effected, then will be fulfilled what is written, that the enemies of God not only confederate together, but that “they take crafty counsel against Thy people, and consult against Thy hidden ones,” and this consultation is “with one consent or heart.” The same “hidden ones” are, probably, presented to us in Isa_16:3-5 (comp. Prop. 166), in view of its connection with the establishment of the Davidic throne and Kingdom, unless it be applied to a portion of the Church during the tribulation who shall fly or be brought to the wilderness for safety (and if the latter, may not this be a hint to the Church when under the last extended persecution, where safety only will be found, viz., in the wilderness near Mt. Sinai, where, as Prop. 166, the Lord Christ and His saints will be assembled? We cannot, as yet, fully determine; time must show its meaning).396 [Note: 96 396.  Some writers make the wilderness the United States, others Great Britain, others even (as Claas Epp) Russia, etc. Some make it simply equivalent to concealment, or protection, or world-renunciation, or a place of refuge, or expatriation, etc.]  The fact that the wicked shall know something concerning those hid ones, and shall take what they deem prudent measures (viz., to form a general confederation, etc.), is hinted at in passages like Psa_17:7-9; Psa_64:2, etc., and still more plainly revealed in Psa_143:7-9. The saints are “hid in the time of trouble,” and “in the secret (place) of Thy Presence” (verifying the Spirit of Psalms 91), until the period arrives for their open manifestation in supernatural power. It is likely, however, from the consultation of the wicked against them, that while the removal is allowed it will be attributed to natural causes, or to a concerted movement, and that all reference to its supernatural occurrence will be stoutly denied. In all probability, “the sign of the Son of Man” (Mat_24:30) will be something connected with this translation (for events belonging to one period of time are grouped together without giving in every particular the exact order, as e.g. Isa_25:6-9, etc.). The sign is one thing and the open visible Coming is another, and yet being a sign directly pertaining to the Son of Man, it relates to Him as in something connected with the Theocratic (see Prop. 81) ordering. Now, let this removal of the saints take place as described by Paul, John, etc., in the night, accompanied by a shout and trump (i.e. events may be denoted-see Obs. below); let the Son of Man be “in the air” to receive His risen and translated ones, and as the night advances around the earth, so let Him proceed around this globe in the process of gathering-such will be the accompaniments and the appearance in the sky, that, however explained by the world as electrical, meteorical, etc., it will constitute a sign, and a most impressive one, of the Son of Man. Invisible Himself, sheltered behind the curtains of the bright enveloping clouds, yet His Presence in the air may be exhibited by tokens never before witnessed.
See Prop. 174, where this sign is noticed more at length. It may be added here that if the sign does not refer to a peculiar and striking manifestation in the sky itself, then it may relate to the resurrection, translation, and withdrawal of the saints themselves, such being an indication or sign of “the Son of Man,” i.e. of His presence. Or it may (as we can only at best conjecture) denote that the assembling at Mt. Sinai (Prop. 166) is such a sign-indicative of a previous resurrection and translation by “the Son of Man.”
Obs. 7. The effect that this translation will have upon the Church is remarkably corroborative of our position. If we turn to Revelation 14 it is stated that immediately after the removal of “the first-fruits” there will be a most powerful renewed “preaching of the Word of God, deriving its force from a proclamation of the now certain coming judgments of God and tribulation under the Antichrist. What causes such a change in the style of the preaching, which will result in the conversion, as parallel passages show, of very many, preparing them to pass through the great tribulation, and to suffer death rather than to worship the Beast and his image? Nothing less than this astonishing removal of certain chosen ones, accounted worthy, owing to their distinctive faith in God’s promises, to escape. Let this event occur just as it is described; let here one and there one of the believing and watching be taken, and surely those who believe in God’s Word and are left behind will be most wonderfully affected by the event. By one sudden and startling event, coming home to the heart and directly appealing to the warmest affections, the prevailing spiritualizing systems and theories of progressive advancement and perfection will be overthrown, and the Millenarian doctrine, once derided and sneered at as “carnal,” etc., will be most eagerly embraced and proclaimed. (The writer has often, often felt that it is specially for this period that he is laboring, when his work will be appreciated, etc.) The Church, then starting up with Abrahamic faith will recognize its chronological position, will see what is before it, and, energetically infused by fear and hope, prepare itself for the fearful ordeal through which it must pass. And we are assured that the Church in this contest, overpowered as she will be, will sustain the persecution with triumphant faith, feeling convinced from the events occurring and the time elapsed, that the Son of Man is even already present, waiting for the moment of direct interference.
Dr. Tyng, in his work He will Come, correctly represents the stages and translation. The latter he forcibly represents as causing for a little while a consternation in, and confounding of, the world, but he overlooks the practical effect that it will have in causing others to receive and proclaim the truth, and even die for it. This doctrine also teaches us what estimate to put on the emigration theories (Proph. Times, N. S., 1875, p. 145), seeing that we are specially charged to await this Coming and translation wherever we may be, and not to listen to any appeals to go forth (as e.g. to Palestine) and await His Coming. It also throws light on that special “scoffing,” etc., so characteristic of the time of the end.
Obs. 8. It has been aptly remarked that the removal of righteous persons has been followed (as e.g. Enoch, Noah, Lot, at Jerusalem, etc.) by the outpourings of God’s judgments, and the principle is taught e.g. in the sealing of the 144,000 (Revelation 7). A comparison of Scripture teaches that when this translation is experienced, then will rapidly arise that culminated head of Antichrist which will overwhelm the Church with terrific persecution. Before this event some restraining power prevents such a dreadful confederation. Attention is called to this in order to correct two prevailing mistakes in the interpretation of 2Th_2:7. One theory makes that which hinders the revelation of the Wicked One, the Man of Sin, to denote the Roman power (Pagan), i.e. the civil power; but this is erroneous, because this Antichrist will arise out of and really be the last head of this same Roman power (Prop. 160), fallen back to its former unchristian (e.g. given to idol worship), paganized condition. Another theory is, that the Hinderer mentioned is the Holy Spirit, and that this Spirit will be withdrawn, resulting in widespread wickedness, etc.; but this again is opposed to fact, viz., that after “the first-fruits” are taken away the Spirit remains, as is evidenced by the proclamation of the message, by the sustaining of the martyrs, and the multitude coming through the tribulation. The obscurity of the prediction and its conciseness is based upon something that was at the time well known, for in the preceding verse the Apostle says positively, “And now ye know what withholdeth” (same word precisely, excepting being in the neuter form, and thus referring to something) “that he might be revealed in his time.” That is, the Thessalonian brethren knew what this restraining influence was which then existed and would continue to exist down to a certain time, when this Antichrist, the fruit of long-continued defection, would arise during the period allotted to him. Rather than accept the modern views given by prophetical writers on this point, we would fall back to Theodoret’s opinion (Bloomfield, G. Test. loci), that that which hindered, restrained, prevented the culmination of this Antichrist is “the decree of God’s Providence,” and this would, at least, be consistent with the grammatical construction, which, as critics inform us, may refer either to a thing or person in 2Th_2:7, but only to a thing in 2Th_2:6. The solution probably has not yet been found, and in place of a better (which close study and comparison may yet present) we suggest the following: Regarding the fact that the Thessalonians knew what hindered, we turn to the First Epistle, and we find in the first chapter (1Pe_1:4) a declaration which covers the ground, viz., in the doctrine of election, that too of which they had knowledge, “Knowing, brethren beloved, your election of God.” Let the reader consider our Propositions. concerning the election, that God in this dispensation is calling out a definite number (incorporated as the seed of Abraham), who are to be associated in the Kingdom as rulers, etc., and then he will see that until this gathering out process has progressed up to a certain point (embracing these “first-fruits”) this Divine purpose of obtaining these chosen ones allows “the times of the Gentiles,” but restrains that fearful predicted outbreak until a determined number of God’s people are secured. When this is done, however, then, even while God’s Spirit is still willing to strive with and aid the faith of men (as seen in the martyrs), human nature will be allowed to riot in its unbelief, and to work out its vain theory of the destiny of the race. Then, during a brief period, human nature will be permitted to exhibit its highest departure from the truth, its most bitter scorn and detestation of believers, its most unrelenting hostility and cruelty to the followers of Christ (comp. Props. 160, 161, 162, 163, 164).
This point is the more worthy of notice, seeing that able and intelligent writers fall into error in this matter. Thus e.g. “Greybeard,” in Lay Sermons, No. 108, totally misapprehends, when during the last tribulation, he has: “The Holy Ghost will have left the earth; the only restraining power to evil will have been taken away, 2Th_2:7.” So Brookes (Maranatha, p. 511) makes the same deduction, and bases on it the opinion that the translation of the saints will produce no profound and lasting impression. Thus also other writers, whom we notice elsewhere, and several of the “Believers” assert in view of it that there is no “Church” during this interval (viz., between the first and second stages of the Advent), and that this is indicated by no mention of the word “church” in that period. But all this is vitiated e.g. by the order laid down in Revelation 14, (1) the first-fruits; (2) the renewed proclamation of judgment truth; (3) the fall of Babylon; (4) the Antichristian persecution; (5; the martyrs clinging to the truth; (6) the harvest of believers after the tribulation; (7) the vintage of wrath on the persecutors. Now without the sustaining power of the Spirit, the Gospel, and the means of grace during this interval, the number of faithful ones that come out of the tribulation could not be produced.
Obs. 9. While embracing the doctrine of a Pre-Millennial translation, and of more than one translation, even (as e.g. in that pertaining to “the first-fruits,” and that relating to the harvest), yet, with our present light and understanding of the Scriptures, we cannot accept of so many as given e.g. by Baxter (Louis Napoleon III., ch. 4) and others, simply on the ground that a more careful comparison will synchronize and thus identify the sameness of some of them. Whatever may be the truth in this matter, it can only be presented in a discussion of the order of events as embraced in the entire Apocalypse (a labor which is foreign to our present work, and performed by other writers), and therefore we have only availed ourselves of the references to such a translation, without in every instance determining the relative order, confining ourselves, as sufficient for our purpose, to a twofold translation, one to precede and the other to follow (as the resurrections) the great tribulation-one pertaining to “the first-fruits” and the other to “the harvest.”
Obs. 10. Let us briefly consider the objections that can be alleged, not against a translation itself (for that is too plainly taught), but a Pre-Millennial one as presented. Some writers have incautiously made out that these “first-fruits,” by being thus favored, etc., are not only a chosen body (which is true, and within another), but infer from it that it only composes “the married wife,” i.e. only embraces the rulers with Christ, etc., thus excluding the harvest or those coming out of the tribulation. This has caused serious objections, and justly too, to be urged against the view as thus presented, for it is a fact, whatever distinctions may exist within the orderings and stations of the Kingship and priesthood, that the very last saints of this dispensation, even those who pass through the tribulation and fall under Antichrist’s power, are distinctively promised (Rev_20:4; Rev_20:6) to also reign with Jesus Christ; so that the “first-fruits” and the “harvest” combined form that triumphant body of rulers who reign. Any interpretation, however plausible, which would debar the martyred saints, etc., under the last persecution from a direct co-heirship with the other saints in the Kingdom, is most certainly defective. The Scripture too usually presented as favoring it, viz., Psalms 45, does not apply to such a distinction between saints gathered during this and former dispensations (i.e. in the various women mentioned as related to the King), but rather between such saints thus gathered and the Jewish and Gentile nations, etc., as they shall exist (as e.g. the Jewish nation being likened to “a barren woman,” also again united to God, and other nations may well be thus represented as virgins, etc., acknowledging His reign, etc.) in the Millennial age. While distinctions are to be found in the body of saints, and while it is true that the first saints gathered down to the re-establishment of the Kingdom in its glory enjoy a distinction beyond all others that follow, it seems unscriptural to discriminate so far as to debar those to whom is specially promised a participation in reigning gloriously with Christ. A degree of caution is here required in order to avoid prejudice. Some good thing, that we may well leave undefined, will be given to these “first-fruits,” but the unbelieving, unguarded Church will so atone by its faithful witnessing, even unto death, for its past delinquency and un-watchfulness that it too “inherits the Kingdom” with the others. Another objection is brought from II Thessalonians 2, viz., that the coming of Jesus and the destruction of Antichrist are united together, and hence forbids any such a previous translation. The objector, however, forgets two things: (1) that the Apostle only argues logically that “the day of Christ” cannot come without the visible appearing and destruction of Antichrist (just as our argument demands), without specifying all the particulars antecedent, either to this visible Advent of Christ, or this Antichrist, and (2) that the saints participate both in the Coming of Jesus and destruction of the Wicked One, neither of which are mentioned. The Apostle does not contradict himself, as is apparent, if due notice is taken that the Thessalonians believed “the day of Christ” to be already present, and his reasoning proceeds to show, not that saints are not to be raised and translated before that day (which is implied), but that before the day itself is ushered in as predicted, a visible Coming and the destruction of Antichrist must precede. Again, it is objected that the gathering of the elect by the messengers described Mat_24:31, is a gathering of all saints after the tribulation. But this, while after the tribulation, does not affirm that all the saints that ever lived are thus included, but simply refers to the elect then living at the period designated, and may denote, as some believe, believers in general scattered over the earth; or rather, as others hold, the members of the still elect Jewish nation, which, as many prophecies predict, shall at this very time be again gathered to Palestine. Besides this, all the passages relating to the gatherings of this intently interesting period must be collated and compared, when several, without contradicting each other, will appear pertaining to “the first-fruits” and to “the harvest,” to the Church and to the Jewish nation. Again, it is alleged that the multitude of Revelation 7 all came out of the great tribulation, and that this evidences that the entire Church of this dispensation living at the time must enter and pass through it. Aside from other reasons in reply, it is sufficient to direct attention to the 144,000 mentioned in the same chapter, a body separate from all others, who were sealed in order to their complete safety before the incoming storm. Some object on the ground that “the shout and trump” accompanying the resurrection and translation show it to be a visible occurrence, seen by the world. But such forget that while there will be a sufficiency of manifestation to excite attention and startle the world, yet the shout, etc., may be like Daniel’s “man clothed in linen” (Dan_10:5-7), whose voice was “like the voice of a multitude,” and yet the men with him, strangely affected even to quaking, “saw not the vision;” or like the voice from heaven (Joh_12:28-29), which distinctly spoke, but the people that “stood by and heard it, said, that it thundered;” or like the voice speaking to Saul, which his fearful companions heard not. The voice, the shout, the trump (indicative of events ushering in) is for a chosen class of persons, and if it is God’s good pleasure, the same may only be heard by them, even if others stood by, just as Stephen in the crowd only saw the glorious vision, or Elisha’s eyes were only opened to behold the horses and chariots of fire. Other objections have been so fully met in previous remarks, that it is unnecessary to reproduce them, unless we except one, owing to its practical importance. It is said that such an order of events, privately accomplished, is opposed to the publicity, not only of the Second Advent, but of intervening events, viz., that before such a Coming, resurrection, and translation transpires the partial restoration of the Jews, the culminated Antichrist, the gathering of the nations, etc., must be first witnessed. But as Cunninghame, Cox, and many others have shown, this is not to distinguish His visible Coming with the saints, at which time all these things are manifested, from that of His Coming for them, preparatory to the former. Several stages of the same Advent, leaving a sufficient interval for the development of those things between them, is, as the ablest prophetical writers have asserted and proven, the only possible way in which to reconcile the condition attached to the Second Advent (as e.g. coming in a time of peace and coming in a time of war, etc.), and places it at the same time in the position given to it by the Spirit, viz., as something that may occur at any moment, and for which we are constantly to watch without looking first for the fulfillment of intervening things.
Fausset (Chris. Herald, Aug. 14th, 1879) makes the time of the translation, chronologically considered, under Rev_16:15. But this cannot be so, because then the saints would-as the preceding vials testify-have experienced the tribulation under Antichrist, from which, as we have shown, a large party is to escape. The explanation of Rev_16:15, in order to harmonize it with the order of Revelation 14, is as follows, being fully sustained by a comparison of Scripture: Having just referred to the gathering of the hosts of Antichrist, the Spirit in Rev_14:16 turns to another gathering which is to meet and confound the one first mentioned, viz., the gathering of the saints to Mt. Sinai, where the preliminaries of the Theocratic Kingdom are inaugurated (Prop. 166). This gathering is, as abundant Scripture testifies, under the thief-like Coming of Christ, and hence as standing related to the other gathering (that of enemies) it is also announced as a warning. It is not chronologically located in the order of events, but is placed there for the reason assigned, and properly too, because both gatherings are in opposition to each other and will come into terrible conflict. (Comp., for details, Prop. 163.)
Obs. 11. The question may be asked, Why such a distinction? The reply is, because such is God’s pleasure in the matter. It is not for us to assert with any degree of positiveness who shall thus be favored with a translation, and escape the great tribulation. We can only point out the general affirmation (as e.g. “them that honor me, I will honor,” etc.) upon the subject, and leave each one draw his own conclusions. There is a difference between mere salvation and the special honor, station, dignity, etc., that God in addition may be pleased to bestow upon certain ones. There were other pious ones when Enoch and Elijah were translated, and yet they only were favored; and we doubt not that many who ultimately will be saved with great glory (because of their faithful witnessing during the last severe trial) will be left at this translation. While we cannot confine, as some do, this preference to mere belief in and watching for the Advent (for in connection with this stands the purity and proper development of Christian character, which, alas, some who thus believe and watch do not manifest to the extent required, or even to the degree that some honest and sincere disbelievers in our doctrine exhibit), yet such faith and watching is eminently set forth as a characteristic of those translated ones. Because they thus believe, showing due respect unto God’s Word, and permit such faith to have its practical effect in heart and life, we are assured that they shall thus be favored, as e.g. the general announcement in Mal_2:17, which the New Testament more fully explains in some of its particular aspects, as in Luk_21:36; Mat_24:36-51, etc. At the same time we deeply feel that without a special preparedness, devoted piety (as exemplified in the translated Enoch and Elijah), which evinces itself in opposing the torrent of worldliness and wickedness encroaching upon the Church, Millenarianism, however upheld and ably defended, is unable of itself to secure such a distinguishing benefit and honor. A personal, individual acceptation of the truth combined with a happy experience of its sanctifying influence, together with testifying in its behalf before others, is imperatively needed. It is not simply those who “watch” that shall “escape,” but those, Luk_21:36, who “watch and pray always,” avoiding the corrupting influences around them. The number of translated ones may not be very large (for the number of translated ones given as (so Baumgarten, etc.) types in comparison with the number of those not translated, and with that of the resurrected saints is small), so that Dr. Seiss, with whom many concur, is undoubtedly correct in saying: “I have no idea that a very large portion of mankind, or even of the professing Church, will be thus taken. The first translation, if I may so speak, will embrace only the select few who watch and pray always,” etc. The fact that Enoch was the seventh from Adam may, for aught we know, be suggestive (as Bengel, owing to seven being a sacred number, also comp. Prop. 143) of the occurrence of this translation when the seventh milliad arrives, and Enoch’s specific prediction (Jude) of the Lord’s Coming by those accounted worthy of translation; while Elijah’s pertains simply to exalted, eminent piety, without any special reference to such testimony. Yet, let it be said, whatever the doctrinal position of the persons translated, and whatever may be the personal attitude respecting the nearness of the Advent, etc., that one distinguishing characteristic will be exhibited by all, viz., that they “love the appearing” of Christ (2Ti_4:8), that they earnestly desire it, and regard it as the highest possible blessing, “the blessed hope” (Tit_2:13). There may be also a deeper meaning than is generally assigned to the phrase “them that look for Him” in Heb_9:28 -a meaning derived from an existing fact at the time of the Advent. Still another reason applies why this resurrection and translation of saints should take place at this particular crisis; this will be noticed in the following Propositions, viz., that as Christ comes to make the preliminary arrangements for the setting up of the Theocratic Davidic Kingdom, it is eminently suitable, that all the saints down to that period should be gathered in order to receive their instructions, to have their positions, etc., assigned, so that they can act with Him as executors in the Divine administrations that follow. This (Prop. 166) measured by the creatures capacity requires time, and such time will be given to this particular purpose in the place predicted. Hence this distinction grows out of the Divine purpose, which such saints are designed to aid in executing and establishing.
All who are watchful servants, and whom the truth leads to purity of heart and life, out of all denominations, shall be thus translated, but they who despise prophecy (Jer_23:33-36) shall bear their burden. We have no sympathy with that intolerable bigotry characteristic of Christadelphianism, which maintains that none can be saved (although having antagonistic parties among themselves) but themselves, thus evincing the lack of the greatest of all Christian graces; or with Seventh-Day Adventism, which declares that unless we leave our respective denominations (called by way of emphasis “Babylon,” etc.) and connect ourselves with their sect, adopting their views of the seventh day, etc., we cannot be saved; or with other sects (as the Believers, the followers of Barbour, etc.) who, with far greater charity, still deem it necessary to increase and multiply sectarianism and divisions in order to hold forth with prominence certain distinctive features which entitle them to realize with exclusiveness this translation. While it is sadly true that the existing churches lack much and come far short of their profession (which we give in detail e.g. Props. 174 and 177), yet it is far better to let our light shine wherever we happen to belong, and where it is needed, than to withdraw and increase the evils of separation and exclusiveness. The truth, the Church of our Lord, has suffered immensely from such mistaken zeal and bigotry, and, as we have ourselves noticed, in the indiscriminate condemnation engendered by it, persons are upbraided and reprobated, by those under its influence, who possess to a far greater degree the mind of Christ and the graces of the Spirit than their opposers (as e.g. evidenced in controversy, language, spirit). We apprehend, and venture the assertion, that many will be saved eventually who will not be crowned-saved as by fire-occupying a subordinate position (comp. Prop. 135). Among those who will suffer loss and even miss a translation, there may be believers in the Second Advent and advocates of its nearness, but overlooking that with a watching posture there must be connected an appropriating faith and practical obedience resulting in a proper development of Christian character; they vitiate their position by degenerating into some sectarian peculiarities which are urged, and pressed, and promulgated with a fiery spirit of partisanship (unchurching and anathematizing all others); or by merely being excited through a carnal interest taken in the forecasting of future events prophetically expressed (making them to seem “wise,” “learned,” and “profound”); or by being influenced by a morbid curiosity, a love for the marvellous and sensational, a relish for mere speculation relating to the future without a practical reception of sanctifying truth, causing the theoretic and historical to overshadow and crush out the practical. So long as a man loves the Lord Jesus, loves His appearing, we dare not, in view of what Paul says of love in I Corinthians 13, condemn him, for it is specifically said: “If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema, Maranatha,” 1Co_16:22.
Obs. 12. The reader may, for himself, estimate the greatness and value of such a translation, embracing (1) exemption from death, (2) deliverance from a terrible incoming tribulation, (3) a special exaltation to the Presence of Christ, (4) the bestowal of glorification, joint rulership with the mighty King, etc. Richard Baxter (Works, vol. 16, p. 555) may express these blessings in his ardent prayer and longings that Christ may speedily come in order that death might not be experienced, etc., saying: “The thoughts of the Coming of the Lord are most sweet and joyful to me, so that if I were but sure I should live to see it, and that the trumpet should sound and the dead should rise, and the Lord appear, before the period of my age, it would be the joy fullest tidings to me in the world,” etc. A multitude of writers, italicizing the promises of God in Christ Jesus, delineate these blessings, and hold them up as worthy of consideration and contemplation. Happy, blessed beyond description, the man or the woman thus honored!
If it be asked why do we not have a concise statement of the facts of those stages, translation, and events following? the answer is found in God’s way of presenting the facts of the First Advent, so as not to interfere with man’s agency, so as to urge us to a comparison and study of His Word, etc. God is exercising our faith and hope, and even honor-for long ago (Pro_25:2) it was said: “It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honor of kings is to search out a matter.” We fully endorse this declaration of Dr. Wordsworth (Ch. Herald, March 27th, 1879) when, in urging attention to “The Coming Persecution,” he incidentally presents the idea (which will be largely realized in this translation, the signs and events following): “It is probable that some of the most illustrious evidence of the truth and inspiration of prophecy, and of its practical value for the guidance of the faithful, is reserved for the last days-especially for the coming conflict between truth and error, between the Church and the world, between Christ and Antichrist, and the great and glorious consummation which will follow that conflict.”
Obs. 13. The reader, too, will for himself imagine the influence that such a translation must have, whenever it occurs, upon families, communities, churches, etc. The sudden disappearance of husband or wife, parent or child, sister or brother, pastor or member, etc., will be startling in the extreme. Such a separation “in that night,” when in the bed, or the social gathering, or on the journey, will result in an outburst of grief, in a wonderful heart searching, and in a renewed, most diligent study of God’s Word. But only (excepting the first, e.g. grief) in those who fear God and desire to be obedient unto Him. We thus return to this thought, only to direct attention to the fact that for a number of years various prophetical writers, and quite a number of periodicals, have warned the Church and the world that such was the Divine procedure, and have given proper prominence to this order of events. This answers a twofold purpose, viz., it vindicates God’s mode of working, which is (in case of great events involving tremendous issues) to make His procedure previously known (Amo_3:7, etc.), and when it thus comes to pass it not only establishes His truth, but serves to guide those who are willing to receive His Word into a proper apprehension of the same. If such an event is to occur it is most reasonable to anticipate that believers in the Word, just previous to its occurrence, will proclaim it, so that when it has taken place others may recognize it at once as a part of God’s own divine and gracious ordering. This, then, will alleviate the grief of believers when a beloved one is thus suddenly taken away, because they will rejoice in their having been thus favored, and will strive to prepare themselves and others for the coming struggle, that they too may be accounted worthy of a glorious reunion with resurrected and translated ones.
The thief-like Coming and presence of Jesus will at once be made evident by this gathering of “the first-fruits.” Hence we cannot possibly receive Russell’s view (Our Lord’s Return, p. 62, etc.), which endorses Barbour’s (Three Worlds) position: (1) that Jesus has already come, is now present and is (mentally) inspecting the guests of the marriage; (2) that we are already in the time of the harvest, which is now progressing, the separation between (mental) wheat and tares going on, which will finally culminate in a bodily separation, the wise going into the marriage and the door is shut. The theory evidences a confusion of ideas, and does not properly discriminate between “the first-fruits” and the harvest. It is based upon an erroneous application of the Antichrist and Kingdom; upon an untenable interpretation of the events taking place between “the first-fruits” and the harvest; and upon the deductions of an inconclusive, but confidently urged, chronology. We show, on the other hand, that “the first-fruits” necessarily precedes the harvest, that certain events which have not yet taken place intervene, that the extensive proclamation, martyr faith, etc., evidences that the withdrawal is recognized by the Church, etc. So also we cannot receive, in view of the order laid down in the 14th chapter of Revelation, the statement contained in the Proph. Times, March, 1878, that after the translation there will be no more tribulation of the Church (because all the pious will be taken) but only of the wicked, which is opposed to the proclamation and martyrdom after the 144,000 are taken. In the same connection (p. 72) another mistake is made when the translation is placed after the ending of the Jewish tribulation. It precedes its close, and (Zechariah 14) after the Jews have drunk the last bitter dregs of their cup does Jesus come with His saints, previously gathered to take vengeance on the Gentiles.
Obs. 14. It is reasonable to expect that this doctrine of a translation will be ridiculed both before and after the occurrence of it. Indeed, the parallel existing in the days of Noah, just before the deluge, and that just before the Advent would fail in an important particular if ridicule and scorn were not added to the objections urged against belief in a speedy Advent and its inevitable results. Among these results that of the special honoring of some living saints by a translation without seeing death is already made the subject of derision and sport. The abuse of the doctrine by some evidently sincere but misguided persons (who confidently, against most express Scripture, fix the day and hour of its occurrence, and who, against the testimony of the Spirit, that it is not to be anticipated by a gathering of saints and most foolish provision of ascension robes, meet at the designated time to experience it) greatly tends to such levity; just as if the vagaries and foolishness of men in perverting a doctrine necessarily led to its entire rejection-a principle so palpably erroneous that if applied to truth in general would leave but little for us to accept. Scoffers are to arise in the last days, who will express their contempt of God’s promises, and pronounce those, who Noah-like trust in them, to be, if not “mad” or possessed of a “devil,” at least “exceedingly soft and foolish.” This naturally is to be expected of the world, but unfortunately some of the scoffers are professed believers in that Word of God, which expressly teaches a still future translation to come suddenly, as a snare, upon the Church and the world, which gives us typical, real illustrations of such translations in two noted cases, and which urges us constantly to look and watch for that which is to effect it. It is saddening that men cannot at least treat such subjects with soberness, and discuss them without sneers. This is before the translation; the same will be true of multitudes immediately after it. Act_13:41 will be repeated; and those who are arrested by its occurrence and take it to heart will be unsparingly ridiculed. Human nature will be true to itself, and the doctrine will be particularly detestable to it, since it evinces a species of favoritism-a contrast-condemnatory to its own Naturalistic and Humanitarian position. The Spirit predicts-and His Word is truth-that ridicule, sneers, etc., shall give finally place to so positive a dislike and hatred to all pertaining to it that those who are left and are believing shall experience, not merely a wordy reviling persecution, but the stroke of the descending, beheading sword and axe.
Obs. 15. To the critical student it is proper in this place to make some remarks on the phrase “Time of the End” and “Last Days.” These terms have been in the past sadly appropriated, and conveniently dated from some period antecedent to the writer and thus represented as present; under its shelter (Dan_12:8-10), with the plea that “the wise shall understand,” men have confidently given us predictions relating to the future, which, to say the least, are simply conjectures and inferences suggested by minds strongly impressed by the alleged fact that they were already in “the time of the end.” Many writers could be quoted illustrative of this, and several bodies of believers seem, if we are to judge by the usage of this phrase, to make it essential to their system. Books, tracts, sermons, essays are written to show, without proof excepting an array of signs and the declarations of others, that we are now, and have been for some years, in “the Time of the End.” Over against all such deductions, the simple fact, as a more careful examination of the Scriptures indicate, is, that “the Time of the End” is still future. It is to be applied to this interval between the two stages of the Advent, a period which may embrace, for aught we know (considering the events that are to take place in it, and that the last week of Daniel does not include the whole time of interval, but only the time when the Covenant is made with the restored Jewish nation, the breaking of the same, and Antichrist’s persecution of the Jews), from 35 to 75 years, more or less.
Let the reasons for such a reference be briefly assigned. This interval forms “the end” spoken of by Daniel, i.e. the time when the series of events predicted by himself should terminate; it is the culmination of prophecy, relating to Antichristian powers, the Jewish nation, and the Messianic triumph; it is the time when the end has come and God’s judgments are to be poured out upon the nations, resulting in a great deliverance, and thus vindicating the Divine Purpose. When the first stage of the Advent occurs it is evidence that the end of the dispensation has arrived, and from the resurrection and translation of the believers down to the open Advent, we have literally “the time of the end.” The overlapping of the two dispensations by this secret Parousia, instead of proving adverse to our view is corroborative of it, since such in the case of the Jewish and Christian is called “the ends of the world” (1Co_10:11) by Paul. The end itself is not an abrupt, sudden end, but embraces time or years in its termination. A series of gigantic events are included in the winding up of this dispensation of so remarkable a nature that no one with the least faith in the Scriptures can doubt respecting the closing period of the age. But to particularize still more, every one can see for himself that this “time of the end (Dan_11:35) follows (comp. Prop. 160) a long continued and indefinite period of trial to the Church, such as the Church has experienced in the past. Then (Dan_12:6-10) the end is associated with the restoration of the Jews to their own land, which is still future; with (Dan_12:13, comp. Prop. 126) the resurrection of Daniel at the first stage of the Advent; with “the end of these wonders” (Dan_12:6), i.e. with their termination, when they are about to be completed; with (Dan_12:7) the time when “these things (the wonders predicted) shall be finished,” i.e. shall approach their termination. Thus a comparison shows that the end commences with the resurrection of the saints, and the time of this end embraces within it God’s controversy with the nations and the deliverance of the Jewish nation. For it seems that for purposes of salvation and vengeance, to manifest in an extraordinary degree the supernatural power of God in behalf of His people and in crushing His enemies, this interval between the two stages is (Dan_8:19) not merely “the latter end of the indignation,” but “the appointed time of the end”-a time specifically measured off by these stages, and the events connected therewith, composing the end or completion of the combined series of predictions-the culmination. This “time of the end” includes “the times” or “days” of Daniel 12, which, as a dispassionate examination proves (comp. Prop. 173), are contained in this interval, and have special reference to the climax of Jewish tribulation and Antichristian opposition. The “end” itself, or “the end of the days,” is the full completion, witnessed in the overthrow of Antichrist and the establishment of the Theocratic Kingdom at the open Parousia. In addition, at “the time of the end” these prophecies will be “unsealed” (Dan_12:9), i.e. they will be completely opened or understood in their unity and culmination. This unsealing is still future, for the simple reason that whatever advancement and knowledge may have been obtained by study, and whatever unity of view may have been secured in grand outlines, no two interpreters of Daniel can be found who perfectly agree with each other, in details at least. But we do know that between these two stages there is a complete unsealing, because the secret Advent with the resurrection and translation stamps at once the chronological status, the method and application of interpretation, the proper reception and place for the Apocalyptic visions, etc. The messages (Revelation 14) following the withdrawal of “the first-fruits” is sufficiently indicative that no lack of knowledge respecting the present and future is then prevailing, but that a correct apprehension of the predicted things is universal among believers.
St. John (1Jn_2:18) uses the phrase “the last time” declaratively respecting this entire Christian dispensation, because Antichristian spirit and principles characterize it during the whole period, while Jude (Jud_1:18), connecting it with the Advent, seems to limit (comp. 2Pe_3:3) it more to the concluding period of the same. It has been observed (e.g. Faber, Diss. on Proph., p. 87) that the expressions “latter days” or “times,” and “last days,” do not precisely denote the same period of time. While the former may include the latter to some extent, yet the one is significant of an indefinite termination of this dispensation, i.e. in contrast with the past history of the world or past duration; the other is expressive of “the last days” or “the end,” or “time of the end.” The chief characteristic of “the latter days” is that of superstition and apostatizing, and the main feature of “the last days” is that of blasphemous infidelity and direct opposition to God. The one is the forerunner of the other; the one culminates in the other; the one, Antichristian, paves the way for the other, the fully developed Antichrist, who denies both Father and Son. “The latter days” usher in “the last days.” But this view can only be sustained by noticing that this distinction only holds good where they are used in prophetical sense, i.e. in a prediction relating to the future. The student will observe that the phrases “latter days” and “last days” in the Old Testament are the comparative and superlative of the one expression in the original, “the end of days” (comp. Faber’s Diss. on Proph., ch. 3). This refers to this very time of the end and its grand resultant, as seen e.g. in Isa_2:2; Mic_4:1 (with which comp. Act_2:16-17), seeing that the Millennial Kingdom is only introduced in connection with this closing period. The same is noticeable in Hos_3:5, where “the latter days” or “the end of days” is united with the future restoration of the Jews and the Messianic reign. In these “latter days” (Eze_38:16) Antichrist-still future-is to enter Palestine and meet his doom, which only takes place in this interval. The declaration (Dan_2:28) that God maketh known “what shall be in the latter days” or “at the end of days,” does not simply mean futurity in general, but that God really and truly represents to the King not merely what is “hereafter” (as afterward stated), but especially things which pertain to this culmination of events, this concluding period containing so many pregnant issues concerning Gentile domination, Jewish supremacy, and the Messianic reign. Indeed, a slight acquaintance with the predictions shows plainly that the greatest stress and detail is expended on this very period, to which the eye of faith and hope turns. “The latter times” of 1Ti_4:1 admits of a wider scope, and indicates, as the context and warning shows, that the spirit to be developed in them is one gradually formed and extending itself, becoming more and more intensive, through a series of times. The phrase “these last times,” in 1Pe_1:20, if not used declaratively, then refers (as is also true of “the last days” in Heb_1:1-2) to the fact that Jesus, the Messiah, was manifested during the closing period of the Mosaic economy, which removal was signally verified by the events befalling the nation and capital. However any of these phrases may be employed in a general sense, it is also true, as a careful comparison of the same evidences, that the Spirit employs them to express the closing period of this dispensation, ushering in the interval between the two stages, and then specifically the interval itself, with its result.
The reader will see that this consideration alone utterly vitiates an immense amount of prophetical interpretation and application, and the self-confident exaltation, as specially called witnesses, of various classes. Some systems are so wedded to the phrase as fundamental to their conclusions, that it is impossible to yield it up without at the same time giving up their respective theories of the order of events. The phrase is applied to any period that happens to fit into some favorite chronological period or its close; and its beginning, duration, and termination varies with the view entertained concerning dates. Various commentaries, Lange, Barnes, Alford, Olshausen, etc., give interesting comments concerning these phrases, but the chronological application can only be found by a careful comparison of the prophecies, and that we are forced to locate, not in the past or the present, but in the future-in the interval between the two stages. And, as already intimated, we dare not, owing to the silence of the Scriptures on the subject, express its exact duration. We cannot limit it to seven years (i.e. the interval) as some do, because those seven years are applicable to a special time, relating to the Jews and Antichrist, and do not cover the entire interval, as seen e.g. in Mic_7:15, etc., and in the events pertaining to the period which cannot, without undue violence (as e.g. the Jews dwelling in unwalled villages safely and prosperously when Antichrist comes upon them, etc.), be crowded into so small a space of time. In reference to the mighty increase of knowledge predicted of this period, it is sufficient to say that the gigantic events then taking place, owing to the first stage of the Advent, the resurrection and translation of the saints will give the believer such a clear and decisive understanding of the prophecies, its chronology and the events to be anticipated, that then students of prophecy will see eye to eye, and encourage each other out of the fully comprehended Word of God. (On the phrases, comp. e.g. Dr. Braune, Lange’s Com. I John, p. 72, sqq., and commentators generally on the same as used by Daniel, Isaiah, Micah, Paul, Luke, Peter, and John. The order of events during this “time of the end,” as well as “the end “or “the end of the days,” Will be given under such Props. as 160-163, 166, etc.)
Prop. 131. This Kingdom embraces the visible reign of Jesus, the Christ, here on earth.
COMPARE PROPS. 81, 82, 83. THE IDEA OF A THEOCRACY AS INVOLVED IN THE THEOCRATIC-DAVIDIC ARRANGEMENT, GOD RULING IN AND THROUGH DAVID’S SON; THE COVENANT AND THE PROMISES BASED ON IT RELATING TO DAVID’S THRONE AND KINGDOM (PROPS. 49, 111, 114, 116, 117, 122); IN BRIEF, THE ENTIRE ANALOGY OF PREDICTION DEMANDS A VISIBLE REIGN.
Obs. 1. So distinctly is this taught that no Jew, no Christian believer, no one who read the Scriptures doubted this, until the Alexandrian system evolved a series of doctrines, under the notion of exalting the truth and the Son, in which the throne promised to David’s Son was transformed into a throne in the third heaven. What influence the heathen mythology had at first in shaping and urging such views cannot be fully determined, but that it exerted some is self-evident in the similarity of views on various points, as witnessed e.g. in the introduction of Platonic ideas and doctrines. Ecclesiastic History, History of Religions, Treatises on Dogmatic Theology and Systematic Divisions, etc., clearly indicate not only the change, but also the motives which led to it. When the change, however, was once made from the ancient simplicity, it rapidly entrenched itself in the Church as more in accord with the rising Papacy and an alleged advanced improvement.
Having abundantly presented the Jewish and early Church view-having already shown that the doctrine of such a visible reign was universally received by, and perpetuated in, the churches established under apostolic authority-it is not requisite to repeat our statements and quotations. Even the heathen (Kurtz, Sac. His., p. 273) entertained the belief that some great monarch thus reigning would bring back the golden age. The Apocryphal books (Stuart’s Com. Rev. Ap.) largely contain it. The Sybils (Stuart’s Com. Rev. Ap.) refer to it as an undoubted hope, thus indicating how widespread was the opinion. It is to be regretted that spiritualizing and unbelief have, in a great measure, rooted out this eminently Scriptural truth-the former, either by substituting a spiritual Coming and reign or by locating the same in the past or present; the latter by deliberately rejecting it, as e.g. some Rationalistic Jews who tell us that the only Messiah they look for is “political emancipation.” But such a substitution and rejection (1) ignores the plain Scriptural language, (2) the covenanted and historical connection, (3) the fact of a continuous faith introduced into the Christian Church through the return of a once dead, crucified Messiah, etc. The student will observe the following particulars: (1) The Jewish and ancient expectations, as instanced e.g. Barnes Com. on Mat_2:2; (2) this expectation based on the covenanted restoration of the Theocratic rule in the person of David’s Son; (3) this confirmed by the plain grammatical sense of prediction and promise; (4) the opinion of the disciples, Act_1:6 who preached the Kingdom; (5) the language of the apostles and their labors, instead of removing the view only increased it, as evidenced in the primitive belief; (6) this continuity required by the general analogy of the Record, the facts as they existed, and the restoration of the identical Theocratic ordering overthrown; (7) the postponement of the personal reign to Second Advent, instead of vitiating a fulfillment, only teaches us the more forcibly how it will be realized. Knapp (Ch. Theol.) and others admit that such a personal visible reign was firmly believed in until the day of Pentecost, but that after that period a spiritual reign was only taught. This, however, makes (1) the very preachers of the Kingdom ignorant and misleading teachers; (2) the grammatical sense of covenant and prophecy to be discarded, without any express revelation; (3) Jesus Himself to conceal the truth and leave His disciples in gross error; (4) God to employ a sense (i.e. grammatical) which is not intended to be fulfilled, thus making Him chargeable with misleading; (5) and that the apostles, if they were led to change their views (which is inferred and remains unproven), were utterly unable to proclaim such a change among the churches established by them as to influence to belief in the same.
Obs. 2. Having in previous Propositions shown with sufficient distinctness that David’s Son, Jesus in His humanity, must, if the prophecies are fulfilled, appear in a visible reign; that He does thus manifest Himself to the sight of all, it is unnecessary (as coming Propositions will materially add reasons for our doctrine to those already given) to enter into a detailed argument, since it is nowhere asserted that the visibility thus exhibited shall ever be withdrawn, and since the denial of such a visible reign is one of pure inference. No one, that we are aware of, has ever yet presented a passage of Scripture to prove the invisibility of the reign in the future. It is wrongfully inferred that the Divine Sovereignty (Props. 79 and 80) embraces this Kingdom, and upon this inference alone is based the opposition to our view, thus overlooking that this specially predicted Theocratic reign on David’s throne is promised to “the Son of Man,” see Prop. 81. Seeing the foundation of the denial of our doctrine, which has been examined in detail and refuted, it is only requisite to notice the peculiar ideas which originate from a forgetting or ignoring of this covenanted Kingdom.397 [Note: 97 397.  The fact of a visible return (if admitted) itself indicates the purpose of a visible reign, for the visible Advent is undoubtedly intended for establishing and administering His Kingdom. Why thus appear in visible glory, if not, as visibly present, to enter upon His covenanted, oath-bound Theocratic Kingdom? Why then-if a spiritual presence and reign is alone intended-is “the appearing and Kingdom” linked together? Why is the visible appearance of Jesus something directly asserted, as e.g. in the passages relating to “the Son of Man” (the glorified Man) and “the Son of David” (glorified) indicative of a then present human personality? Why is it declared as something that must necessarily exist, if the Scriptures are to be fulfilled, as e.g. in Joh_1:51 : “Ye shall see” (at that time) “the heaven open and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man”? Fausset (Com. Dan_7:13) justly observes: “‘Son of Man’ expresses His visible state, formerly in His humiliation, hereafter in His exaltation.” A little reflection ought to convince us that if His stay on earth at the First Advent as Son of Man included His personal, visible presence, so precisely at the Second Advent and stay on earth must the visible presence and reign be embraced because He then also comes and reigns as the Son of Man and Son of David. This is a sufficient answer to Dr. Keith’s objection (Har. of Prophecy, p. 28), who admits a visible Coming, but rejects a visible reign (without proof, saving his own assertion).]  The following illustrations will suffice.
Obs. 3. To indicate how persons in their eagerness to deny a visible, personal reign on earth of Christ allow themselves to use unwarranted language (even to deny the personal return to the earth), language which they themselves contradict, we refer e.g..to Barnes, Com. on 1Th_4:16, where in his remarks he says: “There is no intimation here of ‘a personal reign’ of Christ upon earth. Indeed, there is no evidence that He will return to the earth at all,” and then he proceeds to place Christ, the saints, the wicked, the living, and the dead in “the regions of the air.” This sounds very much like one of the old monkish legends, and is unworthy of so able a man. We need not in reply direct attention to Zec_14:4, where it is said that Christ’s feet shall touch the Mt. of Olives, etc., for his own commentary contains an abundant refutation of his words. Thus e.g. in his Com. on Act_3:21, he says: “Until; this word implies that He should then return to the earth;” and then to guard his theory after such an admission adds: “but it does not imply that He would not again ascend to heaven.” Precisely so, and it does not imply that He will, after His return, leave again. This is added to the Bible by our opponents, because the Scriptures close with the personal Advent, His dwelling with man, etc., and leave Jesus the Christ here on the earth. Neither Barnes nor any other writer has been able to adduce a single passage to support their theory of Christ’s Second Advent and immediate return to heaven. Yea, more than this, Barnes and others like him, forgetting their objections to our doctrine, do, when adverting to the renewed earth, admit that Christ may personally be present, as e.g. Barnes, Com. on Rev_21:3, “It is not said that this would be on the earth, although that may be, for it is possible that the earth, as well as other worlds, may yet become the abode of the Redeemed,” comp. his remarks on Revelation 21 and 22, and 2Pe_3:13, etc., which, in his usual style, may denote this or that, or may not denote it. The concessions, such as they are, unwillingly forced from him, are all that are required to prove a looseness and vagueness very different from the consistent, logical interpretation of the early Church.
“We turn from such vacillating and contradictory statements to others who express this visibility as the early Church taught. Thus, e.g. Dr. Increase Mather (Pres. of Harvard Univ.), in his Mys. of Israel’s Salvation, pointedly says: “Christ did never actually deny His having such a visible glorious Kingdom upon earth as that which His disciples looked for; only He corrected their error as to the time of this Kingdom’s appearing. Christ did not say to them that there should never be any such restoration of the Kingdom to Israel as their thoughts were running upon; only He telleth them that the times and seasons were not for them to know; thereby acknowledging that such a Kingdom should indeed be as they did, from the holy prophets, expect. Herein was their error, not in expecting a glorious appearing of the Kingdom of God, but in that they made account that this would be immediately.” And in his Dis. on Faith he remarks, when the seventh trumpet sounds: “Then will his visible Kingdom appear in the greatest glory; when, also, there will be a personal reign and residence of Christ in this lower world.”
Obs. 4. In the discussion of this personal return and reign it is saddening to find good persons placing themselves on the judgment seat, and dogmatically deciding what it is possible or impossible for God to perform. This characteristic is even exhibited in the title-page of some books, as e.g. we read: “The personal reign of Christ during the Millennium proved to be impossible, by James C. L. Carson.” This title-page is sufficiently indicative of the spirit of the work, and, we doubt not, if the writer had lived previous to the First Advent, he could with equal propriety, greater force, and with many of the same arguments, have proved it impossible for the Son of God to come, as He did, in humiliation, suffering, and death. The fact is, that the leading objection urged against our doctrine, viz., that it is a lowering, etc., of the majesty of Christ, is precisely the same urged by the ancient Celsus against the First Advent of Jesus, viz., that it could not be credited that a divine Being should assume humanity, suffer, etc., because all this would be a virtual degradation. The old apologists replied that the work He performed, the precious characteristics manifested, the results that followed, etc.-these exalted and glorified such an Advent. So when we are attacked by the same unbelieving argument, fortified by the vivid and glorious predictions, believing in the blessed design and results of this reign, we point to the faithful sayings of God and their fulfillment, thus simply accepting of the Divine utterances without attempting to alter them or to apologize in their behalf. Precisely the same objection, in another form, is leveled by infidels against the Incarnation and Life of Jesus Christ, on the ground that such a Creator and Lord of the universe-including unnumbered worlds-could not possibly degrade Himself to make this, so small a planet, the scene of His special manifestations, etc. It is well known how our opponents meet such an objection, but the identical reasoning thus produced by them favors our own view, and is fatal to their objections against us (comp. Props. 203 and 204).
The reader need not be advised that we have many learned men, professed critics, who speak of this reign of Christ as “a Messianic fiction” or “a Christianized Messianic expectation,” admirably adapted to sustain the faith of the Primitive Church, but utterly unworthy of serious reception in this the more enlightened age of the world. We need not be surprised, therefore, that a writer (Weslm. Review, Oct., 1861, art. 5) declares that the Apocalypse “proclaims to all ages the intense reality, the frenzied fanaticism, the splendid superstition and Berserker transport of our great dreamer of this glorious vision, the St. John of Patmos, the author of the Ch. Apocalypse.”
Obs. 5. It becomes painful to notice, in the objections leveled against us, the serious and unfounded change of “carnal,” “fleshly,” etc. Having already warned brethren how careful they ought to be in the use of such phraseology in designating the personal reign of Christ, lest they be finally found guilty of accusing God’s arrangements, the Divine Purpose itself, of carnality, attention may be briefly called to the manner in which this is done. Most excellent writers, such as Rev. Philip (Devot. Guides, vol. 2, p. 287), as well as a host of inferior ones, speak of it as “carnal and vulgar,” under the assumption of superior piety, humility, sanctity, and honoring of Christ, and claim that, under the influence of love, etc., they wish for no such reign, but only a spiritual reign, etc. Without detracting from these brethren, or calling their honesty or piety into question, it may be well to examine this assumption, which is well calculated to beguile and mislead the inquiring. It may be in place to ask what piety, humility, etc, includes. Does it consist in rejecting holy covenanted promises, in denying to Christ what the Spirit ascribes to Him? Without attempting to institute a comparison, we may point to that long line of eminent worthies, whose praise is in the churches, who reverently and humbly receive the Divine Record on the subject just as we do, and exhibited in their lives and deaths as true piety, devotedness (many of them martyrs for the truth) as any of their opponents, and in view of all this, ought such a plea to be instituted? It is simply an evasion of argument, and, if employed by any one, is a sure indication of weakness. The question between us is not the personal piety, etc. of the adherents of one or another theory or doctrine (for as we see in all denominations, the Spirit of God can, notwithstanding error more or less entertained, produce His fruits in various classes on the common ground of faith in Jesus), but it consists in an appeal to the Word of God to ascertain what the Spirit has recorded. Hence all such reasoning is not only irrelevant but painful to a man of candor.398 [Note: 98 398.  Intense bigotry sometimes also appears under the guise of piety, and comparatively few persons have escaped its smooth, velvety vindictiveness. To prostitute the profession of piety either to hide our own weakness or condemn others, is undoubtedly unworthy of a believer. But in view of some persons being influenced by this feature, aided by the plea that the doctrine of the personal Coming is of no practical value, it may be well for such to notice that our views, if properly entertained, have a decided practical value, and tend to develop piety, as seen, e.g. in urging obedience, 1Jn_2:28; holiness, 1Jn_3:3; good works, Mat_16:27; Rev_22:12; patience, Jam_5:7-8; Heb_10:36-37; sobriety, 1Pe_1:16; temperance, Php_4:5; heavenly-mindedness, Php_3:20-21; watchfulness, Luk_12:35-37; mortification of sin, Col_3:4-5; godly living. Tit_2:11-13; brotherly love, 1Th_3:13; exhortation to sinners, Act_3:19-22, etc. (given in detail in the Christian Intelligencer, 1864). Here, indeed, is practical religion urged by the motive of the Coming of Jesus Christ, a motive so distasteful to those who profess to make so much of practical religion. Surely, God does not mistake when He presents a motive before us! The reader will compare Prop. 183.]  This subject will be continued under Prop. 177, so that, for the present, it may be suggested that if the Millennial descriptions are verified as they read; if the personal presence of Christ and His associated rulers is vouchsafed; if the reign is not merely an external civil and religious one, but includes righteousness, wisdom, love, etc., in all their aspects; if the design of it is to fill the earth with God’s glory, etc., then the charge of carnality fails, for the reign and Kingdom is materially different from that exhibited in the efforts of Gentile domination.
Obs. 6. Briefly, the feeble efforts at presenting proof against us drawn from Scripture may be dismissed with a few words. Thus e.g. Ralston (On the Apoc., p. 164 and 165) gives two reasons for rejecting the personal reign of Christ. The first is, that we walk by faith and not by sight (2Co_5:7), and the Apostle said, 2Co_5:16, “Yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more.” But if we are to understand the passage in the line intimated, then it proves too much, and would make out that there will be no Second Advent, and that the angels and the Apostles were mistaken in their announcements. To press the passage in this direction is far worse than despised “literalism.” The second is, that the Savior is at God’s right hand “forever,” and will not. interfere with the work of the Spirit in applying the atonement, quoting Joh_16:7-11; Heb_10:12-13; 1Co_15:24-26; Act_3:34-35; Act_3:21. To this we reply-(1) by comparing Scripture with Scripture we ascertain the Spirit’s meaning of this “forever;” (2) if thus unduly pressed, it is hostile to the Second Advent itself; (3) the Scriptures quoted do not sustain his theory, limiting the stay until His return; (4) and the work of the Spirit is not limited but increased by this Personal Coming and reign. Dr. Brown, Christ’s Second Coming, ch. 5, introduces the same, and urges that our view calls for another dispensation. Exactly so, as we shall show (Props. 137, 138, 140, 167, etc.) farther on, for if the Theocratic-Davidic throne and Kingdom are re-established as predicted, if the Abrahamic-Davidic Covenant is ever fulfilled as written, there must be, in the very nature of the case, a new dispensation or ordering of things. The rest of the objections presented by Brown are met under various Propositions, so that they need no mention here. One of the most recent writers, Fairbairn (On Proph., p. 467, etc.) gives the following reasons against it: 1. Because it is not mentioned in Rev_20:1-6. Reply: If it had been specifically mentioned, such mention, just as that of the resurrection, would have met with the same treatment of spiritualistic interpretation as the preceding immediate context (Revelation 19) of the Advent did at his hands. But, it is stated in the promise of the reign of Christ and His saints, for the reign evidently is to be understood of the same that is specially promised to and predicted of Jesus as David’s Son. Therefore, to ascertain what that reign is, a comparison of prophecy and covenant is necessary, and the question can only be decided in the light thus afforded. Thus e.g. a comparison of Covenant, Zechariah 14, Daniel 7, Isaiah 25, and Rev_20:1-6, is alone sufficient to decide the kind of reign intended. Whoever can spiritualize Zechariah 14 away will, of course, find Rev_20:1-6 undecisive. 2. The Advent of Christ, Revelation 19, is an ideal representation-a visionary spectacle, representing a certain agency, etc. Suppose it is symbolic, which we grant, the question still returns, Whom does it represent-ideal personages or agencies, or real personages or agencies? The vision of the beast, prophet, etc., represents real actors, etc.-this he admits. So this vision of Christ and of His saints must also; this, too, he is willing to concede to a certain extent, viz., that it is illustrative of the agency of the Church and of Christ’s agency invisibly through the Church, claiming that the horse, attendants, splendor, sharp sword is indicative of the ideal. He therefore mixes up in confusion the ideal and the real, and entirely overlooks the main, leading fact that it is a vision of an Advent, a Coming from heaven. Under this vision, like that of the other visions, a real, actual occurrence is represented, and that is the Coming of an irresistible, conquering Christ, and with Him the Coming of the saints. This is the simple construction put upon the passage by the early Church, and it is one that must commend itself to the reflecting mind. For, how comes it that one portion of the vision, under the spiritualistic interpretation, viz., that of the armies of heaven, is made to refer visibly to the saints or Church, and the chief personage in the vision is made only to appear invisibly? By what rule of interpretation is one party, as the beast, and another party, as the Church, made to be present visibly, and the third party, spoken of in the same connection, without the least intimation of a change of condition, etc., is made to appear an actor invisibly? The answer is, solely to save a theory from a fatal objection. 3. That such a personal Coming would assume “an incongruous mixture of the two states of humiliation and glory.” Reply: To make out such a mixture he presumes to judge what is right and proper for the Lord to do, overlooking both that this Advent in no shape or form intimates humiliation, but triumph, exaltation, and glory; and that he himself previously spoke of the Millennial age in the most elevated terms of eulogy. It is simply presumptuous for believers to pen a sentence like the following: “When Jesus entered on His state of glory He could no longer dwell on earth and make Himself visible to men.” Why not? Perhaps Fairbairn knows, or has heard the reason of His absence to be that He awaits the period of His manifestation, a work having in the mean time to be accomplished, and that when He comes this work will be perfected, etc. The objection is based on the same noticed, Obs. 2 and 3, above. The admission, however, that he makes, as we will prove hereafter, is alone sufficient to overthrow his theory, viz., that Christ will come “only when He comes to make all things new, and stamps them with the perfection of His Divine work, then will the world be prepared as the house of the glory of the Lord.’” As our argument all along shows, we also hold that when Christ comes the renewing, transforming, recreating power lodged in Him will be exhibited, and logically-without calling into question a single passage in its naked, plain, grammatical meaning-prove that this will be witnessed in the Millennium, seeing also that nothing short of this power can possibly affect it. 4. Fairbairn’s next objection is, that the acts specially associated with the Second Advent belong to an age subsequent to the Millennium. Among these he specifies the general resurrection, the final judgment, and the Bride’s marriage with the Lamb. But this remains unproven, and he assumes them to be thus future. See e.g. Props. 120, 121, 132, 133, 134, 137, 140, etc., for our scriptural evidence to the contrary. The reference to the Bride’s marriage will be answered in Props. 169, 150, 146, etc. But we may well put against Fairbairn’s unwarranted postponement for one thousand years of the Marriage announced in Revelation 19, the simple Pre-Millennial announcement of the Spirit, Rev_19:7, “Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honor to Him; for the marriage of the Lamb is come.” This to us is authoritative, and we reverently receive it as crushing to all such theorizing built on a specious spiritualizing of Scripture. Our reasons, as the reader must have observed, lie deeper than mere inferences from isolated passages, or mere deductions from a portion of Scripture stripped of its grammatical meaning; they are founded in the solemnly, oath-attested Covenant, in the plain, grammatical meaning of the Word, in the general analogy of the Scriptures, and in the accredited faith of the apostolic churches.
The objections urged have only force when a single passage is considered isolated and pressed to the exclusion of others explanatory of order, time, etc. They do not sufficiently discriminate between the work that Jesus now performs and that which is attributed to Him at His Coming. They also forget that they themselves admit that when Jesus comes His enemies will be judged and overcome; that He now exercises forbearance and mercy, which shall give place to wrath; that such an overcoming and exhibition of vengeance is associated with a Pre-Millennial Coming; that even when He comes, such is His union with the Father, “the right hand of power” ever pertains to Him; that in thus Coming He does not forsake, as God, the Divine Sovereignty lodged in Him, etc. Such admissions and approximations certainly should largely conciliate objectors. Our whole argument indicates that when David’s Son, as the Son of Man, comes, God Himself in and through Him condescends to rule in the determined Theocratic manner; but this does not interfere with the Divine Sovereignty (which Luther meant when he said: “The right hand of God is everywhere,” and Dr. Seiss denotes when affirming: “The Son of Man is as much at the right hand of God in Coming to judge the world,” etc.). In this discussion it is highly important to observe the connection that one passage sustains to others. Thus, e.g. Heb_1:8 is sometimes quoted as if in opposition to our views, but this is incorrectly done. This application of Psa_45:6-7 to the Messiah indicates how the entire Psalm is to be taken, and which, as will be shown hereafter, relates to the future, when “thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things,” etc. (comp. Revelation 19, etc.). Besides this, in the very same epistle, Rev_2:5-9, the dominion is not yet given to David’s Son (but will be. Comp. Props. 81, 82, 83, 84), thus showing us not to press one passage to the exclusion of others.
Obs. 7. Some (esteemed brethren) who frankly admit and earnestly advocate the Pre-Millennial Personal Advent, still express themselves timidly, illogically, and unscripturally in reference to the personal reign of Christ here on the earth. Some few advocating, after His Second Advent, His withdrawal to the third heaven, from whence He reigns (some stating that He may occasionally visit the earth and appear to men); others have a withdrawal into the air or upper regions, or into the New Jerusalem, also located in the air or above the earth. This is done by some under a misapprehension of the Covenant, and to whom the Kingdom is specially promised, and with the idea of honoring the God in Christ; while others do it under the supposition that such a view will make our doctrine more palatable to others-that such a concession is harmless and will induce others the more readily to embrace a Pre-Millennial Coming. But allow us here to enter our earnest, solemn protest against all such diluting processes which only weaken our doctrine; all such adulteration of truth to render it more acceptable to others, which only are hailed as evidences of weakness and illogical connection. This subject is too sacred, too precious, too intimately related to the honor of Christ to be either lightly esteemed or made the sport of mere conjecture. Every position assigned to Jesus in this Kingdom ought to have a “thus saith the Lord” for its support, and not the play of human fancy about the propriety of this and that spoken concerning it. We esteem this continued personal presence of Christ the crowning glory of our system, an essential element of its strength. If the reader has carefully noticed the Covenant promises over which we have passed he must have arrived at the conclusion that, if the grammatical meaning is retained, the promises of God require that the reign of Christ and of His saints should be a continued visible one. Bickersteth and many writers assign, as reasons for our belief, passages of Scripture which, if ever fulfilled, demand such a personal presence. These indeed apply forcibly, but with the Apostolic Fathers we ground our belief even on, if possible, a surer, stronger foundation (because plainer), when we say that the utterances of the Covenant are all based on the idea of a personal presence. The central point of the Davidic Covenant is this: that Christ, as David’s Son, the promised seed, shall reign on David’s throne and in David’s Kingdom; and therefore the very language on the face of it conveys the important notion, that in consequence of this, He, as David’s Son and Lord, must be and is visibly present. Such a presence is even taken for granted, is assumed as a self-evident fact, needing no special demonstration. For how else is Abraham’s seed to inherit the land, or David’s seed to inherit his throne? To transfer David’s throne or Christ’s inheritance to the air or to the third heaven is simply to make the Covenant and promises null and void, seeing that that inheritance, throne, and Kingdom is here on the earth, and not in the air or the third heaven. And when the Bible represents this Inheritor and King to come to this earth to claim His covenanted right, and leaves Him here in possession of it, that man certainly takes a great liberty who places David’s Son elsewhere than in His inheritance and Kingdom. No one, that we have thus far read, pretends even to give a single passage to prove such a return, but simply infers it from considerations of his own. How could such a return to heaven, or withdrawal from the earth, possibly be a fulfillment of the Covenant to David that His Son should reign on His throne forever? And would this fulfil the Prophets, who, with one voice, declare that David’s Son shall reign gloriously in Jerusalem, the seat of David’s throne, in the midst of the Jewish nation, over the nations of the earth? No! we dare not thus neutralize the precious promises of God. This perversion of Covenant and promise arises from not clearly apprehending what Kingdom is promised to Jesus as Son of Man, as David’s Son, and that the humanity of Jesus is to sustain this Kingship, the Divine being united with Him in this Theocratic relationship (see Props. 81, 82, 83, 200, etc.). The Divine in Christ, whatever it may perform in the exercise of Divine Sovereignty in the universe, is associated with “the man ordained.” to exhibit a perfect, visible Theocratic government. Let us repeat: Christ is not to come again simply as the Son of God (that relationship to the Father is indeed indispensably requisite to make provision for salvation, to perfect it, and to establish the Theocracy in a permanent form), but pre-eminently and significantly (as the repeated promises to and name of Son of Man fully indicate) as the Son of Man, for the latter is the relationship specifically demanded in the Covenant to be visibly shown and acknowledged to be such by all. Does the Covenant and its promises remain satisfied by a mere visit, as it were, to the predicted inheritance? Such theories, refined to suit the taste of unbelief or weak faith, were utterly unknown to the early Church, whose strong faith firmly grasped and clung to the Covenant in this particular, believing that the underlying idea in it embraced a continual personal presence. We confess an admiration of the men, who, now the objects of witticisms and ridicule from infidels and even professed believers, thus accepted, with Abrahamic and Davidic faith, of the Covenant as it reads, and received the voice of the Prophets as they also read, and boldly and unequivocally avowed their belief in such a precious presence; enforcing it by the predictions that Christ should return and dwell and reign in Jerusalem, having rebuilt the ruined tabernacle of David in majesty; that He shall rule in it gloriously, making it the place of His throne; that the restored Jewish nation, as well as the saints, shall see Him in His glory; that all nations shall at Jerusalem acknowledge His supremacy, etc. In all this, no matter what man may say, there is, at least, a regular and consistent fulfillment of the Word of God. With them we regard this very presence as a necessary adjunct to redemption, inasmuch as redemption is to be perfected by the Second Adam in this Theocratic relation. While He is carrying on the Divine Purpose intended by this Theocratic-Davidic government, viz., to redeem the race as a race from the curse, He should also, at the same time and in the same place where man fell, exhibit in Himself, as the Head and in a corporate body of His brethren, perfected salvation. By Christ’s salvation is not meant that He is to be saved from sin (for He was without sin, otherwise the sacrifice of Himself would have been imperfect and unavailing, and death also would have had dominion over Him), but that as Abraham’s seed, assuming flesh for our sakes, with its weakness, imperfections (i.e. natural, subject to disease, sleep, etc.), liability to the corruption of death, He now exhibits in Himself as man a complete deliverance from all those evils voluntarily assumed, and thus a triumph over our enemies, an impressive representation of the power of holiness united with the love of the Father, a Second Adam, in whose person incarnation is glorified. For we must ever keep in mind that Christ is not only “the Second Adam,” because a similarity is implied between Christ and the redeemed, resembling that between Adam and his descendants, in that, as death is transmitted by the first Adam, so life is bestowed through the Second Adam (“As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive,” etc.), but He is also designated such because in Himself, as man, is to be exhibited “the image of God,” defaced by the fall of the first Adam; and hence, as a necessary connection with that image, the dominion originally granted to the first Adam is also in Him restored. Theologians, of almost every class, concede such a restoration. Therefore, it is eminently proper and requisite that in the person of Christ, through whom the race is to be redeemed, should be shown, as that Second Adam, the complete restoration of all that the first Adam forfeited; among others, including the restoration and retention of the forfeited inheritance (which led to those covenant promises that Christ should inherit the land, etc.), the restoration and retention of the dominion or kingly power, which was forfeited as well as moral rectitude, the immortality of man, and the perpetuation of the race in a state of innocency and purity. However, to do and manifest this requires the personal presence of the Second Adam in His restored inheritance and dominion, in order that not only the promises may be verified, but that the most ample, actual, experimental proof may thus he afforded in the person of the Redeemer, the Head of the body, that in Him, our second living Head, we have attained unto all (not a part) that the first Adam (and we through him) forfeited by sin. This Second Adam thus stands forth in our system a revealed representative of God, such as the first Adam was designed to become had he not fallen. This David’s Son, crowned with greater glory because of His unbroken union with the Divine, occupies, as Restorer, Adam’s place; and if so, how can we, how dare we separate His presence from the place thus restored? This is shadowed forth in Psalms 8 and Hebrews 2, and is justly claimed by us as the crowning feature in redemption. For without a personal Second Adam present, redemption itself is incomplete, imperfect.
Seeing what completed redemption requires, and that Jesus the Christ is the one through whom, at His Second Advent, it is to be perfected, we cling to those promises relating to the future with earnest faith, believing that all things relating to the Christ, as recorded in Moses and the prophets, will be as literally fulfilled in the future as they have been in the past (Luk_24:44; Luk_18:31; Luk_22:37, etc.). The student, of course, will understand that our argument does not imply that Jesus Christ is constantly visible to all, i.e. continually seated in regal state, receiving homage. For His Rulership constantly exerted, His Majesty visibly manifested in enduring enthronement may (as now witnessed in earthly rulers) require stated periods when He shall publicly exhibit Himself on State occasions. We only mean that His Kingship is exerted on earth, and the place of central power and manifestation (Prop. 168) is on Mt. Zion, where David’s throne was located. This King may even, for aught we know, frequently visit other parts of the universe, but without diminishing His earthly Theocratic relationship. To our brethren, who are so reluctant to admit Christ’s personal reign on the earth, but insist that it is over the earth, we, once for all, say that the Messianic Kingdom is the restoration of an overthrown but covenanted Theocracy, in which the personality of the Ruler and His visibility and accessibility to the nation was an essential factor. The highest element of a Theocracy (such as covenanted to David) is that God condescends, in perfect union with David’s Son, to act here on earth as earthly Ruler, and if this, the chiefest, most important feature, is stricken out, it is no longer the tabernacle of David restored in his Son, or the covenanted, predicted Theocracy, and God has failed to set up a Theocracy as announced. (Comp. Props. 82, 122, 201, 202, 206, and Conclusion.)
Obs. 8. Our argument is cumulative, and to avoid undue repeating we pass by the prophetical reasoning to be drawn from Daniel 2, 7, etc., that the outward, external, visible world-dominion which the Chaldean monarch contemplated was to be realized fully in the Messiah. We also leave unnoticed the numerous predictions which emphatically declare the visible reign of Jesus here on earth, for they will all be brought forth under various following Propositions. It is in the very nature of a manifested Theocracy that there should be (as already foreshown in the past Theocratic arrangement), not simply faith, but sight. Dr. Brown (Christ’s Second Com., P. 2, ch. 5) emphatically declares that there is “no Millennial mixture of faith and sight.” He takes to task Brookes’ saying, that “in the Millennial state there will be an open vision of Christ,” and that “it will be a dispensation in which the saints will continually have personal access to Christ.” He censures Elliott for teaching a “visibly manifested” conjunction of the earthly and heavenly Jerusalem; he condemns Lord for saying that the nations have access to the glorified (symbolized by the open gates, etc.), and that “they are never to be without the visible presence of God; that its gates are never shut, and that the nations are to enjoy uninterrupted access to the glorified.” He ridicules Birks, McNeile, Bickersteth, and Maitland for teaching such a visible revelation and such an access to the city, such a “seeing the Lord of Hosts manifested in the human nature of Jesus reigning in Mt. Zion,” such a visible manifestation of glory that impresses the nations, and such a change in dispensation that sight shall also be introduced. Of course any one who denies that the sight of Jesus (Zec_12:10; Eze_20:35) will influence the future conversion of the Jews; who rejects the seeing of Mat_23:39; Zec_14:1, etc.; who finds no place in his system of theology for the everlasting Covenant of David; who spiritualizes Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, etc., and denies a future incoming dispensational change-can find nothing of sight, no matter how plainly presented.
Do not men, in their bitter attempt to disparage this visible reign of Jesus, run some danger of being ultimately found to degrade God’s own appointments? In such a case can ignorance be pleaded, when they fully admit that the grammatical sense indeed teaches it, but claim that another (spiritual) sense is intended. The whole matter depends, as our entire argument shows, on the system of interpretation adopted. This reminds us how recent efforts are made to weaken our claim to a literal fulfillment of prophecy. The editor of The Luth. Observer (Feb. 28th, 1879) says: “The Methodist makes this remark: ‘The Pre-Millenarians say that the prophecies of Christ’s First Coming were literally fulfilled.’ It would be more accurate to say that they were exactly fulfilled. This will admit of a little amplification. The prophecies of Christ’s First Coming were not literally fulfilled in the sense in which the Jews understood them, which was that He would set up a temporal Kingdom when He came. They were, however, actually and really fulfilled in their true spiritual sense, that He would establish a spiritual Kingdom. This is now universally accepted as the true sense of the prophecies respecting Christ’s First Coming. Why should we not, therefore, predicate from this, that the prophecies concerning the Second Coming are also to be understood in a spiritual, and not in a literal and material, sense? Especially, since the predictions and expectations of all who have believed in a literal Second Coming and temporal Kingdom, during more than eighteen hundred years, have been proved by events to be erroneous.” We reaffirm that the prophecies pertaining to the First Advent, birth, life, sufferings, crucifixion, death, resurrection, and ascension were literally verified, and this exact literal fulfillment is used against unbelief to identify the Messiah. We reaffirm that the reason why the Messianic Kingdom was not set up at the First Advent was owing to the non-repentance of the nation and its rejection of the Messiah, and that consequently (as we have shown in detail) the Kingdom was postponed to the Second Advent, with which the prophecies agree. We reaffirm that this postponement holds good, as the general analogy teaches, until the Second Advent is realized, and that the alleged “spiritual Kingdom” does not meet the conditions either of covenant and prophecy. We reaffirm that this spiritual application is not universal (as the history of the doctrine incontrovertibly proves), but is now generally held by the professing Church, thus fulfilling the predicted lack of faith. We reaffirm that the expectations based on chronological data (even given by our opponents) has nothing to do with the grammatical or spiritual sense of the prophecies, which must stand on their own merits, and that if it were otherwise, and The Methodist’s assertions were correct, then there can be no future literal, personal Advent at all. And we affirm (1) that the prophecies relating to the First Advent brought a literal Coming of the Messiah, and not a spiritual one; and (2) that the predictions relating to the Second Advent, being given in the same intended sense (for no discrimination is made), will also bring us a literal, personal Coming of the Messiah. Simple consistency demands such a faith.
A few words in relation to Barbour’s theory (Three Worlds) of Christ’s necessary invisibility because He has a spiritual body. Admitting fully, because a spiritual body is one under the complete control of the Spirit, that Jesus can be visible or invisible at pleasure, and that He can be visible to some and invisible to others (illustrated in Paul and his company, Elisha and his servant), yet Barbour goes too far when he says that no other but saints shall see Him as He is, i.e. glorified. He appeared in His glory to mortal man (e.g. Paul and Daniel and Stephen and John), and the prophets and New Testament unite in predicting that He shall come in His glory, and it is this very glory, tremendous majesty of appearance, that shall confound His enemies, prove irresistible to the Jews, and secure the allegiance of the nations. The Jews in the flesh see Him “face to face.” In His thief-like Coming this glory is veiled, for the intention of this stage of the Coming is one hidden from the world. But even in this stage He comes glorified, as His glorification is essential to the work that He then undertakes to perform-as we shall hereafter describe in detail. It is at the open Parousia that the glory-hitherto revealed only to the saints resurrected and translated-is manifested in transcendent power. The spirituality does not forbid the visibility of Jesus, as is plainly seen in His Coming being likened to the visibility of the lightning itself. While thus visibly manifesting Himself, it is also true that this very majesty may be veiled to some extent from mortals, and that the glorified saints are alone capable to behold His full glory. Some attempt to particularize, but we must be satisfied with the glimpses obtained, which indicate that the reality will exceed the fondest anticipations of believers and impress with profound reverence the nations of the earth. We think that Barbour is misled by his spiritualistic theory (which practically ignores the Kingdom as covenanted and predicted, and substitutes for it a spiritual one, which is a refinement of the Church-Kingdom view) and by his harvest theory (which, as we shall show in another place, is untenable and violates the plainest Scriptures). It is sufficient to say that his making the present time the period when “the Son of Man” is actually personally present, is a perversion of the phrase “Son of Man” (which is expressive, not of a spiritual presence, but of His humanity), and of the phrase “day of the Son of Man” (which, e.g. Luk_17:22, is expressive of a visible presence), and of “the days of Noah” (making the Coming to be equivalent to the same, when Jesus only makes those days expressive of the conduct of men preceding His own Coming, likening His Parousia to the suddenness of the flood), etc. The fact is, that this forcing a meaning out of passages which they do not bear on their face, is met by the simplest declarations concerning the visibility of this Jesus at His Second Advent. Take e.g. “the times of refreshing (reanimation) from the presence of the Lord,” Act_3:19, and after noticing (see Prop. 144) how this is linked with the sending of Jesus, etc., “the presence” or “face” does not simply mean that the Lord is the author of the same “refreshing,” but that it results from His actual, visible presence, for the usage of “face” in the New Testament (as instanced by Barnes, Com. loci) in Mar_1:2; Luk_1:76; Luk_2:31, denotes a real, visible presence. It is frequently thus employed, as e.g. Mat_11:10; Luk_7:27; Mat_18:10; 1Co_13:12, etc., and the context evidences that this usage of the word is to be observed. We confess that the simple faith of the early Church, as previously expressed by us, is far more consistent with covenant and prediction than such refined interpretations.
The Origenistic, spiritualistic interpretation finds one of its extremes in the Swedenborgian theory (e.g. in Apoc. Revealed, vol. 2, s. 664, and index, or Hayden’s Art. “New Jerusalem,” in M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop.), making the Kingship of Jesus to “signify divine truth,” His Second Advent to be a revealing of truth, and consequently all, including the Kingdom itself (now even claimed to be manifested), is “spiritual.” To make out such a theory, and others somewhat similar, everything pertaining to covenant and prophecy must be spiritualized. We protest against such a perversion of the grammatical sense, adopting the language of Dean Alford (N. T., vol. 2, p. 362), who thus writes against spiritualizing the promises and departing from the Primitive Church view: “But I have again and again raised my earnest protest against evading the plain sense of the words, and spiritualizing in the midst of plain declaration of fact. That the Lord will come in person to this our earth; that His risen elect will reign with Him here and judge; that during that blessed reign the power of evil will be bound, and the glorious prophecies of peace and truth on earth find their accomplishment; this is my firm persuasion, and not mine alone, but that of multitudes of Christ’s waiting people, as it was that of the His. Primitive Apostolic Church before controversy blinded the eyes of the Fathers to the light of prophecy.” We conclude, therefore, with Dr. Schmucker (Exp. of Rev.), that (in view of this Messianic Theocratic Kingdom following on the territory, etc., of the four universal monarchies of Daniel 2 and 7-comp. Prop. 160), “Now as the preceding four are temporal monarchies, homogeneity ` compels us to consider the fifth empire one of the same nature; or otherwise these prophecies would appear an impenetrable riddle, and the words without a certain signification, of no use to the Church.” Many writers, who fail to fully grasp the covenanted force of this Kingdom and its Theocratic-Davidic nature, still hold to this “glorious reign of Christ on earth with His saints, so often promised in Scripture” (so e.g. Milton, Prose Works, vol. 4, p. 484, who applies Dan_7:13-14; Psa_2:8-9; Rev_2:25-27; Psa_110:5-6; Isa_9:7; Luk_1:32-33; Mat_19:28; Rev_20:1-7, etc., to this period), and take the accessibility and the visibility of the King as something inseparable from the reign.
Posted in Assemblies, Covenantal Sovereignty, History, Israel, Pilgrimages, Preparedness, Supportive Articles | Tagged | Comments Off on Pts 5-7 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

pt4 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Part 4 All Saints will(are) Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Are you ready? The Bible tells us in dozens of places that all the old Saints of True Christian Israel (not the one tribe called Jews, but 13 Christian tribes of true Israel!) are going to ressurrect and come back before the Hebrew millennium. If you’re not ready they’re (or we are) going to kick your butt to get you ready for the coming of Christ who will rule on the earth from David’s throne for 1,000 years. He’s coming back for a church that is without spot or wrinkle and will step down when His enemies are made His footstool (and as in TCAWW’s study, all the Majesty/Elders/Marshals are feeding those that trust in YAHWEH).

I would like to send you the notes from Peters in his “The Theocratic Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
These writings about the ressurection may later become part 2 on His Ekklesia Will Be Stronger Than It Has Ever Been on christsassembly.com “
(You can download the full text of “Theocratic Kingdom” if you have e-sword (all freely downloadable). The best part is you can click on each verse if you have e-sword and it opens up the full reference Bible texts. Ignore most of these references to any Jews. None of the Bible text says “Jews”, I don’t know how he mixes that part up with the saints. However, it’s the part on the ressurection I want to share. There are several parts all below. )
Rev Stephen MK
Minister, The Christ’s Assembly
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem

Prop. 128. The language of the Gospels and Epistles is in strict accord with the requirements of a Pre-Millennial resurrection.

A DOCTRINE TO BE CONSISTENT MUST PRESERVE ITS UNITY IN ALL THE INSPIRED WRITINGS. HAVING SEEN HOW THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE CONCLUSION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT COINCIDE, IT WILL BE IMPORTANT TO NOTICE HOW THE GOSPELS AND EPISTLES CORROBORATE THE JEWISH VIEWS OF THE RESURRECTION BASED ON COVENANT PROMISES.
Obs. 1. The resurrection of 1Co_15:52 declares that “at the last trump, for the trumpet shall sound (1Th_4:16), and the dead (i.e. those deceased) shall be raised incorruptible,” etc. Now, the fair inference (for the Jews, as commentaries inform us, used this very language) is, that this denotes a resurrection identified with the bodies of dead saints. This is almost the universal opinion among critics. This same resurrection of the dead is mentioned in Apocalypse 11:18, also under a last trumpet, and immediately in connection with “the Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ.” Our opponents generally concede both of these to be literal, and the exact correspondence that they sustain to Jewish expectations has been noticed by able writers (and that these, with this language added, was perpetuated generally in the early Church). But attention is called to the fact that just as the Jews believed, when “the Kingdom (sovereignty) of this world is become the Kingdom of our Lord and His Christ” (so mss., S. and A. Tischendorf’s N.T., and comp. Titman, Hahn, etc.) at that very time a resurrection takes place. When the sovereignty of the world is seized, when a Kingdom commences which is never to end, when events occur which commentators connect only with the Second Advent, then at that very period, “at the last trump” (“for the trumpet shall sound,” Rev_11:15), the pious dead are raised to receive their reward. Surely this is amply sufficient to identify a Pre-Millennial resurrection, seeing that 1Co_15:52; Rev_11:18; Rev_20:3-6, are all under the same last Pre-Millennial trumpet. If one is literal, all then are literal, because taking place at the same time and for the same purpose.
According to Dr. Oswald (The Kingdom, ch. 9) it was a comparison of these three passages that influenced Rev. Dr. Schmucker to advocate a Pre-Millennial resurrection of the saints. The same is reported of Charlotte Elizabeth, and others.
Obs. 2. Attention is directed to 1Co_15:22-24. “For, as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every wan in His own order; Christ first, afterward they that are Christ’s, at His Coming. Then cometh the end,” etc. We are not concerned in adopting any particular rendering (as e.g. making “order” to mean “band,” and “the end” equivalent to “the last band,” etc.), for whatever version is adopted, two things are self-evident in the passage enforcing the general analogy on the subject. After the universality of death is announced, then follows the positive declaration that the recovery from death-being made alive-is not a simultaneous occurrence, “but every man in his own order.” We leave an opponent give the meaning of this phrase. Barnes (Com. loci) says: “but every man-every one, including Christ as well as others. In his own order-in his proper order, rank, place, time. The word tagma usually relates to military order or array; to the arrangement of a cohort or band of troops, to their being properly marshaled with the officers at the head, and every man in his proper place in the ranks. Here it means that there was a proper order to be observed in the resurrection of the dead.” This declaration of an eclectic resurrection is confirmatory of the Jewish view, and could not possibly have been thus used, if the design were not to corroborate its truthfulness. The dead are to be marshaled in separate, distinctive divisions, according to their character or works. Next follows a statement of such a division: “Christ the first-fruits,” the first in time, the beginning, the first in order, “who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in all things He might have the pre-eminence” (and with him ought, perhaps, to be associated the “many” that arose at His resurrection); then, “afterward they that are Christ’s at His coming,” which evidently describes another division portrayed e.g. in I Thessalonians 4 and I Corinthians 15, exclusively of the righteous; “then cometh the end.” Now, here we have (1) separate bands of resurrected ones asserted, and (2) these bands or orders separated by an extent of time (nearly two thousand years). This is all that our line of argument requires in order to support our position.
The student observes that we do not discuss the word translated “the end,” and the sequence indicated by “afterward” and “then.” (Comp. Gordon, Sirr, and others on the “First Resurrection,” as well as Brooks, Seiss, Ryle, and others, in their advocacy of a Pre-Millennial resurrection.) The commentaries of Alford, Meyer, Olshausen, Fausset, Lange, etc., may be consulted on these points. Although a strong argument favorable to our position can be adduced, it really is not needed, seeing that the two points clearly designated and conceded by our opponents are all-sufficient. We only refer to Hodge’s admission respecting tagma (the student keeping in view how to telos was used to denote the rear legion, troop, or band, and how, therefore, the whole must be rendered, if the idea of different bands or companies is to be retained), when he says: “The word tagma is properly a concrete term, meaning a band, as of soldiers. If this be insisted upon here, then Paul considers the hosts of those that rise as divided into different cohorts or companies: first Christ, then His people, then the rest of mankind. First, the resurrection of Christ, then that of His people, then that of the wicked.” But, warped by his judgment and resurrection theories, he forsakes the plain meaning. Especially do we commend attention to Prof, Stuart, who, although a bitter opponent of Millenarianism, concedes that our view of the different bands, making the wicked the last one, is the only “satisfactory exegesis.”
SOME WRITERS (AS DR. BERG, CHRIS. INTELLIGENCER, FEB. 27TH, 1868, COMP. C.S.B., PROPH. TIMES, VOL. 7, P. 87-8) LAY GREAT STRESS ON THE PHRASE “IN CHRIST SHALL ALL BE MADE ALIVE,” SAYING THAT “IN CHRIST” IS A TECHNICAL TERM DENOTING “THE STATE OF A BELIEVER,” AND HENCE REFERS THE RESURRECTION EXCLUSIVELY TO THE MEMBERS OF HIS BODY, THE RIGHTEOUS, AND THAT NO REFERENCE TO THE RESURRECTION OF THE WICKED IS TO BE FOUND IN THE PASSAGE. ADMIT THE FULL FORCE OF IT, AND THAT THE RESURRECTION OF THE RIGHTEOUS, OF THOSE IN CHRIST, IS ALONE SPECIFIED, THEN THE ORDER IS STILL PRESERVED OF AN ECLECTIC RESURRECTION, (1) IN PERTAINING EXCLUSIVELY TO THE SAINTS, AND (2) THAT AT CHRIST’S SECOND ADVENT WE HAVE THE FIRST-FRUITS OF SAINTS (144,000) RESURRECTED BEFORE THE HARVEST IN THE FIRST STAGE OF THE ADVENT AND THE MARTYRS (AS WE EXPLAINED UNDER THE PREVIOUS PROPOSITION) ARE RAISED UP JUST PREVIOUS TO THE OPEN PAROUSIA. IF SUCH AN INTERPRETATION IS ADOPTED-AND THERE IS FORCE IN IT-THEN SIMPLY THE ORDER OR COMPANIES OF THE SAINTS ARE DESIGNATED. THE READER MUST DETERMINE FOR HIMSELF WHICH VIEW TO ADOPT; EITHER ONE OR THE OTHER SUSTAINS OUR POSITION FULLY. THE EARLY CHURCH. (E.G. TERTULLIAN ADV. MARCIONEM) ADDUCED I CORINTHIANS 15 AS FAVORING A PRE MILLENNIAL RESURRECTION, AND THE APPLICATION IS A JUST ONE. AS A MATTER OF INTEREST TO THE READER, WE APPEND THE AUTHORIZED ENGLISH TRANSLATION, DUBLIN, OF THE LATIN VULGATE: “BUT EVERY ONE IN HIS OWN ORDER: THE FIRST-FRUITS CHRIST, THEN THEY THAT ARE OF CHRIST, WHO HAVE BELIEVED IN HIS COMING. AFTERWARD THE END, WHEN,” ETC. WE ONLY ADD THAT DR. BERG AND OTHERS MAKE “THE END” TO REFER TO “THE END OF THE WORLD,” INCLUDING THE “RESURRECTION OF THE WICKED, THE CLOSING OF THE DISPENSATIONS OF GRACE, THE BURNING OF THE WORLD,” ETC., BUT WE ASSERT (1) THAT THE ORDERING MUST BE INTERPRETED OF THE SUBJECT-MATTER DISCUSSED, AND (2) THE END MUST BE DETERMINED FROM THE SPECIFIC TEACHING OF SCRIPTURE ON ITS MEANING. HENCE DR. KLING (LANGE’S COM. 1 COR. LOCI) SAYS: “THOSE WHO ARE RAISED AT SUCCESSIVE PERIODS OF TIME ARE CONCEIVED OF AS COMING FORTH IN TROOPS OR BANDS, IN SOME ONE OF WHICH EVERY ONE WILL BE FOUND.” “THE END IN THIS CONNECTION MEANS THE TERMINATION OF THE PROCESS OF THE RESURRECTION, AND STANDS CORRELATIVELY TO ‘THE FIRST-FRUITS;’ IT MARKS THE PERIOD OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE REST OF MANKIND, WHO DO NOT BELONG TO CHRIST,” ETC. (SEE THE COMMENT.) THE AMER. ED. (DR. POOR) SAYS: “IF WE ADOPT THE MEANING OF BAND OR COHORT FOR TAGMA, THEN THE IMPLICATION IS THAT THOSE IN CHRIST WILL COME FORTH BY THEMSELVES AND THE WICKED BY THEMSELVES-THOSE OF A KIND KEEPING TOGETHER. AND THIS WILL BE THE NATURAL ORDER SINCE ‘THOSE WHO SLEEP IN JESUS, GOD WILL BRING WITH HIM.’” EVEN SUCH A WRITER AS MACKNIGHT (ON THE EPISTLES) GIVES THE FOLLOWING TRANSLATION AND PARAPHRASE: “BUT EVERY ONE IN HIS PROPER BAND: THE FIRST-FRUITS CHRIST; AFTERWARD THEY WHO ARE CHRIST’S AT HIS COMING. THEN THE END SHALL BE,” ETC. “NOT, HOWEVER, TOGETHER; BUT EVERY ONE IN HIS PROPER BAND; THE FIRST-FRUIT CHRIST IS RAISED ALREADY; AFTERWARD THEY WHO ARE CHRIST’S SHALL BE RAISED IMMEDIATELY AT HIS COMING; CONSEQUENTLY BEFORE THE OTHER DEAD ARE RAISED,” ETC, (THIS CONCESSION REFUTES MUCH OF HIS SPIRITUALIZING).
Obs. 3. In 1Th_4:13-17, we have distinctive marks that “the dead in Christ shall rise first.” Our opponents, to avoid the force of this expression, inform us that it is used relatively to those that are translated, meaning that the dead arise before the living are translated. Allowing such an interpretation, yet the eclectic nature of the resurrection and its time is clearly manifested (1) by its exclusive reference to the righteous, and (2) by its precedence of the translation. The resurrection of the wicked is not mentioned, and the reason must be found in other Scriptures. The simple fact that we have extended passages devoted only to the resurrection of the righteous is in perfect agreement with our doctrine and utterly opposed to the theory of a simultaneous resurrection of all the dead. The association of this resurrection of the righteous with the personal Second Advent of Jesus is an additional reason sustaining our view.
We are not prepared to concede that the application of “first” by our opponents is conclusive, since a large number of able critics and writers interpret it according to the analogy of a first resurrection from among the dead. It appears strange that Paul, knowing the Jewish idea of an eclectic resurrection, should employ such a phrase unless he endorsed it. Barnes (Com. loci) says: “A doctrine similar to this was held by the Jews. ‘Resch Lachish said, Those who die in the Land of Israel shall rise first in the days of the Messiah.’” We have shown, however, in other places, that the Jews held to a pre-eminent, distinguishing resurrection pertaining to their nation.
Obs. 4. Luk_20:34-36 (see its connection with covenant promise, Props. 49 and 137) is remarkable for its distinctness: “The children of this world (or age) marry, and are given in marriage; but they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world (or age) and the resurrection from the dead (or the resurrection that out of dead ones-see the emphasis in the original) neither marry, nor are given in marriage; neither can they die any more; for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.” Here we have the following particulars specified: (1) Some shall gain the future age by a resurrection from among the dead; (2) it is implied that others not worthy shall not gain it by such a resurrection; (3) this resurrection of the saints is distinctively referred to as the pre-eminent resurrection, and one out of dead ones; (4) such, as indicative of its eclectic nature, are designated as “the children of the resurrection;” (5) and being thus born from the dead, through God’s power, they “are the children of God.”
The reader is again reminded how this passage was employed (Prop. 49) in elucidating the Memorial, being the legitimate outgrowth of the covenant, which necessitates, in order to its realization, a Pre-Millennial resurrection of the Patriarchs. Hence Paul (e.g. Act_26:6-7) links “the hope” derived from covenant promises with “the resurrection of the dead.” The personal identity of the Fathers is preserved through the resurrection thus promised. Hence we find writers, who have no Chiliastic bias, affirm precisely the position assumed by us respecting the meaning of the passage. Thus e.g. Thompson (Theol. of Christ, p. 186) takes the ground that the Sadducees denied a literal resurrection; Jesus in His reply holds fast to the Jewish view of such a resurrection, and confirms the Jews in their faith, and adds: “He went on to assert the resurrection as set forth by Moses, in the fact that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob would ever have a recognized identity in the Kingdom of God.” Horne (Introd., vol. 1, p. 423) says that the phrase “I am the God of Abraham,” etc., proves “the resurrection of the dead inferentially or by legitimate consequence.” But why is this inferential proof a legitimate consequence? The answer-the only Scriptural answer-is, that the Patriarchs may realize the promises made to them personally respecting the land, etc. On the passage itself compare the comments of Alford, Lange, Bengel, Olshausen, etc. The Mormons, as a resultant of their system of sealed marriages, flatly contradict the Savior’s declaration respecting the non-marriage of the resurrected and glorified saints, for they positively affirm that after the resurrection “men both marry and are given in marriage.” (See the proof adduced in Art. “Mormons,” M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop.)
Obs. 5. Php_3:11, “If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead,” certainly does not give the force of the original, and it places Paul in the attitude of striving for something which is inevitable. But taking the emendation demanded by the preposition ek, and given by numerous critics and commentators (and admitted by some of our opponents, as Prof. Stuart), we have a reading which vindicates Paul’s effort to obtain a prize, viz., a distinguishing eclectic resurrection. For many read it: “If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection from among (or out of) the dead (or dead ones.”) The force of this rendering is sustained by the resurrection of Jesus which was (e.g. 1Pe_1:3) one from among the dead, and by the usage of the preposition.
Sirr on the First resurrection, in Let. 5, gives a lengthy vindication of its usage, presenting various examples, showing conclusively that it is, single or in composition, intensive and expressive of an extraordinary, eclectic resurrection. The editor of The Proph. Times, vol. 3, p. 142, etc., presents the same, and declares respecting the force of ek: “Greek writers, lexicons, critics, and the Greek Testament everywhere and continually assign to it the office of expressing out of, from, from among, and invariably use it before a genitive signifying a whole from which a part is taken” (adducing as examples Act_3:23; 1Co_5:13; Act_19:33; Heb_5:1, etc.). Brown (Ch. Second Com., p. 195), as against us, rejects “from among the dead” (substituting “from the dead”), and endeavors to escape the idea of time or priority by referring the resurrection to “its nature, its accompaniments, and its issues,” which make it “a resurrection peculiar to believers,” but adds: “Although, therefore, we cannot affirm that the translation ‘from amongst the dead’ is critically inadmissible, no more can it be shown that it is critically admissible.” We leave the student to judge for himself, heartily endorsing his declaration, that its meaning is dependent on the doctrine of the resurrection as taught in the Scriptures, i.e. these passages must follow the general analogy on the subject. Brookes (Maranatha, p. 464) renders it: “If by any means I might attain unto the out resurrection” (or, as we might say, the elect resurrection) “the one, or that one, from among the dead.” Many versions are given which affirm an eclectic resurrection. The Latin Vulgate, in the authorized Dublin Translation, reads; “If by any means I may attain to the resurrection, which is from the dead.” Fausset (Com. loci) comments: “The oldest mss. read ‘the resurrection from (out of) the dead,’ viz., the first resurrection; that of believers at Christ’s Coming (1Co_15:23; 1Th_4:15; Rev_20:5-6). The Greek word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. ‘The power of Christ’s resurrection’ (Rom_1:4) insures the believer’s attainment of the ‘resurrection from the (rest of the) dead’ (cf. Php_3:20-21). Cf. ‘Accounted worthy to obtain the resurrection from the dead’ (Luk_20:35). ‘The resurrection of the just’” (Luk_14:14). Similar statements are made by various expositors. Surely the simple fact that in the original this resurrection is made emphatic and eclectic by the variations attached, ought to arrest the attention of the reader. To convey to the English reader, unacquainted with Greek, this variation, we append the phrases with a literal rendering as given by critics. We have the simple phrase anastasis nekrōn or resurrection of dead ones (Act_17:32; Rom_1:4; 1Co_15:12; 1Co_15:21; Heb_6:2), and he anastasis tin nekrōn or the resurrection of the dead ones (Mat_22:31; 1Co_15:42). Then we have a more particular resurrection as follows: anastasis ek tōn nekrōn or resurrection out of or from among dead ones (1Pe_1:3), and he anastasis he ek nekrōn or the resurrection that out of dead ones, or the resurrection, that one out of or from among dead ones (Luk_20:35 -see Obs. 4- Act_4:2), he exanastasis tōn nekrōn, or the resurrection out of or from among dead ones, or the out-from-among resurrection of dead ones, or the rising again out of dead ones. Luk_20:35 especially is very emphatic, having he anastasis he, viz., the resurrection, that one,” thus implying necessarily some other resurrection distinctive from this one. Every student must see the propriety-keeping in view the covenanted, Prop. 49, Jewish resurrection, of which Paul, Act_26:6-7, to which the tribes hope to come-of Bh. Pearce’s assertion that Paul expected this very resurrection, and hence uses the same word here translated attain to. 
Obs. 6. This discrimination of resurrection is delicately referred to, and implied in passages. Thus 1Co_6:14, “And God hath both raised up (ēgeire) the Lord, and will also raise up us (exegerei, out-raise or preeminently raise you).” The change of the verb by the addition of a word, significant of something peculiar and distinguishing, is worthy of notice (comp. Rom_9:27, Greek). So take Mar_9:9-10, and we have it asserted that the Son of Man should rise (ek nekrōn) out of or from among dead ones (as in fact transpired), and then the disciples (who had no difficulty with the already received-e.g. Joh_11:24 -doctrine of a resurrection of the dead) questioned, one with another, what this rising from among or out of dead ones should mean relating to Jesus. As His resurrection being an eclectic one is designated a resurrection ek nekrōn, so do we find that of his believers designated.
“Quickening” and “quickening of the dead” was used by the Rabbis (so Bush, etc.) to denote a corporeal resurrection, and “consolation” (Syriac, e.g. Joh_11:24-25, “I know that he shall rise again in the consolation at the last day. Jesus said to her, I am the consolation and the life”), “day of consolation” (so Talmud and Targum on Hos_6:2), as well as other terms which we have noticed under the Old Testament teaching, were also thus employed. Now thus used in the New Testament without a change of meaning, such as the Jews attached to them as to the time and relation, we can scarcely avoid the conclusion that they are thus to be understood as connected with a coming of the Messiah and a resurrection pertaining to Abraham’s children. “The gates of hell,” Mat_16:18, is connected with the continued perpetuity of the Church. It is customary to interpret it as relating to evil spirits, and we allow one of these to explain its meaning. Nast (Com. loci, comp. “Petros,” p. 34, footnote by Dr. Seiss), after making “hell” equivalent to “the abode of the dead,” and “gate” to stand for “power,” adds: “Thus the gates of hell mean strictly the dominion of death, and by implication the infernal powers held in the abode of death and darkness.” Whatever propriety there may be in his “implication” (which are always unnecessary and dangerous when the plain meaning will suffice), the history of the Church shows, and especially will manifest it under the last culminated Antichrist, that it shall terribly suffer by persecution, and here we have the assurance that death shall not triumph (comp. Lange, loci) over the Church and its multitude of slain saints, but they shall be raised up, and see her glory as she perpetuates herself in the age to come. Many writers find the first resurrection even in Mat_24:31 (others the Jewish nation, etc.), as e.g. Lange (Com., p. 429) on the phrase “And they shall gather together his elect,” says, “Here the resurrection of the elect (the first resurrection primarily) is declared.” Php_2:11 has “things under the earth,” which Barnes (Com. loci) explains as “beings under the earth,” “those that have departed this life,” and yet this very worship and honoring of Jesus-thus associated with the idea of a resurrection-is one identified with a Millennial prophecy (Isa_45:23), and is to be witnessed before the Millennium is ushered in (Rev_11:17; Rev_15:3-4; Rev_5:9-14). The resurrection is indirectly linked with the Kingdom, as in Luk_14:15. After Jesus had showed the Pharisee how to make a feast so that he might “be recompensed at the resurrection of the just” (its separate mention showing a distinctive resurrection), one of those who sat at meat with Him, evidently associating (as the Jews were accustomed to do) the resurrection just mentioned, with the Kingdom, said: “Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the Kingdom of God.” Jesus in His reply virtually endorses this association of ideas, for instead of intimating a misapprehension, He says all are invited to such blessedness, but that many reject it.
Obs. 7. Our argument is abundantly sustained by other Scriptures, which, to avoid repetition, we can but briefly refer to, as Act_3:19-21, for not only “the times of restitution” (described in Millennial predictions) necessitate an included resurrection (so understood by the Jews), but “the times of refreshing” are “the times of reanimation” (see the proof given in detail under Prop. 144, and the reader will notice that “the times of reanimation” confirm the order of the resurrection as advocated by us). Then Mat_19:28, “the regeneration” (see the details given under Prop. 145), with the Jewish views of the resurrection being a birth (which was adopted by the early Christians, and used even by Eusebius as expressive of a resurrection), corroborates the doctrine of an eclectic resurrection, both as to character and time. The views given in a previous Proposition respecting the resurrection being a birth, and allied to a birth preceding the Millennium, is strengthened by its usage in the New Testament, where believers are designated “the children of God being the children of the resurrection;” where “the adoption” is connected with “the redemption of the body;” when the begetting of Jesus (Act_13:33) is tendered as proof of the resurrection of Jesus, and He is represented as “the first-born” from the dead, etc.
In addition to what was said concerning the birth denoting a resurrection in Prop. 126, many writers take the view that Jesus in His conversation with Nicodemus by the expression “born of the Spirit” denotes the resurrection of the body, or at least includes it (the Spirit being the agency by which the resurrection is produced, as Christ’s, and “the born of water” being expressive of baptism and the spiritual moral work attached to it). Thus e.g. Dr. Brookes in the Truth, vol. 3, No. 6, who refers to one verse as being thus rendered by the Latin Vulgate, Augustine, Ambrose, and others: “The Spirit breatheth where He willeth; and thou hearest His voice, but thou knowest not whence He cometh, and whither He goeth; so is every one that is born of the Spirit.” Brookes adds: “That it is consistent with the context will not be disputed, and that it is grammatically and logically correct will be admitted when it is remembered that the word rendered ‘wind’ in King James’ Version is translated Spirit in the same verse, and that out of three hundred and seventy-four times it is found in the New Testament, it is invariably rendered Spirit or Ghost, except in Joh_3:8, where it is translated wind, and Rev_13:15, where it is translated life.” A multitude of able writers, following the Biblical analogy and the Jewish faith (see e.g. Michaelis Com. Heb_1:5, Knapp’s Ch. Theol, p. 528) designate the resurrection “a birth;” and hymns (as e.g. the one commencing “The whole creation groaneth” in “Hymns and Songs of Praise,” by Hitchcock, Eddy, and Schaff, and Watts, “My flesh shall feel a sacred birth,” etc.) speak of it as a “second birth” or “sacred birth,” etc.
Obs. 8. The resurrection of the saints being a distinctive one, belonging exclusively to them and no others, this feature of separation as to character and time is always preserved. Thus (1) where a resurrection of the just and of the unjust is mentioned together, that of the just has precedence; (2) expressions such as “the Son quickeneth whom He will,” “they that hear shall live,” etc., imply that not all shall be made alive; (3) the promise of raising up His own at the last day specifically given to believers, implies that unbelievers shall not be raised at the same time; (4) the resurrection of the righteous described alone, without any reference whatever to the wicked (as Joh_6:39-40; Joh_6:44; Joh_6:54; I Corinthians 15, and I Thessalonians 4), implies a separate and distinctive one; (5) the titles given to the resurrection of the righteous imply the same, as “the better resurrection,” “the resurrection of the just,” “the resurrection unto life.”
The careful student, of course, will consider all such declarations in the light of the age when uttered That is, he will place himself in the position of the hearers addressed. Thus e.g. the Jews spoke of a resurrection both of the just and the unjust, but when particularizing the order of resurrection they discriminated both as to character and time. Again, a resurrection of righteous ones was always associated with the Messiah’s reign, and hence the promises of the Messiah of a special resurrection to believers in Him, was in the line of the Jewish views, derived from Messianic prophecy, on the subject. Again, “the last day” in Jewish theology was not the modern Romish idea of “the last day,” but was the last day of the dispensation, to be followed by another and glorious one under the Messiah, in which the promises were to be realized. Hence to raise one up at “the last day” was by them understood as equivalent to a Pre-Millennial resurrection, i.e. a resurrection to be followed by Messiahs reign on David’s throne. (Comp, e.g. Props. 138, 139 and 140.)
Attention simply is called to the various readings first presented by Jerome (Horne’s Introd., vol. 1, p. 211) of 1Co_15:51. If the reading of two of the most authoritative mss., viz., that of the Sinaitic and Alexandrine (comp. Tichendorf’s N.T.) is to be received, we have an additional argument in our favor. These mss. read: “We shall all sleep, but we shall not all be changed;” whilst the later reading of the Alexandrian is, “We shall not all sleep, but we shall not all be changed.” The critical student will be reminded that just as it is in the translation, some will be taken and others left, so also is it with the preceding resurrection, some will be taken and others will remain.
Obs. 9. Our opponents, as Dr. Brown (Ch. Second Coming), Barnes (Com. Apoc.), and others adduce the following proof texts to substantiate their view of a universal and simultaneous resurrection of all the dead, both just and unjust, viz., Dan_12:2; Joh_5:28-29; Rev_20:11-15; 1Co_15:20-23; Joh_6:39-40; Joh_17:9; Joh_17:24; 2Ti_4:1. The reader may compare these with our references to the same, and then observe that no interpretation and application of these passages can possibly be valid, which introduces an antagonism-most direct-between Scripture statements. Indeed, he will find more, viz., that several of the texts assigned as proof (e.g. Dan_12:2; 1Co_15:20-23; Rev_20:11-15) fully sustain our position, being sufficiently decisive of an eclectic resurrection The others are equally so, for observe that Joh_5:28 describes two resurrections, one “the resurrection of life,” and the other “the resurrection of damnation,” while the order must be decided by passages descriptive of the same. The word “hour,” upon which our opposers lay so much uncritical stress, simply means, as able critics inform us “a time,” so that a time is coming when all shall be raised, but as other Scriptures tell us, “every man in his own order” (even Augustine, Epis. *, 2; Ambrose, Epis. 199:17, and many others make “hour” simply equivalent to “time,” and thus used e.g. 1Jn_2:18; Mat_9:22; Joh_4:23; Mar_13:11; Luk_10:21, etc.). The remaining passages need no explanation, following, as they do, the general analogy.
The reader is reminded that many of our opponents do not make a simultaneous resurrection in their comments on I Thessalonians 4 and I Corinthians 15, and that they agree with us that events are contained in the same sentence (e.g. 1Co_15:22-23) which are separated by a long interval of time; and that general expressions indicative of totality (e.g. respecting all men dying and yet some are translated) are sometimes modified by more; particular mention of order or details. But sufficient has been said to enable the reader to form a just estimate of the two interpretations. Prof. Sanborn, in his Essay on Millenarianism, makes the utterly unauthorized statement that “the Church has believed in all ages that there would be a simultaneous resurrection of the dead, both of the just and of the unjust.” This can only deceive the ignorant, for every intelligent reader of Church history knows that the Jewish belief on the subject was carefully inculcated and held by the early Church (as shown in detail in our Propositions on the history of Chiliasm), and the opposite view arose and prevailed through the Alexandrian and Popish influences.
Obs. 10. In a subject so varied as that of the resurrection it becomes us to heed the caution given in the investigation of any doctrine, viz., to collate the passages referring to it, and explain the more concise by those which give the order, time, and manner of occurrence. In such a comparison it is impossible to find a specific account of the resurrection of the wicked taking place at the same time with that of the righteous. Their standing together, under the general affirmation of a resurrection of both, would be an argument against us if it were not that in other places the Spirit, when circumstantially describing the resurrection, separates them by an interval of time. It is wisdom to accept of the Spirit’s explanations. The intelligent reader will appreciate this rule of careful comparison before deciding.
If some one should object to indistinctness in any of our references, it may be observed that none of them are so obscure as the proof given Act_13:33-34. But if viewed in the light of the resurrection, necessitated by the Covenant, etc., this proof is clearly deducible, flowing naturally and legitimately out of a well-defined Divine Purpose. It is to be regretted that the Babylonian captivity and return has blinded the eyes of so many expositors, so that they cannot survey scarcely any of the predictions without bringing the same in as a kind of general explanatory support, suited to evaporate most precious promises that cannot be satisfactorily incorporated into a spiritual Millennial theory.
OBS. 11. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO COMPREHEND THE ORDER OF EVENTS BEARING ON THIS SUBJECT AS PRESENTED BY OUR OPPONENTS, OWING TO THE CONTRADICTIONS INVOLVED. TO ILLUSTRATE: TAKE THAT LARGE CLASS OF COMMENTATORS AND OTHERS WHO CORRECTLY UNITE THE RESURRECTION WITH THE PERSONAL ADVENT, AND CONSISTENTLY DECLARE THAT BEFORE THE MILLENNIAL AGO IS INTRODUCED ANTICHRIST WILL BE DESTROYED. NOW TURN TO II THESSALONIANS 2, AND (AS BARNES, ETC.) THEY ADVOCATE THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MAN OF SIN BY THE PERSONAL COMING OF CHRIST, AND, ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN ADMISSIONS, THIS, IN THE VERY NATURE OF THEIR CONCESSIONS, MUST BE A PRE-MILLENNIAL ADVENT; AND, OF COURSE, WITH THEIR IDENTIFYING THE LITERAL RESURRECTION WITH PRECISELY SUCH A COMING, THERE SHOULD BE NO DIFFICULTY IN RECEIVING A PRE-MILLENNIAL RESURRECTION. SIMPLE CONSISTENCY DEMANDS IT. AGAIN, HERE AND THERE IN VARIOUS AUTHORS, WE FIND UNEXPLAINED CONTRADICTIONS THAT, AT LEAST, SHOW THAT ORDER IN THESE EVENTS IS SADLY NEGLECTED. TAKE AN EXCELLENT AND HIGHLY ESTEEMED WRITER FOR AN EXAMPLE: VAN OOSTERZEE (THEOL. OF N.T., S. 42), SPEAKING OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE RIGHTEOUS TRUTHFULLY SAYS: “THIS IS THE FIRST RESURRECTION,” AND IN A FOOTNOTE APPENDS 1CO_15:23; 1TH_4:16; LUK_14:14; REV_20:25, DECLARING THAT THIS WILL TAKE PLACE AT THE END OF THE AGE. HE THUS ADOPTS THE MILLENARIAN VIEW, AND IF THIS WERE ALL IT WOULD BE EMINENTLY SATISFACTORY, BUT THE ADMISSION IS MARRED BY AFTERWARD PLACING AT THE SAME TIME, AS THE TEACHING OF PAUL, “THE GENERAL RESURRECTION OF THE JUST AND THE UNJUST.” WHETHER THE AUTHOR DESIGNED IT OR NOT, IT FLATLY CONTRADICTS HIS PREVIOUS STATEMENT. PASSING TO A LOWER GRADE OF WRITERS, IT WOULD ONLY BE A THANKLESS OFFICE AND A CARICATURE OF THE WORD OF GOD TO POINT OUT THE STRANGE UTTERANCES BASED ON “THE SECOND DEATH,” ETC.
In justice, however, to Oosterzee, he advocates (Ch. Dog., vol. 2, p. 786): “More than one resurrection; first a partial one, and then an absolutely universal one. Of the former not only does the Apocalypse seem to speak, Rev_20:4-6, but also the Lord, Luk_14:14, and Paul, 1Th_4:16, as also 1Co_15:23 as compared with 1Co_15:26, ” etc., and, referring to the connection of the latter, he tells us of a “poetic-prophetic grouping of that which in reality will be seen realized, not side by side, but in succession.” Compare Reinhard’s Dogmatics, s. 189, Semisch’s Art. Chiliasm in Herzog’s Encyclop., and authorities already presented.
Obs. 12. The notion advanced by Priest (View of Millennial, p. 254), placing the last trump after the thousand years, and the “remaining” of 2Th_4:16 to mean a remaining until the thousand years are ended, scarcely deserves refutation. It is alluded to here because some parties are trying to revive it, and because of its connection with the doctrine of the resurrection This view arises from a neglect to compare Scripture with Scripture, seeing that there are only seven trumpets (marking epochs of time), and the last is expressly asserted (Revelation 11) to be in immediate connection with the resurrection, rewarding of the righteous, and the Millennial Kingdom. Besides, as all critics write, “the remaining” refers simply to the precedence of the resurrection, and the very ones that “remain” are also changed and associated with those favored with the resurrection.
One writer (Butler, Lects. Apoc), contrary to the uniform teaching of Millenarians, suggests that the resurrection is separated from the Second Advent by a long interval of time, perhaps that of the Millennial age itself. But this is opposed by the general teaching of the Scriptures, which links (when declaring the manner of procedure or order) the resurrection with the personal Advent, as we repeatedly show. This Advent and associated resurrection are, as we prove step by step, Pre-Millennial, and was so held by the first Christian churches. Such a view, as well as that of others who place these resurrected saints in the third heaven (as Stuart, etc.), totally misapprehends the covenant promises, the nature of the Theocracy, etc.
Obs. 13. These first begotten of the dead sustain a peculiar and distinctive relationship to Christ, belonging, as the first-born anciently, in an especial manner to the Lord. This will be noticed hereafter (Props. 118 and 154). Now it may be said that as Christ comes to reign as David’s immortal Son, prepared to fulfil the covenant promises by virtue of the power of the resurrection and the Divine united with Him, so it is suitable, yea, necessary, that those who arc accounted worthy to be associated with Him in His reign (which is asserted to take place at the Millennial period) should also experience the power of the resurrection and become like unto their Head. Hence the propriety of representing the resurrection taking place at this very time. Without it, the saints would not be qualified; with it, the promises of God can be abundantly realized.
Figuier (The To-Morrow of Death, p.. 114) makes his “superhuman” being still mortal, passing at death from one stage to another, and finally landing into the Divine, the Absolute. The Word of God presents no such Oriental derived nonsense, but a destiny immeasurably superior. Indeed, the careful reader of the Scriptures and of history will see a deep reason underlying this eclectic resurrection. It is an outcome of the Plan of Redemption, being essential to it, and extending its efficiency and glory. God purposes to save the race (as a race) of man, but to save and exalt it in its associated capacity there must first be something introduced analogous to what takes place in the individual believer. Man is saved by receiving the truth, being under its guidance and influence, and thus becomes renewed and sanctified by it. The evil tendencies within him are thus arrested and rooted out. So with society, the race itself. The sad history of the world teaches us the fact that there is not sufficient moral and religious element in it to elevate it to a position in which it could safely receive and enjoy Millennial blessings and glory. Nations, most mighty and wise, in their rise, progress, and deterioration, evidence this; the Theocracy even, with its additional higher motives and influences, established for a while in the Jewish nation, but withdrawn on account of sin, is decisive proof of it. Society, national life, cannot, owing to depravity, elevate itself to that perfect state contemplated by the Word of God. It needs and must have an element conjoined and blended with it, to act as a corrector and influencer. This is found in this first resurrection and its results. The world is saved through the power of the resurrection as exhibited in Jesus and in those at His Coming. Humanity in those resurrected ones is at once lifted to a higher plane, which insures-through their reign-an elevation for the race that nothing else is so well adapted to produce. In the Kingdom established under the associated resurrected ones, is thus exhibited the marvellous wisdom, patience, love, and work of God in thus counteracting by one Godlike stroke the inherent evil in human organizations. It is indeed “a strange work,” but most admirably adapted to secure that glorious “regeneration” of the race as a race, and restore to it its forfeited blessings. It destroys the old and brings in the renewed; it subverts the selfish worldly polity and introduces the heavenly; it removes the depravity of the world by introducing and incorporating a newborn, most powerful, convincing, and authoritative life and rulership in the resurrected and glorified persons of the kings and priests. (Comp. such Props. as 152, 154, 156, 167, 196, etc.)
Obs. 14. How frequently our attention is directed to this Pre-Millennial resurrection, and owing to its peculiarity and rank this is reasonable. Christ appeals to this frequency when (Joh_6:45) He says: “No man can come to me except the Father draw him, and I will raise him up at the last day.” Then it is added: “It is written in the Prophets,” etc, Christ knowing the Jewish opinions based on these prophets, confirms the resurrection as something well known and contained in the Prophets. Now, where do the Prophets teach this resurrection, if not in the passages adduced? How comes it that so many critics deny Christ’s assertion, and can find no such resurrection in them? The answer to the last may, perhaps, be found in the fact that if a literal resurrection is admitted, then it must also be acknowledged as Pre-Millennial, and rather than accept the detested Jewish, Chiliastic notions “of folly and ignorance,” these predictions of David, Isaiah, Ezekiel, etc., must denote national deliverance or anything else but a literal resurrection, and this is “wisdom and true enlightenment.” So far too does this proceed that while no such resurrection, excepting perhaps the faintest of allusions, can be found in the Old Testament, acknowledgments freely come from all sides that the very language of the Prophets indicates that the doctrine of a resurrection must have been “a common belief,” or else the figures drawn from it could not exist. But why was it so much believed in that Prophets freely employed language derived from it? Let the Jews tell us, let the Prophets inform us themselves. Surely their testimony is worth far more than that of modern critics, who learnedly speak of outside influences. Now, the first Millenarian has yet to be produced who professes to receive his faith outside of the Divine Record, or from any other source than that derived from God. More than this: it does not require critical acumen or special learning to see that the very Covenant itself, the foundation of following revelation, necessitates such a belief, and that from this basis arises the numerous allusions and predictions bearing on the subject. The reader is referred to the Covenant, and, as we have shown (Prop. 49), its fulfillment is utterly impossible without a resurrection. This then forms the shaping of God’s promises, and the longings, faith, hope of believer?, if we allow language its usual, customary meaning.
The critical student will observe that Christ’s allusion to a resurrection “at the last day, as it is written in the prophets,” fully sustains our position (Prop. 140, etc.) concerning the Jewish usage of this phrase, seeing that the prophets do not link the resurrection with an ending of the world (as modern wisdom does), but with a continuation and renovation of the world in a new ordering or dispensation. Those who may think that the resurrection is not referred to, but only the teaching of God mentioned as predicted by the prophets, only receive part of the scope and intent of Christ’s words. This is easily shown, first by the subject-matter of the resurrection dependent upon and allied to previous fitness, and then quoting Isa_54:13, which we show at length (Prop. 118) is associated with a resurrection (hence the aptness and beauty of the quotation enforcing both points), and so also Mic_4:1-4 and Jer_31:34 (as we show in the Millennial descriptions and restoration of the Jews). In view of this resurrection introducing the Kingdom (as the Jews believed), it was eminently proper for Jesus both to state the fact of the resurrection and to indicate the power lodged in Him to raise the dead. This exhibition only increased the condemnation of the Jews, seeing that they thus found their own Scriptures fully corroborated. As a Pre-Millennial resurrection was believed in by those whom He addressed, His very language, embracing no denial, but making the condition of such resurrection dependent on the reception of Himself, is corroborative of the Jewish view. Such a Pre-Millennial resurrection is necessitated by the covenant, for in no other possible way can the inheriting of the land and the promised blessedness be realized. Hence there is deep significancy in Paul (Act_26:6-7) linking “the hope” derived from the covenant promises with the resurrection, as He does “of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question.” This was an appeal to a well-known doctrinal position, so fundamental, without which the covenant itself must ever remain a dead letter.
Obs. 15. The reader may have noticed that this Pre-Millennial resurrection in several places is directly identified with a restoration (Props. 111-114) of the Jewish nation to Palestine. This, additionally, serves as proof of the correctness of our position. For, our argument drawn from the Davidic Covenant, makes such a restoration a necessity in order that the throne and Kingdom of David may be re-established. If Christ and His saints are to reign as predicted over this restored people, etc., then, as a matter of course, this resurrection must take precedence, just as the Prophets locate it. Hence, it is eminently proper that the resurrection of “the whole house of Israel,” including the Gentiles grafted in by faith, previous to their entrance into the promised inheritance, should be delineated as Ezekiel gives it in connection with a national restoration of the Jews under the reign of David’s Son. The resurrection and the throne and Kingdom of David are inseparable, and the former must, to meet the Divine Plan as revealed, precede the latter; and in this the Prophets agree (Prop. 126).
Obs. 16. The doctrine of such a first resurrection presents motives such as no other can, explanatory of Paul’s desire to attain unto it. The reign with Christ, and distinguishing honor and blessedness are connected with it. It gives us an explanation of the martyr spirit of the early Church, and the earnest desires expressed to experience its power. Besides, it indicates how untrue and uncharitable are the deductions of infidels, and even others, that they were sustained and strengthened by a false belief.
Notice Fletcher’s prayer, Baxter’s, and others, given in Taylor’s Voice of the Church. Tertullian tells us that in his day it was customary for Christians to pray “that they might have part in the first resurrection;” today, if the truth is to be stated, multitudes, including ministers, know nothing about it. How few e.g. now utter the pious wish of Fletcher, “O that the thought, the hope of Millennial blessedness, may animate me to perfect holiness in the fear of God, that I may be accounted worthy to escape the terrible judgments which will make way for that happy state of things; and that I may have part in the first resurrection, if I am numbered among the dead before that happy period begins.” In reference to the martyrs, see Gibbon and others. Let the reader e.g. comp. what the learned Dodwell, Dis. Cyprian, 12, s. 20, 21, says “The primitive Christians believed that the first resurrection of their bodies would take place in the Kingdom of the Millennial And as they considered that resurrection to be peculiar to the just, so they conceived the martyrs would enjoy the principal share of its glory. Since these opinions were entertained it is impossible to say how many were inflamed with the desire of martyrdom,” etc. (Comp. Props. 182 and 183.)
Obs. 17. This resurrection is so linked in with other subjects that additional proof is advanced confirmatory under various Propositions; and these, to do us ample justice, the reader must also take into consideration in forming a decisive opinion. Thus e.g. if we are correct in establishing a personal Pre-Millennial Advent, or the inheriting of the earth, or the Millenarian view of the judgment day, the judgeship of Christ and of the saints, or the period of regeneration, day of Christ, the morning of that day, etc., this adds materially to our argument in locating this resurrection.
Obs. 18. The believer can meet death without fear. “While death is an enemy, while feeling and acknowledging his penal power, yet with the assurance thus given of a speedy, complete victory over him, they can receive him as one over whom they are destined to triumph. He can well use the language of Mic_7:7-8, “Therefore I will look unto the Lord; I will wait (comp. Isa_25:9) for the God of my salvation; my God will hear me. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy (death); when I fall, I shall arise; when I sit in darkness, the Lord shall be a light unto me. I will bear the indignation of the Lord, because I have sinned against Him, until He plead my cause and execute judgment for me; He will bring me forth to the light (like David, Psa_17:15), and I shall behold His righteousness.” The believer has “hope in his death,” and “his flesh shall rest in hope.”
Our doctrine forbids the mystical view, so largely prevailing, of a resurrection immediately after death, which completely spiritualizes away the Second Advent itself. This makes the believer to gain at death a victory over death, while the Scriptural idea is that death gains the victory and will retain it until the Coming of the resurrecting Jesus, the victory being evidenced by the body consigned to the grave. The believer anticipates, in death, victory, and the sting of death being removed, can die in hope and triumphant faith of ultimate redemption. All such mystical theories make death, not penal, but a friend-a kind of Savior. (Comp. Prop. 125.) At this resurrection will be verified in the highest and most glorious manner such promises as those contained in Pro_3:2; Psa_91:16, etc.
OBS. 19. THIS FIRST RESURRECTION BEING AN ECLECTIC ONE, SEPARATE AND PERTAINING TO THOSE ACCOUNTED WORTHY OF ATTAINING TO THE PRIVILEGES OF “THE FIRST-BORN,” IT INDICATES A PREVIOUS JUDGMENT. TO INSURE A FIRST RESURRECTION (OR A TRANSLATION) THERE MUST BE A CORRESPONDING FITNESS, AND THEREFORE THIS RESURRECTION ITSELF IS EVIDENCE OF THE DIVINE ACCEPTANCE OF THE PERSON EXPERIENCING ITS POWER. AN ANTECEDENT ESTIMATE OF CHARACTER AND WORTHINESS MUST, OF NECESSITY, EXIST. THIS IS BASED ON JUSTIFYING FAITH WHICH RELEASES FROM CONDEMNATION AND INSURES ETERNAL LIFE THROUGH JESUS; WHILE THE POSITION AND HONOR OF THE SAINT AFTER RESURRECTION IS GRADUATED BY THE WORKS DONE IN HIS LIFE OF FAITH. 
In view of this first resurrection being introductory to the Kingdom, it was requisite for the Messiah to indicate that the power to raise the dead was fully lodged in Him. This He did (e.g. John, chs. 5 and 6, etc.), and the result must have been to establish His hearers (the Jews) in their Jewish views respecting the resurrection, and which was continued unimpaired in the Primitive Church. We have the assurance that all who come unto Him and are His, He will raise at the last day, losing nothing, being a perfect Redeemer and imparting a perfect redemption. In reference to the previous judgment, see Prop. 135, where it is presented in detail.
Obs. 20. Out of the multitude of testimonies we select a few, illustrative of the men (most eminent for ability) who hold to our view. Rothe (Dogmatic, 2 P., p. 70) advocates a bodily resurrection, etc., as follows: “The Redeemer asserts distinctly the future resurrection of the body. And still His utterances so sound as to separate that of the righteous from that of the wicked, both as to fact and time. So in Luk_20:35, where the discourse is not of the resurrection in general, but distinctly of a resurrection to the earthly Kingdom of the Redeemer, the so-called First Resurrection. So it sounds (es klingt) when He calls Himself the ‘Resurrection and the Life,’ when He says, ‘All that the Father gives Him shall come to Him, and He will raise them up at the last day,’ ‘all who believe in Him,’ ‘all who eat His flesh and blood,’ where the clear implication is that the rest of the dead awake not at the same time. Such a distinction He makes in Luk_14:14, a resurrection for the pious, a resurrection for the wicked. So the Apostle Paul, 1Co_15:23, comp. with Rom_8:10, contemplates, not a general resurrection, but that of believers, ‘they who are Christ’s,’ ‘the sons of God.’ The Apocalypse distinguishes a first and second resurrection. The first resurrection, which ensues at the same time with the Advent, Rev_19:11-21, is expressly described as the ‘First,’ Rev_20:4-6. In it only the martyrs and they who have remained pure from the contamination of the world-power, have a share. These and only these reign with Christ 1000 years, while the ‘rest of the dead’ awake not to life. After the expiration of these years, and victory over Satan let loose, then the rest of the dead arise for judgment, Rev_20:11-15.” Such endorsements come from men who are fully persuaded that the Plan of Redemption, as covenanted and confirmed in Jesus the Christ, positively demands such a resurrection in order to insure a complete realization of promise. So Dorner (Person of Christ, vol. 1, p. 412) says: “Complete victor Christianity never can be until nature has become an organ in its service, a willing instrument of the perfect man, that is, of the righteous who are raised from the dead.”
Out of a multitude of similar testimonies, we select one, quoted by Dr. Craven (Lange’s Com. Rev., p. 354) from Creation and Redemption: “It is incumbent on us here to say a few words on the subject of the First Resurrection, for there is a general impression that the belief in it rests solely upon this passage (Rev_20:6). But this is a great mistake. The truth of a resurrection of some at a different time from that of the general resurrection, is evident from Scripture, independent of this passage in the Apocalypse. Omitting the passages from the Old Testament Scriptures, sustained by the promises of which the Old Testament worthies, as St. Paul says, suffered and served God in the hope of obtaining ‘a better resurrection’ (Heb_11:35), we will state as briefly as may be the conclusion to which we are led by the words of the Lord and His Apostles. Our Lord makes a distinction between the resurrection which some shall be counted worthy to attain to, and some not, Luk_20:3; Luk_20:5. St. Paul says there is a resurrection ‘out from among the dead’ (exanastasis), to attain which he strove with all his might as the prize to be gained, Php_3:11. He also expressly tells us, that while in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive; yet it shall not be all at once, but ‘every man in his own order; Christ the first fruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at His Coming.’ It is particularly to be remarked that wherever the resurrection of Christ or of His people is spoken of in Scripture, it is a ‘resurrection from the dead;’ and wherever the general resurrection is spoken of, it is the ‘resurrection of the dead.’ This distinction, though preserved in many instances in the English translation, is too frequently omitted; but in the Greek the one is always coupled with the preposition ek, out of, and the other is without it; and in the Vulgate it is rendered by a mortuis or ex mortuis, as distinct from resurretio mortuorum. In Rom_8:11, ‘The Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead,’ it is ek nekrōn, a mortuis. So in Rom_10:7; Eph_1:20; Heb_13:20; 1Pe_1:3; 1Pe_1:21. So Lazarus was raised ek nekrōn, Joh_12:1; Joh_12:9. Our Lord in His reply to the Sadducees, made the distinction between the general resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection which some should be accounted worthy to attain to. The children of this age (ainōs) marry, but they who shall be accounted worthy to attain that aion, and the resurrection from the dead (anastaseōs tēs ek nekrōn) shall not marry (Luk_20:34-35). St. Paul, when he spoke of a resurrection to which he strove to attain (Php_3:8; Php_3:11), and to which he was with all his might pressing forward, as the high prize to gain which he was agonizing, and for which he counted all else loss, as if one preposition was not enough to indicate his meaning, uses it doubled, eis tēn exanastasin tēn nekrōn. ‘Si quomodo occurram ad resurrectionem, qua est ex mortuis.’ If St. Paul had been looking only to the general resurrection, he need not have given himself any trouble, or made any sacrifice to attain to that; for to it all, even Judas and Nero, must come; but to attain to the First Resurrection he had need to press forward for the prize of that calling. And thus in his argument for the resurrection in I Corinthians 15 (vers. 12, 21), when he speaks of the resurrection generally, he speaks of the resurrection of the dead (anastasis nekrōn); but when he speaks of our Lord’s resurrection, it is ek nekron, from the dead. And he marks the time when Christ’s people shall be raised from the dead, namely, ‘at Christ’s Coming,’ ‘every man in his order;’ 1st, Christ; 2d, Christ’s people; 3d, all the remainder, at some other period, which he terms ‘the end,’ when the last enemy, death, is to be destroyed, put an end to (1Co_15:23-26). And it follows as a matter of course, that if those who are Christ’s are to be raised from the dead at His Coming, and if He comes previous to the destruction of the Antichrist, and to the Millennium, this first resurrection must be at least a thousand years before the general resurrection.”
Obs. 21. The reader is requested to observe that in our line of argument in behalf of a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection we are amply supported by the general analogy of Scripture on the subject. Whatever may be thought of the interpretation and application of particular passages, yet the following connected chain of divine teaching is apparent. First, we have the Covenant and its promises, which make such a resurrection a necessity in order to their verification. Second, the realization of such Covenant promises is based directly upon a resurrection from the dead, and such a distinguishing resurrection pertaining to the righteous is taught in numerous places in the Old Testament Third, this teaching of a peculiar, eclectic resurrection (so clearly taught that the Jews had received it) is repeated in varied expressions and declared hope in the Gospels and Epistles. Fourth, it is specially treated of in the Apocalypse, a work particularly devoted to eschatology. So decisive is this chain of evidence that the early Church, planted by the Apostles and the elders appointed by them, was universally under its influence and guidance. We gladly and hopefully remain under the same. But in addition to all this, we have a series of connected doctrines taught, which are essential to a Pre-Millennial resurrection, such e.g. as the Pre-Millennial Advent, the judgment day, the day of the Lord Jesus, the morning of the day, the reign of Christ and the saints, and various others. Nothing requisite to sustain our view of the resurrection is lacking, and, therefore, this union and harmony of doctrine greatly confirms our faith and hope.
In view of this Scriptural argument, the immense array of proof texts, the Jewish view, the early Church belief, the concessions of opponents, and the expressed faith of many able expositors and divines, is it not singular that in many works and articles, devoted to Eschatology, our doctrine is either barely hinted at or entirely ignored? This contemptuous treatment can scarcely be attributed to its being unworthy of notice (for its historical aspect and its honorable advocates would redeem it from such silence), and we are forced to the conviction that such an avoidance is caused by persons being afraid of its authority, both Scriptural and traditional, and feel their weakness to undertake its refutation.
Obs. 22. Freely admitting that no doctrine is to be simply received on human authority, yet we confess to a gratification that our faith is that of the Primitive Church on this point. It is a satisfaction to know that we understand God’s Word on this subject just as the immediate disciples and followers of the Apostles comprehended it. For, such a union of view does not make us liable to the suspicion which might justly arise if it was a doctrine that only originated in the fourth century, or in the tenth, or even later. Besides this, it is a doctrine which, if true, it would be reasonable to expect men to teach, who were so nearly related to the Apostles in time, and who had, more or less, the benefit of their previous instruction.
Compare, for early view, Props. 71 to 75, inclusive. The reader will not censure us when we also congratulate ourselves upon the important concessions, made even by our opponents (as e.g. Prof. Stuart, Brown, Barnes, etc.). So fixed was this precious doc. trine of the first resurrection in the faith of the early Church, that even Origen, the father of the present prevailing spiritualizing interpretation, could not entirely free himself from its teaching. Thus he expresses himself (quoted by Brookes, and taken from his Thirteenth Homily on Jeremiah) in accord with us and irreconcilable with his own system, as follows: “If any man shall preserve the washing of the Holy Spirit, etc., he shall have part in the first resurrection; but if any man be saved in the second resurrection only, it is the sinner that needeth the baptism by fire. Wherefore, seeing these things are so, let us lay the Scriptures to heart, and make them the rule of our lives; that so, being cleansed from the defilement of sin before we depart, we may be raised up with the saints, and have our lot with Christ Jesus.” Here the distinction of separate resurrections is preserved, and the first is acceded to be pre-eminent, and specially belonging to the saints.
Obs. 23. Lastly, we may be allowed to congratulate ourselves on the fact that our system of interpretation opens no door of entrance to the many conflicting and dangerous errors respecting the resurrection. Many, taking the weapons ready forged to hand, by a spiritualizing interpretation of Isaiah, Ezekiel, and John, turn them against a literal resurrection of the dead. Work after work could be mentioned which has done this, jubilantly quoting from the orthodox the arguments for a figurative, moral, or ecclesiastical resurrection. This is only the legitimate developing of the Origenistic system of interpretation, an almost impregnable refuge for all forms of error. Now, in all those systems, which reduce the resurrection to an incompleted redemption of the body, or which refine it away into a mystical conception, etc., not one of them can, or does, appeal to us for deductions or aid, since in no shape or form do we give them the slightest countenance. Hence probably arises the extreme hostility manifested toward our system by various authors, because it is a standing rebuke to their own efforts at spiritualizing.
It is unaccountable to us, why professed believers in the Word should, as some do, detest the doctrine of the First Resurrection as advocated by the Primitive Church. What can possibly influence the bitterness and hatred against it in some quarters, when we show forth its pre-eminency, its exceeding desirableness, and its leading to unspeakable honor and glory? We confess our inability-after the abundant Scriptural basis presented upon which it is founded-to assign a justifiable reason for the same. Let us ask such to reflect, that such conduct is not argumentation, and that, peradventure, the ridicule heaped upon it may eventually recoil upon themselves, inasmuch as they may be found speaking and writing slightingly and sneeringly of one of the most precious of God’s own appointments. Surely, aside from the Scripture, the host of able men who have held to it and derived comfort from it (even at the stake) should influence reflecting men to treat it-although opposed to it-with respect. Under several Propositions, we give specimens of the language used respecting-what we must consider-God’s own appointments and precious promises. 
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pt3 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Part 3 All Saints will(are) Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Are you ready? The Bible tells us in dozens of places that all the old Saints of True Christian Israel (not the one tribe called Jews, but 13 Christian tribes of true Israel!) are going to ressurrect and come back before the Hebrew millennium. If you’re not ready they’re (or we are) going to kick your butt to get you ready for the coming of Christ who will rule on the earth from David’s throne for 1,000 years. He’s coming back for a church that is without spot or wrinkle and will step down when His enemies are made His footstool (and as in TCAWW’s study, all the Majesty/Elders/Marshals are feeding those that trust in YAHWEH).

I would like to send you the notes from Peters in his “The Theocratic Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
These writings about the ressurection may later become part 2 on His Ekklesia Will Be Stronger Than It Has Ever Been on christsassembly.com “
(You can download the full text of “Theocratic Kingdom” if you have e-sword (all freely downloadable). The best part is you can click on each verse if you have e-sword and it opens up the full reference Bible texts. Ignore most of these references to any Jews. None of the Bible text says “Jews”, I don’t know how he mixes that part up with the saints. However, it’s the part on the ressurection I want to share. There are several parts all below. )Rev Stephen MK
Minister, The Christ’s Assembly
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem

Prop. 127. In support of our view, the Apocalypse unmistakably teaches a Pre-Millennial resurrection of the saints.

IT IS MOST REASONABLE TO SUPPOSE THAT “THE TESTIMONY OF JESUS” THE LAST WORDS, GIVEN EXPRESSLY TO IMPART INFORMATION ON ESCHATOLOGY, SHOULD COINCIDE WITH THE OLD TESTAMENT TEACHING, AND BESTOW UPON US ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. THIS IT DOES AS FOLLOWS:
Obs. 1. The reader is directed to Rev_11:18, and under the last trumpet, preceding (as all must admit) the Millennium, we have “the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward,” etc. Here is a distinctive Pre-Millennial resurrection asserted in connection with a time of wrath and rewarding, which the general analogy asserts as belonging to the Second Advent of Jesus. To acknowledge a resurrection of dead ones to be here announced, and then to postpone the same until after the 1000 years, is a mere subterfuge, seeing that the connection demands its fulfillment, under the seventh trumpet, or at the period of time thus designated.
The weak and unsatisfactory manner in which this passage is handled by our opponents is well illustrated by Barnes, Com. loci. Not knowing what to do with such a resurrection in his system of Eschatology, and unwilling to deny its plain reference to a literal one, he, unable to spiritualize it away (or introduce his favorite “as if”), represents this occurrence at a specific time as one that is embraced by the events introductory to, contained in, and concluding the 1000 years, quoting Rev_20:4-6; Rev_20:12-15; Mat_25:34-40; Revelation 21 and 22. How hard pressed and defective a theory must be which is forced to such a wholesale application of a chronological prediction. The time of rewarding the Prophets e.g. is Pre-Millennial as seen e.g. in the case of Daniel (Prop. 126): so the time of wrath, the time of judgment, the time of rewarding the righteous, the time of destroying the enemies of God, the time when the Christ assumes His reign-all, as we show in detail under various Propositions, is Pre-Millennial.
Obs. 2. We now come to Rev_20:1-6 which was so universally held by the early Church to teach a literal resurrection, and to be so thoroughly consonant with Jewish views, that the Apocalypse narrowly escaped proscription by the enemies of Chiliasm (comp. e.g. Lardner’s Works, vol. 2, p. 643; Stuart’s Introd. to Apoc., Barnes’s Introd. respecting Caius and Dionysius). The application of the Origenistic system of interpretation, as many have noticed, saved and gave it canonical authority.336 [Note: 36 336.  It is a source of gratification that this book is so well fortified by authority, that the ablest critics, even of the destructionist school, allow its antiquity and canonical place. The Introductions, etc., almost invariably ascribe to it the best given historical proof of any of the New Testament writings.]  If we reject the early Church belief in this particular, the veracity of Apostolic Fathers, who assert that they received their interpretation of it from the Apostles and their associates (see Prop. 75) is impeached, and the teaching of the Apostles themselves which directly led to such a faith in all the churches established by them is open to grave suspicion. It is not necessary to trace the varied spiritualistic opinions engrafted on this Scripture, denoting either a spiritual, moral, or ecclesiastic resurrection, or to note in detail the varied dating of the thousand years based on such interpretation337 [Note: 37 337.  THE TERROR, ETC., AT THE CLOSING OF A.D. 1000, AND ONE OR TWO OTHER PERIODS, ARE FALSELY CHARGED (EVEN BY SCHOLARS) TO OUR ACCOUNT, WHEN THE FACT IS, THAT WE HOLD THE 1000 YEARS TO BE ENTIRELY IN THE FUTURE, WHILE THE OTHER VIEW LOCATED IT IN THE PAST.]  from the ministry of Christ, conversion of Constantine, etc. Popery indeed (Prop. 77) almost crushed the early interpretation of the passage; but others held fast to it, as e.g. Paulikians, Waldenses, and Albigenses. Various writers, some men of acknowledged ability and talent, have continued from the Reformation (Prop. 78) down to the present, to entertain the same, and today some of the most able men in nearly all, if not all, denominations, accept of this ancient faith.338 [Note: 38 338.  See e.g. the lists given by Brookes, Bickersteth, Seiss, Taylor, etc., and compare Props. 75, 76, 77 and 78.]  The prevailing view taken, is that of Daniel Whitby (who died 1727), who was the first writer339 [Note: 39 339.  So Bh. Henshaw, Brookes, Dr. Seiss, Bickersteth, and others. The reader must here be guarded. This has been denied by some, but thus far they have failed to produce a writer preceding Whitby. Some have sought refuge in Augustine, Jerome, and others, as teaching a spiritual resurrection and Millennium, but this we do not deny, but only that they taught it as something still future and linked with this passage, as Whitby. This we emphatically deny, as their writings testify. Compare, however, what is said under Props. 175, 158, and 76-78.]  who advocated what he himself calls “a new hypothesis,” viz., a spiritual resurrection and Millennium still future before the Advent of Christ.340 [Note: 40 340.  We present Whitby’s testimony under Props. 175 and 78.]  Men of the highest ability have adopted this “hypothesis,” and through their influence it is almost generally received. While this is so, it is also true that some of our most bitter opponents unhesitatingly yield this passage to us as teaching a literal first resurrection. Thus Prof. Stuart (Com.), before alluded to, who appeals to Php_3:8-11; Luk_14:14; 1Co_15:23-24, etc., as favoring the idea, and even makes this admission, “Even the Old Testament contains some passages which may very naturally be applied to the Messianic or first resurrection.” Prof. Bush, and many others, who spiritualize it, frankly acknowledge that the language itself, literally understood, unmistakably presents the notion of such a resurrection, but regard it as a presentation of truth in the shape of “milk,” such as “the babes” in that early period required; forgetting, however, that this “milk” happens to be just like that which the Jews previously received, and hence, if the former is deleterious the latter must be the same.341 [Note: 41 341.  So e.g. Barnes, Com. loci, where the reader will find numerous “as ifs” drawn from the thus acknowledged plain sense of a literal resurrection. Again and again he admits that this resurrection will be “as if the martyrs were raised up from the dead;” “as if the most eminent saints were raised up from the dead;” “as if they were raised up from the dead, or which might be represented as a resurrection from the dead,” etc. The language itself of the passage is admitted to teach a resurrection from the dead, but is to be spiritualized to mean moral or spiritual revival, etc.]  With these preliminary remarks, let us proceed to give the reasons for holding that this Scripture presents the doctrine of a literal Pre-Millennium resurrection, aside from the one which might be urged at length, viz., that the language and spirit of it accord with the Old Testament delineations and confirm the interpretations of the Jews (which latter, even as Reuss, His. Ch. Theol., p. 57, the Pharisees made “one of the principal points of their teaching”).
Obs. 3. 1. This describes a resurrection of persons. The word “soul” is used to denote the person (as e.g. Num_31:8; Pro_6:30; Isa_29:8; Lev_22:11; Jos_11:11; Jer_2:34; Act_3:33; Act_2:41; Act_27:37; 1Pe_3:20, etc.). The “souls” are persons because (1) they were “beheaded,” which can only apply to such; (2) the language “foreheads,” “hands,” etc., indicates such; (3) the resurrection of the members is appropriately described in terms similar to that of the Head. Thus, “Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell (Hades, grave), neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption,” is applied by commentators, following Peter, to a literal resurrection; (4) the word designedly chosen is in accord with Jewish usage, so that, e.g. the Targum renders “The souls which I have made” in Isa_57:16, “I will restore the souls of the dead” (Dr. Clarke, Com. loci); (5) the early Christians familiar with the phrase in a living language had no difficulty unanimously in making such an application; (6) David foreseeing his resurrection from the power of death calls it a deliverance of “my soul,” Psa_6:4, etc.; (7) a change of condition is predicated of these “souls” that had died, implying a previous “living,” which can only be asserted of persons. May we not, therefore, ask (Psa_89:48), “Shall he (man) deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?” and answer, No! for his soul can only be delivered through the power of Christ.342 [Note: 42 342.  For the usage that we contend for, let the student compare Dr. Etheridge’s Transl. of the Targums of Onkelos, etc., vol. 2, p. 687, who remarks that the word “soul” is used “both in the Bible and Targums for ‘a dead body,’ and in the Jerusalem Talmud for ‘a stone or monument which marks the place of the dead.’” He also notices the following places as indicative of its meaning “the person,” Genesis 17; Exo_1:5; Lev_4:2; Lev_4:27; Lev_7:20; Lev_22:11; Deu_24:7; 2Sa_14:14; Eze_27:13; Act_2:43; 2Pe_2:14; Rev_18:13; to which may be added Act_7:14; Gen_19:20; Psa_55:18; Psa_119:175; Isa_38:17; Jos_11:11, etc. Indeed, so seldom is the word “soul” employed to designate the disembodied spirit, that some eminent writers (as e.g. Bh. Law in Cons. on Theory of Religion, and others) have called into question the fact whether it is employed in such a sense, especially in connection with the intermediate state. This only indicates how freely the term is employed in the manner advocated by us. Even Barnes palpably contradicts himself on this point. Thus on Revelation 20 he remarks: “By no possible construction can it mean the bodies of the saints,” but on Act_2:27 he refutes himself when he applies the term soul to Christ, to His person, saying: “There is no clear instance in which it is applied to the soul in its separate state or disjoined from the body.” In reply to Fairbairn and others it is only necessary to say that Revelation 20 is in accordance with Scriptural usage, and that there is exquisite propriety in speaking of the resurrection of the saints just as Christ’s (Act_2:27) is spoken of, and as that of the believer is predicted, e.g. Psa_99:15, “But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave.” Our interpretation is vindicated by previous usage and by the express promises of God. (Comp. also Sep. Version on Lev_19:28; Num_6:11; Lev_21:1; Eze_44:25, where “soul” designates the dead.)]  2. These souls previous to this resurrection were “beheaded,” suffered death because they witnessed for Jesus, remained faithful to the truth. It seems absurd to press this passage into a spiritual or moral conversion in the face of the beheading which was endured for the Word, since it is virtually affirming that the sinner, previous to his conversion, suffers death because of his witnessing for Jesus; that the unregenerated man endures a beheading for his unswerving devotion to the truth; and then, after such an exhibition of love, he is resurrected, i.e. converted, etc. 3. The beheading itself indicates a literal death. For (1) it cannot be asserted, taking our opponents’ views of spirit, that the spirit or soul can be beheaded. (2) The state of a wicked man cannot be called a headless stone, for in the case of these souls it would prove too much, viz., being beheaded, implies that previously they had them in possession. (3) The beheading results from their previous moral action. (4) The word translated “beheading” denotes “decapitation by the axe,” a violent death. This literal death is shown in Revelation 13 and 14. 4. The persons who have part in this resurrection are such as were converted to the truth before this death. This is proven by (1) the witnessing they gave which caused others to put them to death. (2) The “holy” only have part in it. (3) A distinguishing resurrection is promised to the saints. Hence, this is a promise of a resurrection given because they are “holy,” and not one to make the wicked “holy.” 5. This resurrection is bestowed as a reward of well-doing. This agrees with Luk_14:14, “Thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just” (also Rom_8:11; Rom_8:23; Heb_11:35, etc.). The entire spirit of the prophecy claims this as a great, unspeakable blessing. 6. The “thrones” that were placed, is only met by a similar Millennial description of Dan_7:9; Dan_7:22; Dan_7:27, the promise to the Apostles, Mat_19:28, the enthronement of the saints. 7. The same is true of the “judgment” mentioned, and as will, farther on, be shown in the judgment committed to saints. 8. The reign with Christ corresponds with the dominion mentioned by David, with the promises of Kingship and Priesthood to risen and glorified saints. The passages bearing on the enthronement, judgment, and reign will be given under separate Propositions. 9. The meaning of the word “lived,” and the use made of the same, fairly teaches a literal resurrection. Barnes, loci, tells us that Robinson (Lex.) gives the primary meaning to be, “to live, to have life, spoken of physical life and existence,” and adds: “It may be applied to those who were before dead, Mat_9:18; Mar_16:11; Luk_24:23; Joh_5:25; Act_1:3; Act_9:41, ” etc.343 [Note: 43 343.  He adds: “but it does not necessarily imply this, nor does the mere use of the word suggest it.” But the primary meaning, the use of the word, the context, etc., all is calculated to suggest it, as it did to the early Church, to Prof. Stuart, etc. Fairbairn (On Proph., p. 461) is fairly driven from the old position that only a moral change is denoted, when he informs us that it is used as a figure derived from the literal resurrection, because the state here delineated partakes more of the final resurrection state than any that had preceded. His interpretation is, however, vague. We rest satisfied with his concession that there is reference in the language to a literal resurrection.]  Prof. Stuart (Com. Rev. loci) says that the word means “revived,” came to life, i.e. returned to a life like the former one, viz., a union of soul and body. So does the word signify in Rev_2:8; Rev_13:14, and in many other passages cited in the remarks on Rev_2:8. In addition to the texts given by Barnes, he adduces Act_25:19; Rom_6:10; Rom_6:13; 2Co_13:4. Nothing stronger can be given in our favor than the argument of Prof. Stuart: “If, then, as it would seem, we must reject all these meanings” (viz., those opposed to the early Church view), “how can we well avoid coming to the conclusion that ezesan here must mean a reviving or rising from the dead? The use of zaō elsewhere in the Apocalypse shows very plainly that it may mean revived, lived again in reference to the body which had been dead. Thus the Savior speaks of Himself in Rev_2:8, as being He who had been dead, kai ezese, and had revived, lived again, after the death of the body. Thus, too, it is said of the beast (Rev_13:14), which had the deadly wound of the sword, that ezese, it revived.”344 [Note: 44 344.  PROF. STUART HAVING BEEN UNFRIENDLY TO THE MILLENARIAN VIEW, HIS TESTIMONY, SO CANDID, IS THE MORE WEIGHTY AND VALUABLE. WE GIVE HIS CONCLUSION: “PUTTING NOW ALL THESE CONSIDERATIONS TOGETHER, I DO NOT SEE HOW WE CAN, ON THE GROUND OF EXEGESIS, FAIRLY AVOID THE CONCLUSION THAT JOHN HAS TAUGHT, IN THE PASSAGE BEFORE US, THAT THERE WILL BE A RESURRECTION OF THE MARTYR SAINTS AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE PERIOD AFTER SATAN SHALL HAVE BEEN SHUT UP IN THE DUNGEON OF THE GREAT ABYSS.” “I CANNOT ADMIT ANY SERIOUS DOUBT, EITHER ON THE GROUND OF GENERAL PHILOLOGY, OR OF THE USUS LOQUENDI OF THE APOCALYPSE.” THE CRITICAL STUDENT WILL DO WELL TO OBSERVE HOW OUR OPPONENTS EXPLAIN THIS SAME WORLD “LIVED” IN Rev_2:8; Rom_14:9, ETC., AND THEN CONTRAST THE CONCESSIONS MADE WITH THEIR COMMENTS ON REVELATION 20. IT GREATLY CONFIRMS OUR POSITION BY EXPOSING THEIR CONTRADICTIONS.]  Surely, if the Spirit employs the word to signify the literal resurrection of Jesus, and that, too, in the same book, we are justified in applying it in the same way to the resurrection of His brethren, contrasted as it is with a previous death. 10. Those who thus “lived” enjoyed the Millennial period, and those who “lived not,” i.e. the rest of the dead, did not realize it.345 [Note: 45 345.  If to avoid this issue the resurrection of the rest of the dead is literal, as some contend, this ends the discussion, for if literal in the one clause it is literal in the other also, the same word being employed. It is a mere shiftless gloss, opposed to the word “dead,” etc., to make “the rest of the dead” “weak Christians,” “sickly portion of the flock,” etc., afterward devoted in piety.]  Now, if the word “lived” means (as our opponents declare) conversion, increased Christian zeal, etc., it proves too much, viz., that not a single soul of “the rest of the dead” will be converted, etc, until the thousand years are finished. Then we have a moral resurrection at the beginning of the age, and the other at the end. For, the same word “lived” is used of both parties, and consistency demands the same meaning in both places. 11. But if this meaning is preserved, then it follows that after an interval of one thousand years “the rest of the dead” are all converted, etc., which is forbidden by numerous explicit passages.346 [Note: 46 346.  Barnes loci, against the express declaration of the prophecy, has the rest of the dead living through the thousand years, but in a lower grade of piety! On the other hand, Augustine (City of God, b. 20, c. 9) gives them no piety, and, by implication, has no conversion during this period, for he says: “‘In these the second death hath no power.’ Therefore it has power in the rest of whom he said above, ‘The rest of them did not live until the thousand years were finished;’ for in this whole intervening time, called a thousand years, however lustily they lived in the body, they were not quickened to life out of that death in which their wickedness held them, so that by this revived life they should become partakers of the first resurrection and so the second death should have no power over them.”]  12. Those who have part in the first resurrection are never subjected to “the second death,” but the implication is that “the rest of the dead” will experience it, and this is confirmed by the resurrection following after this Millennial period (same chapter), in which the second death largely figures. Now, if the living of these two classes is the same, it legitimately follows that the one portion will be given over to the power of the second death, for having no lot in the first, it falls under the second resurrection. The reason why they did not have part in the first is not removed before the second takes place, for they remain “dead” until the second occurs after the thousand years. 13. What is asserted, “Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection, on such the second death shall have no power,” is a bestowal of eternal life by the power of the resurrection, as is seen at length in I Corinthians 15, etc. It is the bestowal of immortality to that which was mortal, so that as in Luk_20:36, “neither can they die any more,” or, they become like the Head, Rom_6:9, “that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over Him.”347 [Note: 47 347.  This meets the quibble of Barnes, loci, that “we do not need the assurance that ‘on such the second death hath no power,’ that is, that they would not perish forever. That would be a matter of course and there was no necessity for such a statement.” But the necessity exists even in Barnes’ case, for with it appended he still refused credence. Beside, such an objection is an impeachment of the language we have just quoted. Beside this, the student will observe that this phraseology is intensely Jewish. Thus e.g. in Etheridge’s Transl. Targums, we have in Targum of Onkelos: “Let Reuben live in life eternal and not die the second death;” the Targum of Palestine and the Jerusalem Targums: “Let Reuben live in this world, nor die the second death which the wicked die in the world to come.”]  14. This again is confirmed by the natural conclusion which the passage impresses, that each one thus raised up lives and reigns during, at least, a thousand years, which cannot be applied to mortal man. Moral or spiritual advancement does not bestow such longevity.348 [Note: 48 348.  It is to be observed that the thousand years does not limit the reign (Prop. 159), and hence the objection (so Gipps, etc.), that “forever” ought to have been added, is futile, seeing that the thousand years embrace the incarceration of Satan and the non-resurrection of the rest of the dead. It is sufficient to say that the scope of the prediction requires this reign during the thousand years (whatever may be the result afterward) to be given as a reward to those who have been faithful, and in the promised reign of the saints we find that this very reign is identified with a previously experienced glorification (Props. 118, 153, and 154), because “flesh and blood do not inherit the Kingdom of God.” Any theory, therefore, that limits this reign to one in mortal bodies or to a succession in mortality, is opposed to the promises of God and, hence, defective. The reason why Satan is bound the one thousand years, and the saints are said to reign the specific thousand years, is found in the Sabbatism comp. Prop. 143).]  15. These resurrected ones “reigned with Christ.” Jesus then sits on His own throne, and the saints reign with Him (Mat_19:28; Luk_22:29-30, etc.). This involves a consideration of the period of Christ’s reign, etc., but it is sufficient to point out what even our opponents admit, that such a reign of Christ will be witnessed at His Coming, and that it is the happy portion of saints to reign with Him. Hence, this prediction is in sympathy with such a reign. 16. Martyrs (one class) obtain this resurrection, not that the resurrection produces martyrs, as some affirm, or revives the martyr spirit, as others say, or causes, as others declare, a eulogy of martyrs. And, we may well ask, Does the Millennial period here described with Satan bound, Christ and the saints reigning, with, as the prophets write, all righteous, with peace, safety, prosperity, knowledge, and glory covering the earth, does this require martyrs or the spirit of martyrdom? Is the binding of Satan and this reign so ineffective that murderers of saints, that dangerous enemies, still exist? What, then, becomes of God’s promises, if persecution, sore trial, threatened death and violent death itself is the characteristic of the Millennium?349 [Note: 49 349.  Reference has already been made to the theory of Gipps (Treat. on First. resurrection) of a succession of martyrs, making the blessed Millennium a season of blood and death; of Bush (The Millennium), who transposes it into the same, and is forced to say: “This may strike the reader as a very revolting conclusion. To represent the Apocalyptic Millennium, which he has always conceived as but another name for the golden age of the Church, as actually synchronizing with the most calamitous period of her annals will no doubt do violence to his most cherished sentiments respecting that distinguished era.” Well may he thus describe it. A more recent writer, Waldegrave (New Testament Millenarianism), anxious to wrest this passage from us, follows in the same strain, making the Millennium a period for the retention and propagation of religious imposture-only not new imposture-for actual suffering even unto death while at the same time reigning, so that “the thousand years will prove to be a period in which Christ’s witnesses are witnesses even unto death-a period, in short, of martyrdom and not of triumph-a period in which Satan (being precluded, indeed, from the invention of fresh delusions) is able, notwithstanding, to wield those already in existence with such effect as to make the Church of God to prophesy in sackcloth and ashes.” A theory that can thus deliberately violate the text and context, the general analogy of Scripture on the subject, the ten thousand express declarations to the contrary, and give up all hope of ever realizing the precious, glorious predictions of Millennial peace, blessedness, and glory, is not only dark, gloomy, and disheartening, but dishonoring to God’s Word and faithfulness. Thousands of our opponents justly recoil from such saddening interpretation.]  17. The persecuting beast and prophet are removed before this Millennial period begins, as is seen in preceding chapter. The persons resurrected are those who had previously refused His worship, mark, etc., and as we read (Rev_13:15, etc.) were killed. In this Millennial age they have no such power, for the reason given, Rev_19:20. All persecuting power (Rev_19:2-3) shall be confined. This exactly corresponds with the prophetic delineations of the Millennium (as e.g. Isaiah 25, 26, etc.). The very persons (not others) killed by the beast are the ones who live and reign during the thousand years. 18. This resurrection is accompanied by God’s heavy judgment upon His enemies, resulting in their overthrow and destruction, which agrees with what is said of this literal resurrection elsewhere.350 [Note: 50 350.  Dr. Brown (Ch. Second Com., p. 209, note) remarks that the Duke of Manchester holds that the judgment of Rev_20:11-15 is a counterpart of Daniel’s (Daniel 7) vision of the Ancient of Days, and is for the destruction of the four monarchies, and hence is Pre-Millennial. But this is to violate the chronological order of Daniel 7 and of Revelation 19 and 20, as well as the general analogy of prediction. The theory is utterly untenable. (Comp. e.g. Props. 123, 132, 133, 134, etc.)]  19. Taking the explanation given by our opponents to the word “first,” it cannot denote what they claim. Thus e.g. Barnes, loci, “It is called the first resurrection in contradistinction from the second and last, the general resurrection.” Now, if it means conversion, revival of martyr spirit, distinguished piety, etc., how can it properly bear such a contrast to the second, seeing the difference in kind?351 [Note: 51 351.  Prof. Stuart, Com. loci, says: “Any great change from a degraded and wretched condition, temporal or spiritual, may indeed be figuratively called a resurrection unto life, i.e. to happiness, but it would be out of the question to name it a first resurrection. This implies of necessity a comparison with a second in kind, but must precede it in the order of time.” If the meaning of the word “first,” as given by Barnes, etc., is to be observed, then the reader will notice the inconsistency (1) in making the last literal and not the first, and (2) of calling that “first” which, according to their own showing, is only a continuation (moral, spiritual) of past experienced conversion, piety, etc.]  The fact that it is called “the first” or “better” or pre-eminent resurrection implies a second of the same kind, but of a lower grade, i.e. not so distinguished, etc. If we make the one moral, etc., the other must be the same. 20. The rest of the dead only live after the one thousand years are finished, and as this resurrection is not included in the first or better one, it must be the second. In the same chapter after the thousand years we do read of a second one that transpires in which “death and the grave delivered up the dead which were in them.” If the second is literal (as nearly all admit) the first must be also the same. 21. the juxtaposition of these two resurrections, the one at the beginning and the other at the close of this age, indicates a peculiarity and significance in the use of the word “first.” This does not mean priority of time, as is almost universally supposed, for this would not be true either of the theory of our opponents or of our own.352 [Note: 52 352.  Thus e.g. if this denotes conversion, piety, etc., it would not be true that this was the first, seeing that in all ages this has been experienced. So also in reference to martyrs or martyr spirit, which was frequently previously manifested. Again: if it denotes a literal resurrection, then it is not correct to call it the first, in relation to time, for instead of being in this sense the first it was preceded by the resurrection of Christ, the resurrection of Lazarus and others, the resurrection of the many saints who arose out of their graves after Christ’s crucifixion, and the resurrection of those who precede the last great tribulation, the 144,000, the resurrection under the seventh trumpet, Revelation 11, when the prophets are mentioned. In regard to the latter we are convinced by careful comparison that the resurrection here only includes those who pass through that last tribulation, martyrs and others, while a silent, unperceived, but happy resurrection of preceding saints, those who come with Jesus, Revelation 19, Zechariah 14, and who sit on the thrones, etc., has taken place previous to this period. These last having also endured and passed through tribulation faithfully are accounted worthy of the same position, rank, etc., with the others; and hence “This is the first resurrection,” i.e. this too or also is included, etc.]  The word “first” has reference to the privileges of the first-born, which were, Deu_21:17, (1) a double portion, i.e. distinguished position, comp. Gen_25:31-34; (2) a right to the priesthood, Num_3:13; (3) government and dominion, Gen_27:29. God already so early in history develops the idea purposed in the Divine Will of a selected number of the first-born, first begotten of the dead, of whom Christ is the Head. Hence the peculiarity of the language here, “first resurrection” is, that these also, the ones subject to this great tribulation during the period of Rev_14:9-13, shall come forth also having the privileges of the first-born, i.e. they are not of the second or future ones, but belong to the first as well as those who may have preceded them. (The reader will clearly see the force of this when we come to the reign of saints, etc.) The word “first” is, as Parkhurst (Lex.) and others assert, employed to denote “dignity of persons” in the sense of “chief,” “principal,” etc., as in Mat_20:27; Act_13:50; 1Ti_1:15; Act_17:4; Act_25:2; Act_28:7; Act_28:17, etc. This resurrection is, therefore, the chief, principal, pre-eminent one, because it pertains to that of the first-born, constitutes the persons embraced in and experiencing its power the first-born that belong exclusively-in a peculiar sense typified by the Jewish first-born-to God Himself. Hence not time but distinction is denoted. Now, this forms a unison with the general tenor of the word respecting this very resurrection pertaining to the saints, and the harmony is remarkable, being never broken by the slightest discord. 22. The resurrection at the close of this chapter is almost generally acknowledged as a literal one. Now, the same rules of interpretation that make this one literal, will, if applied to the first, make it the same. For both represent a visionary spectacle embracing persons, acts, events, and conditions still future, which prefigure or symbolize persons, etc. They both stand or fall together. Sound criticism must acknowledge this feature.353 [Note: 53 353.  Hence the warning of Bh. Newton to those who make the first figurative, lest the same principles be applied to the last, and the resurrection be entirely ignored; which is fulfilled in many instances. A very recent writer, Rev. Burdick, in the New York Evangelist (Feb. 3d, 1876), says: “In the second resurrection, implied from the first, the fact described is an uprising of the spiritual forces in the kingdom of Satan.” Strange “uprising” indeed, when the whole tenor of the prediction is to describe a crushing out of evil. But we must say that here at least is consistency of interpretation; for if the first resurrection is spiritualized, it is only a fair and legitimate procedure to spiritualize the second.]  23. “This is the first resurrection,” is an explanatory clause, and, like all explanatory language, must be received in the sense that usage, etc., affords. 24. These resurrected saints are “blessed,” which is the condition promised to believers raised up at the last day, Luk_14:14, etc. 25. In this Millennial period Satan is bound so that he shall not “deceive the nations” during its continuance. But this cannot be realized down to the personal Advent of Christ, for a multitude of passages authoritatively teach that wars, wickedness, even so great that it is contrasted with that of the days of Noah, nations hostile to Christ, the Church itself a commingling of tares and wheat, shall exist down to the Advent, which is connected with the resurrection of the saints. 26. The “harvest” (Mat_13:30; Mat_13:39), which is identified with the resurrection period, is one that precedes this Millennial era, as is seen by reference to Revelation 14 and 19, when “the harvest of the earth is ripe,” and it is gathered, following, too, closely on a terrible persecution.354 [Note: 54 354.  Our opponents, when not directly attacking us, themselves acknowledge that “the resurrection” is connected with “the harvest.” Thus e.g. Barnes (Com.) on the Parable of the Tares and Wheat. But as it can be readily shown that the harvest precedes the Millennial era, it follows that a resurrection also precedes.]  27. If the Advent recorded in Revelation 19 can be proven to be a personal Pre-Millennial one, then this resurrection as a literal one follows. Leaving this for a separate Proposition (Prop. 121), we only now say, that the fact of such a special Advent being designated as immediately preceding this resurrection, and the acts that He performs being similar to those ascribed to Him when He comes to raise the dead, is in direct accord with the doctrine of a resurrection. It is a resurrection linked directly with a Coming of Jesus for purposes of vengeance and salvation. 28. The thousand years specifically mentioned were identified by the Jews with a literal resurrection, and the Messianic reign. Now, the adoption of the same phraseology, united with a resurrection, which-primarily understood-refers to a restoration of life to dead ones, is virtually an endorsement of the Jewish idea of a literal resurrection, or else it is a most cruel deception, confirming men in error.355 [Note: 55 355.  Dr. Meyer (Com. on Mat_3:2) gives the following summary of the Jewish view: “The common idea of the Jews in regard to the Messianic Kingdom was predominantly politico-national, with the fanatical stamp of an universal dominion, to last a thousand years; the Messiah awakes the descendants of Abraham; then follow the reign of a thousand years; the resurrection and condemnation of the heathen; the descent of the heavenly Jerusalem, and the eternal life of the descendants of Abraham on the earth, which is to be transformed, along with the universe” (quoted Bib. Sacra, Jan., 1851). Comp. Wetstein on Revelation 20, and commentators generally. Prof. Bush (Millennial) quotes a number of Jewish authorities that directly refer to the thousand years. See also Prop. 143.]  29. This resurrection is sustained by the “lake of fire burning with brimstone,” Rev_19:20. Almost every one acknowledges that a resurrection of the saints either precedes or is connected with Mat_25:31-46. Now, in this latter passage, we have the personal Advent, the holy messengers with Him, the sitting on His throne, the gathering of the nations (as Joel, John, etc., describe), the saints inheriting the Kingdom, and then, notice, the wicked cast into the fire preceding the Millennial age; for “Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels.” These wicked are cast into the fire which is only prepared for the devil, etc.; for, as the Spirit carefully (Revelation 20) shows, after the thousand years, the devil is cast into the lake of fire where the others have been during the thousand years (see Prop. 134). 30. The “marriage of the Lamb,” and “the marriage supper,” Rev_19:7; Rev_19:9, sufficiently identify the nature of this resurrection with that connected with “the manifestation of the Son of God,” in Rom_8:19-23, with the one related to the feast of Isa_25:6-8, etc. 31. A comparison of the expression “but the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished,” with other Scriptures sustains a literal resurrection.356 [Note: 56 356.  Our opponents are hard pressed with this last phrase respecting the rest of the dead. Some, as Bush and others, endeavor to correct our version by late mss. and render it so that it shall mean that they never lived again, but as this is antagonistic to the leading authoritative mss., our opponents are forced to yield us the passage as it stands, and seek out some interpretation to suit their theory. Simple consistency drives them, of course, to give them the same kind of a spiritual life (seeing that the same word expressive of living is given to both), that those entitled to the first resurrection received. Thus e.g. Fairbairn (On Proph., p. 463) makes this a resurrection of “mongrel characters,” of classes of characters lukewarm, polluted, etc., to a renewed Christian life; Waldegrave (Lectures) informs us that it denotes that “the great body of truly living souls should be brought to God;” but Barnes (Com. loci), forgetting his own distinction of “spiritually dead in sins,” etc., actually makes the pious spiritually dead, for he says: “‘The rest of the dead’-the pious dead-would indeed be raised up and rewarded, but they would occupy comparatively humble places,” etc., i.e. at the end of these thousand years these “pious dead” (spiritually dead) would also receive a quickening, etc., and thus distinguishes the living of the one class to be higher than that of the other. Thus with all of them; not one of them can give a consistent interpretation of this clause bearing the test of the slightest examination. Hence Bh. Newton (On Proph.) well observes that the allegorizing of this text “cannot be admitted without the greatest torture and violence. For with what propriety can it be said that some of the dead, who were beheaded, ‘lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years; but the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished;’ unless the dying and living again be the same in both places, a proper death and resurrection?”]  
Obs. 4. The last reason assigned is so much overlooked that it is worthy of more extended notice. Remark (1) the same word “lived” is applied to both, the saints favored with the first resurrection, and to the rest of the dead, and must mean in both cases the same kind of a resurrection; i.e. a corporeal one; (2) that “the rest of the dead” not being raised up from the dead, do not live or exist during this Millennial period, remaining in their graves. Is this view that John gives sustained by the analogy of faith? The answer from numerous passages and different writers is affirmative. But first let us observe that “the rest of the dead” are the wicked or unbelieving, seeing that the reason why they did not obtain the resurrection is because they were unholy, did not witness for Jesus, and did not reject the worship and mark of the beast. They were regarded as unworthy of it, and the reign, etc., is only promised to the righteous. Now let us compare what the Spirit, alone capable of indicating the line of God’s purpose, says the fate of the wicked dead is during these thousand years, and if the general tenor of the Word represents their condition similar to the one here portrayed, then we have an ample vindication of our position. 1. Even the wise man in Pro_21:16 intimates their fate: “The man that wandereth out of the way of understanding shalt remain in the congregation of the dead.” Now, both righteous and wicked are still “in the congregation of the dead,” but this shall not always be so, for the “set time” is coming when the man void of understanding “shall remain,” among “the dead,” while the man of understanding shall be removed “out of or from among the dead ones.” 2. Hannah in the prayer already alluded to, 1Sa_2:9, after expressing her faith in a resurrection, in God’s bringing up again from the grave, and then in the exaltation of saints to be princes, significantly shows her faith in its priority: “He will keep the feet of His saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness, for by strength shall no man prevail.” How often is this repeated, that God will deliver the feet of His saints from the pit or grave, that by strength no man can deliver himself from death, that the wicked shall remain in darkness, that “they shall be blotted out of the book of the living and not be written with the righteous,” etc. 3. Then a large class of passages teach that a time is coming when (as Psa_52:5, etc.) the wicked shall be utterly “rooted out of the land of the living.” The righteous shall live and rejoice, while the wicked are removed from the face of the earth. To what period can this refer but to this one, seeing that down to the very Advent itself a multitude of the wicked do exist. This is the more conclusive when we come to examine the passages more closely. Thus, e.g. Malachi 3 and 4, gives (a) a day or time when God will “make up,” bring together, His “jewels”; (b) “Then shall ye return;” (c) For there shall be “a discerning between the righteous and the wicked;” (d) the wicked shall be utterly rooted out; (e) the righteous shall in that day find the wicked “ashes under the soles of their feet;” (f) it is a time for “healing” the breach of His people and is performed by Christ.357 [Note: 57 357.  Tertullian (On the resurrection of the Flesh, ch. 31) renders Mal_4:2-3, “Ye shall go forth from your sepulchres as young calves let loose from their bonds, and ye shall tread down your enemies.”]  In the 37th Psalms it is united with the time when “the meek shall inherit the earth,” for “evil-doers shall be cut off; but those that wait upon the Lord they shall inherit the earth. For yet a little while and the wicked shall not be; yea thou shalt diligently consider his place and it shall not be,” etc. (see Psa_37:20; Psa_37:22; Psa_37:28; Psa_37:34). This inheriting of the earth Christ promises to all the meek (Mat_5:5), but to do this they must, of necessity, arise from the dead, and when they inherit the wicked are “cut off,” “perish,” “are not,” etc., thus corresponding with the period under consideration. 4. In the 140th Psalms is typically presented the last confederation of wickedness, under the title of “the violent man,” who is not “to be established in the earth,” but is to be “overthrown,” for it is said “Let burning coals fall upon them: let them be cast into the fire: into deep pits, that they rise not up again,” while the poor are delivered and “the upright shall dwell in Thy presence.”358 [Note: 58 358.  To indicate how this was understood anciently, we refer to the version given by the Chaldee Paraphrase to the phrase “that they rise not up again,” which (Clarke’s Com. loci) is as follows:. “From which they shall not have a resurrection to eternal life.”]  In Psalms 146 there is (a) the dead, even princes, perish; (b) but he is happy who has God for his help in such an extremity; (c) because “the Lord looseth the prisoners, and (d) reigns.” Then is verified Psalms 147, “The Lord lifteth up the meek, He casteth the wicked down to the ground;” Pro_12:7, “The wicked are overthrown and are not, but the house of the righteous shall stand.” 5. The concealment of the wicked in their graves during a certain time is to be verified in the case of “every one,” and is appealed to as God’s prerogative to perform. In Job_40:13, the Lord Himself is represented as saying: “Look on every one that is proud and bring him low, and tread down the wicked in his place. Hide them in the dust together and bind their faces (persons, Barnes, loci) in secret” (“in prison,” so Barnes, “darkness,” others). The meaning of this may be found in another part of the same book, Job_27:19, where they are represented as not among “the gathered.” For opening with Job_27:13, “This is the portion of a wicked man with God and the heritage of oppressors, which they shall receive of the Almighty” he announces, “The rich man (wicked) shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered; he openeth his eyes and is not.”359 [Note: 59 359.  The interpretation usually given to the latter clause, that it denotes sudden destruction (Barnes, loci) may be correct, but that given to the gathering, meaning that he shall not meet an honorable burial, is evidently a gloss, for “the portion” of multitudes of wicked rich men is an honorable burial, while many a believer has had a dishonorable one. Other Scriptures do teach a gathering from which the wicked are excluded. The death being once admitted, the not being gathered is naturally to be referred to his being left when a gathering of the dead takes place. For of the wicked it may be truly said, Pro_20:20, “his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness.” To this may be added (although some render it differently, as if it referred solely to this life or to the funeral pomp) Job_21:30, “Do ye not know their tokens, that the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction? they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath.”]  6. A most circumstantial statement indicating the Pre-Millennial resurrection and that the rest of the dead do not participate in it, is found in Isaiah 24, 25, and 26. (A) In Isaiah 24, after delineating the fearful “day” when the Lord shall punish the high ones and kings of the earth (as in Revelation 19, etc.) just preceding the Millennial glory, the prophet, referring to the wicked, adds: “And they shall be gathered together as prisoners are gathered in the pit (Heb.-with the gathering of prisoners), and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days they shall be visited.”360 [Note: 60 360.  As a specimen of early free rendering we give that of Gildas (a.d. 546, Works, s. 45): “And it shall be that our Lord in the same day shall look… on the kings of the earth, who are upon the earth, and they shall be gathered together in the bundle of one burden into the lake and shall be shut up in prison, and after many days shall they be visited.”]  When this is done, “then the moon shall be confounded and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in Mt. Zion and in Jerusalem and before His ancients gloriously.” Here we have (a) a complete overthrow of God’s enemies; (b) their confinement to prison or the grave at the very time Christ reigns at Jerusalem; (c) that after “many days,” corresponding with the thousand years, “they shall be visited,” i.e. made manifest, released, “live again.”361 [Note: 61 361.  Delitzsch’s rendering is: “And it cometh to pass in that day, Jehovah will visit the army of the high place, in the high place, and the kings of the earth on the earth. And they are imprisoned, as one imprisons captives in the pit, and shut up in prison, and in the course of many days they are visited.” The exact parallel to this is found in Rev_19:20, although Nägelsbach justly includes the binding of Satan and his loosening out of prison after many days (one thousand years after), Rev_20:3; Rev_20:7. Nägelsbach’s rendering is: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish (visit upon) the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth. And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit (with the gathering of prisoners), and shall be shut in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited.”]  (B) In the Millennial prediction of Isa_25:6-8, we find it preceded and followed by a representation that the wicked are destroyed, removed from the face of the earth, a work directly attributed to God. In the Millennium death is swallowed up in victory alone in the case of the righteous, as we have already shown, while the enemies of God are removed and the impression is made, nothing being said of them but what indicates death and the grave, that they remain under the power of the grave, while the people of God are released. If both the righteous and the wicked are to be resurrected at the same period, how do we then account for the resurrection of the saints being mentioned in connection with this period, while the wicked are represented as non-resurrected? (C) This is clearly established in the next chapter, Isaiah 26, in “the Song,” which is to be “sung in the land of Judah,” “in that day” viz., at the time the Millennial age is ushered in. The peace, happiness, prosperity, deliverance from enemies in that day is alluded to, and of the enemies it is emphatically said: “They are dead; they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise; therefore hast Thou visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish.” And in order that we need not misapprehend the meaning, the condition of these wicked is contrasted with that of the righteous, as follows: “Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing ye that dwell in dust; for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.” Do we need stronger confirmatory evidence, when it is added that, as in Revelation, etc., “the Lord cometh out of His place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity; the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain,” i.e. those martyred for the truth, etc.?362 [Note: 62 362.  The passage, “Thy dead men shall live,” etc., is interesting in view of Luther’s reading it to his dying daughter Margaret, sustaining his own heart by the hope, of a resurrection. Calvin (Institutes, *) also quotes it as proving a resurrection. Thus a multitude of writers. The Jews also held to the same, for e.g. Kimchi remarks on it “then many of the saints shall rise from the dead,” and for confirmation quotes Dan_12:2. Even Rosenmüller and Hitzig (Alexander’s Isa. loci) understand the last clause of Isa_26:21 as a prediction that the dead should actually come out of the graves; while such writers as Barnes (Com. loci), following the rationalistic lead, make all figurative of a restoration to their own land, thus frittering away a magnificent promise as if it had been fulfilled in that weak and still oppressed condition after the return from Babylon. Strange, when some men can see no resurrection in the plainest passages, others find it even in Isa_26:20, as e.g. Clement (First Epis., ch. 50, a.d. 97) renders it: “Enter into thy secret chambers for a little time, until my wrath and fury pass away; and I will remember a propitious day and will raise you up out of your graves” (comp. Tertullian, On the resurrection of the Flesh, ch. 27). We append a few renderings of Isa_26:19 : Tertullian (On the resurrection, ch. 31) gives: “The dead shall arise and come forth from their graves; for the dew which cometh from Thee is medicine to their bones.” Augustine (City of God, b. 20, c. 21), “The dead shall rise again, and all who were in the graves shall rise again; and all who are in the earth shall rejoice; for the dew which is of Thee is their health, and the earth of the wicked shall fall.” Dr. Tregelles (On Dan., p. 156): “Thy dead men shall live; they shall arise, my dead body,” and adds: “such are the words literally. Identified with Christ, as being His members.” Nägelsbach (Lange’s Isa.) heads this portion of prophecy: “The resurrection of the dead and the concluding acts of the judgment of the world.” He gives: “Thy dead men shall live; together with my dead shall they arise (or, my dead body shall arise). Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust, for thy dew is as the dew of herbs (lights), and the earth shall cast out the dead.” Delitzsch: “Thy dead will live, my corpses rise again. Awake and rejoice, ye that lie in the dust! for thy dew is dew of the lights, and the earth will bring shades to the day.” Prof. Bush renders Isa_26:14 : “They are dead men, they shall not live; they are deceased tyrants, they shall not rise, therefore,” etc., and he adopts Bh. Lowth’s of Isa_26:19 : “Thy dead shall live, my deceased, they shall arise; awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust! For thy dew is as the dew of the dawn; but the earth shall cast forth, as an abortion, the deceased tyrants.” (He undoubtedly mistakes in the last member, in his reference to “the deceased tyrants.”). Compare Fausset and commentators generally.]  7. In Psalms 31, when death is represented as befalling the Psalmist, he expresses his hope in redemption from the grave, and says of God, Thou “hast not shut me up in the hand of the enemy (i.e. death); thou hast set my feet in a large room” (i.e. equivalent to rich deliverance), and repeating his trust, he contrasts his hoped-for experience with that of the wicked: “let me not be ashamed, O Lord; for I have called upon Thee; let the wicked be ashamed, and let them be silent in the grave (marg. read., let them be cut off for the grave.)” But this is more definitely given in Psalms 49, where all men are said to “see corruption,” being unable to redeem themselves from death, so that “like sheep they are laid in the grave; death shall feed on them,” and marg. reads, “the grave being a habitation to every one of them,” but a hope is expressed in favor of the righteous; “but God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave,” etc., while the others remain in their graves, for farther on it is said of this class that “they shall never see light,” comp. Psa_56:13, as those who are brought again into the land of the living under the Millennial light of the glorious Sun of righteousness. 8. Indeed, on all sides we find Scripture which imply or take for granted this detention of the wicked dead in their graves and the priority of the resurrection. of the righteous. Even in such passages as Luk_20:34-36, in addition to the argument already based on the preposition “out of or from among,” the use of the phrase “they that shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world and the resurrection from the dead,” implies that some shall not be accounted worthy, and hence shall not then be raised up. So also the language of Psa_115:17-18, comp, with Psa_88:10-13, receives increased pertinency if this idea is noticed. To illustrate our meaning, Isaiah 42 is selected as an example. Here is (1) the promise of the Messiah; (2) the work He shall perform, including the delivering of “the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house;” (3) the Millennial blessedness; (4) for the Lord cometh as “a man of war” (comp. Revelation 19); (5) to the utter overthrow of His enemies; (6) the release of His own people; (7) but while He asserts this release and the blessings that follow, He declares of the wicked and of those addicted to image-worship (comp. Revelation 19 and 20): “But this is a people robbed and spoiled; they are all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison houses; they are for a prey, and none delivereth; for a spoil, and none saith, Restore.” But in the redemption promised, as parallel passages show, only the pious portion of Israel is restored, which implies that the image-worshippers and other wicked remain in their “prisons.” For the more obscure passages must be interpreted by those decisive, as Isaiah 26, etc. The connection of this doctrine can even be seen in Isa_43:17, for of the Babylonians (we need not consider whether typical name or not) it is said, “They shall lie down together; they shall not rise; they are extinct, they are quenched as tow,” and the prophet passing rapidly to “the new thing” which God will perform in the Millennial period, speaks of those first-born of the dead who shall arise: “This people have I formed for myself; they shall show forth my praise” (comp. Psa_102:18, etc.; Eph_1:10-12, etc.). 9. But there is still another class of passages which confirm the rising of the rest of the dead at the end of the thousand years, as in Isa_24:22, when after “many days” those detained by death shall be released. Thus in Psa_6:10, there is an evident allusion to the return of the wicked dead after an interval of time. Observe that the Psalm describes (1) the death of the saint; (2) prays for a release from death and the grave; (3) asks “how long,” as the martyrs do, before the release comes; (4) expresses the fact that God has heard and granted his supplication and prayer, which implies, of course, his resurrection; (5) but while this prayer is answered in his own experience, the enemies, the wicked, are to “be ashamed and sore vexed; let them return and be ashamed suddenly;” (6) he declares that the Lord will “return” (implying, as the facts in the history of Christ prove, that He is removed for a while), that “the workers of iniquity” shall be removed, but finally “return” and realize a sudden shame, such as a second resurrection will produce; (7) and the earnest praying, longing, and even weeping, for such a resurrection shows it to be a significant one, very different in order and allotments from that of the wicked. In Psalms 109 we have the wicked, Psa_109:15, “cut off from the earth,” but the poor and needy shall be delivered, and then follows again, in reference to the adversaries, “when they arise, let them be ashamed.” Psalms 59, so difficult of explanation by commentators, receives new light and consistency when viewed from this standpoint. For (1) “the mighty,” the wicked are described as arrayed against God, just as predicted (Revelation 19, etc.) before the Millennial period; (2) the God of Israel is to consume them with His wrath, just as then happens; (3) they are removed, “that they may not be,” i.e. cease to exist on earth; (4) but they shall return again; for, as we shall abundantly show hereafter, the Millennial day has its morning and its evening, they return in the evening of the day, “they return at evening,” i.e. the same enemies destroyed shall come back again at the close of the Millennial day; (5) when they return then shall “they make a noise like a dog and go round about the city,” which encompassing the city is precisely what follows the ending of the thousand years, Rev_20:9; (6) for “a city” pre-eminent for dignity and glory shall characterize the Millennial era; (7) and this is done when “God ruleth in Jacob unto the ends of the earth,” i.e. when the predicted Theocratic Kingdom is firmly and universally established.
Now, taking all these considerations together, and how they so accurately correspond with the general tenor of the Word, with the Covenant and the promises based on the Covenant, it seems that the early Church faith was eminently logical, scriptural, and necessary, end that we have a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection of saints unmistakably presented.363 [Note: 63 363.  This subject might be extended. The allusion in Hab_1:12 seems to refer to this period of resurrection, for in the second chapter those just who live by faith are represented, when the vision shall be realized in its “appointed time,” as finally triumphing over the culminated Antichrist, the “proud man” “who enlargeth his desire as hell and as death (persecutes to the grave) and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations (Revelation 10, etc.) and heapeth unto him all people.” But how is this triumph brought about, just as John here describes: “Shall they not rise up suddenly that shall bite thee and awake that shall vex thee?” etc. So Psalms 118: this gathering of nations foretold their overthrow and destruction, a deliverance of the righteous from death, while the others are not thus delivered. Some (Kimchi) render Psa_1:5, “The wicked shall not rise in judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the just,” which, with the Scriptural idea of the saints’ judgeship, would be in harmony with our view. But these instances are amply sufficient, and refute the opinion of Curry (Bible Examiner, vol. 14, p. 519, etc.) that “the doctrine of the resurrection of the wicked is not contained in the Old Testament.” To sustain this position only two passages of the Old Testament (Job_21:30 and Dan_12:2) are brought forward and disposed of-all others being ignored. Job is removed by another rendering, which may or may not be correct. Daniel is corrected as follows: “And many of the sleepers in the dust of the earth shall awake, these to everlasting life, but those to shame, to everlasting abhorrence,” and the inference is made that “those who do not awake” are given to shame. But is the inference a just one? To decide this question it is requisite to let the general analogy of Scripture speak, and this leads us to another inference, viz., that “those” who also ultimately “awake,” but not in the order of “these” (i.e. the former ones), are given to shame. For no clearer truth is taught in God’s Word than this: that there are two resurrections (as e.g. in Joh_5:28-29 -the parabolic objection has no force, seeing that actual real resurrections were “now” (i.e. then) witnessed- Act_24:15, etc.), one for the righteous unto life, and the other for the wicked unto condemnation. We see no necessity for this modern departure from the primitive church view, especially when antagonistic to so much Scripture that can only be bent to its purpose by special pleading.
Dr. Thomas, as in his Works, rejects an ultimate resurrection of the wicked, and in Eureka advocates that “the rest of the dead” refers to those who die during the Millennial period, thus foisting on the passage a meaning which is not contained in it. Other Christadelphians, more logically, endeavor to get rid of the passage by questioning its Scriptural authority. So also Russell and Barbour endeavor to get rid of the phrase in order to make out their peculiar (Rellyite) restoration of “the rest of the dead” during the Millennial age. As the passage stands, it is utterly and positively antagonistic to their view. Hence as the Sinaitic mss. has it omitted, they conclude (in behalf of their theory) that it is an interpolation. They forget (1) that Tischendorf (The New Testament) pronounces this, in view of the ancient evidence, “a mere error;” (2) that the Alexandrian, Vatican, and numerous other authoritative mss. contain it; (3) that so decided is this that it is found in the ancient and modern versions recognized by the ablest critics, retained in the Variorum, New Revision, etc.; (4) it is quoted or alluded to by men who lived even before these mss. as an authoritative reading; (5) that the opponents of Pre-Millenarianism, who would gladly rid themselves of it (as not in harmony with their views) if they could, concede it as Scriptural; (6) the retention of the passage is, as we have shown, in full accord with the general teaching on the subject. So noted, in the estimation of opposers, is this Scripture, that e.g. Lindsay (Art. “Millennial” in Ency. Brit.) by this living or “resurrection is intended the temporary restoration of the reign of evil after the Millennial”]  
Obs. 5. Some might regard our work imperfect if we did not notice the objections alleged against our interpretation of Revelation 20. For this passage is wrongfully supposed to be the citadel (when merely an outpost) of our doctrine, and hence is the chief object of attack. Let us therefore briefly pass them in review.364 [Note: 64 364.  These objections have been met by Rev. Carleton’s articles in the Theol. and Lit. Journal for 1853-4 on “The Rev. Al. Barnes’s Notes on Rev_20:4-6, by Dr. Lord’s criticism of Dr. Brown’s work in same journal, and by numerous Millenarian writers, such as Noel, Brookes, Seiss, etc. An excellent Treatise is Rev. Sirr’s First Res. In these the objections are answered at length.]  1. That it is presumptive evidence against us that a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection, if taught at all, is only found in this place, so Barnes, etc. Reply: We leave the student to judge for himself, in view of the Jewish belief and that of the early Church based on Old Testament passages.365 [Note: 65 365.  It certainly is unjust to ignore the Jewish and early Church belief, that the covenant would be fulfilled in the restored Davidic throne and Kingdom, which was to be accomplished by a resurrection of saints, and the numerous passages alleged to sustain this view as found in the Old Testament Revelation 20 was adduced by the Primitive Christians in confirmation of this doctrine. The foundation of the Millenarian system is the covenant, and Revelation 20 only illustrates how a certain feature pertaining to it is to be realized. Hence any attack upon us which leaves untouched the covenant and covenant promises is one-sided and unavailing. For the Jewish belief, we may e.g. refer to the works of Lightfoot, Mede, Bush, etc., as well as to the articles in the Biblical Cyclopedias; and for the Primitive Church view we may alone cite the Ante-Nicene Library.]  2. It ought, if teaching such a resurrection, to be less ambiguous, so Barnes, etc. Reply: It is sufficient, distinctive for the wise and prudent, even for Prof. Stuart, etc., for God’s expressed purpose is that it shall come as “a snare” upon the wicked.366 [Note: 66 366.  The plea of ambiguity does not exist when a moral, or spiritual, or ecclesiastical interpretation is urged. Yet our opponents frankly admit that the language is expressive of a literal resurrection, for (1) they inform us that the figure is derived from the doctrine of the resurrection, and (2) they confess (as Dr. Hodge, Sys. Div., vol. 3, p. 841) “it must be admitted that that passage (viz., Rev_20:4-6), taken by itself, does seem to teach the doctrine (i.e. literal resurrection) founded upon it” (but still shields himself behind its obscurity, overlooking the previous usage of its language both in the Scriptures and among the Jews). On this point the reader will be pleased to observe the emphatic testimony of Dean Alford (Gr. Testament, on Rev_20:4-6). Comp. Obs. 11.]  3. The objection grounded on the use of the word “souls,” urged by Witsius, Brown, Barnes, Fairbairn, etc., has been sufficiently met.367 [Note: 67 367.  How Barnes (Com. loci) can say, “By no possible construction can it (souls) mean the bodies of the saints,” how Lindsay (Art. “Millennial” in Ency. Brit.) can remark that our interpretation “would outrage all propriety of language,” how a multitude reiterate such statements in the face of Scriptural and Jewish usage, must undoubtedly be attributed to prejudice. The vision simply represents by “the souls” certain persons, which includes, as usage demonstrates, the bodies who experienced this resurrection. A theory that must sustain itself by such extravagant assertions is palpably defective. The answering feature is that these same critics when they come to the “beheading” (for these souls were beheaded), suddenly forget their own objections, and then speak of them as persons, including the bodies which were decapitated.]  4. That nothing is mentioned of “books being opened,” so Barnes and others. Reply: This is done by the Spirit in Dan_7:11; Dan_12:1, both Pre-Millennial. 5. That Millenarians differ in the details, so Waldegrave and others. Reply: This is a double-edged weapon that can be turned with damaging force against themselves, for while we are a unit in the grand outlines of our doctrine, our opponents have fundamental diversities and antagonistic theories based on the passage.368 [Note: 68 368.  Some in spiritualizing make it past, others present, and others still future; some interpret it as a continued representation of martyrdom and suffering, others of triumph and peace, and still others a kind of combination of the two, etc. Bush (Millennial), Gipps (First resurrection), make martyrdom its prominent feature; Barnes (Com. loci), Whately (Essays) gives us the revival of martyr spirit and energy; Ralston (The Rev. of John) and others constitute it an era of missions; Hazard (Rev. Revealed) and others make it a restoration of the Church to civil and religious power; many Augustineans constitute it a representation of this dispensation; others again unite several of these features.]  Besides, diversity of opinion among themselves is not urged by us as proof of the falsity of a doctrine, our appeal is to the Word itself. 6. Nothing is said of their employments, so Barnes. Reply: It is said that they shall reign. 7. No “reason” is assigned “why they are raised,” Barnes. Reply: It is given in their reigning. 8. Nothing is stated “of the new circumstances of their being,” Barnes. Reply: It is given in their immortality and reigning. 9. Nothing is said “of their condition when the thousand years shall have ended,” Barnes. Reply: That is done in other places, for the thousand years do not limit their reign (Prop. 159). 10. But various writers urge that reigning during these thousand years limits it only to that period, so Barnes, etc. Reply: This is a mere quibble, for the thousand years are expressly referred to as intended to denote the period of the binding of Satan, and that also during this period of binding the reign of the saints is established. The duration of the reign must be sought for in passages which describe it. 11. No mention is made of “bodies,” so Ralston, Barnes. Reply: Not necessary, as we have shown, according to usage of language. Besides, this is spoken of dead ones who have been beheaded, etc. See Barnes, Com. Act_2:27, and compare with his Com. Rev_20:4 for a complete answer. 12. It is alleged that if this is a lit. resurrection, then all the righteous must be included, but only two classes are referred to, viz., the martyrs and those who did not worship the beast, so Barnes and many others. Reply: If it were necessary, the concessions of numerous critics, Stuart, etc., might be used to embrace others also, but we, with the meaning of “first resurrection” before us, cordially accept of these two classes alone, believing as we do that the resurrection of the others preceded this one. The line of argument adopted by our opponents proves too much, for it would exclude the resurrection of the saints after Christ’s crucifixion (Mat_27:51-53), etc.369 [Note: 69 369.  The confinement of the resurrection to particular classes at a specified time does not invalidate its literalness or exclude previous ones, just as Christ’s assertions did not that of “the many who arose.” Winthrop (Lec. 132) advocates two cases as mentioned in this passage, viz., the martyrs and those who did not worship the beast, saying that such “is the general opinion of critical commentators.” The author of The Kingdom of Grace calls this into question and (overlooking Barnes, Stuart, etc.) stigmatizes these critical commentators to be “of course” Millenarian, asserting “that there is not a single rule of grammar in the world which will justify the use of this ellipsis.” This writer thus exhibits his lack of knowledge of what frequently occurs in Greek, and which is frankly acknowledged by the ablest of our opponents. Thus e.g. Fairbairn (On Proph., p. 456) translates: “And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them; and (I saw) the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness (testimony) of Jesus and for the Word of God; and such as had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mart upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.” Compare Roe’s Analyt. Arrange. of Apocalypse, who also makes (a) of “the souls,” those who had been beheaded, “and (b) whoever had not worshipped the beast,” etc. So Witsius (Exer. Sacra, p. 516), and many after him explain it. Our view of the passage confines it exclusively to the persons who suffer and die under the last terrible persecution of the Antichrist, and that they also pertain to the rights and privileges of “the firstborn” as already explained. The first resurrection, for aught we know, may embrace Mat_26:52-53; 1Th_4:16-17; Rev_7:9-17, and Revelation 12 and 14-this, at least, is the opinion of many (see e.g. an editorial, Proph. Times, vol. 8, p. 31, etc.); for as Selnecker (quoted by Seiss) remarks: “To this resurrection belongs everything that is raised to immortality before the last day.” One thing is self-evident, however we may consider the different stages (as Baxter and others), less or more, this resurrection does not prevent preceding, but identifies it as belonging to that of the righteous by the emphasis placed on the word “first.”]  13. No resurrection of the unjust is mentioned, so Brown, Barnes. Reply: This is a mistake, it is to take place after the thousand years. This objection is based on the supposition (Popish) of a general universal resurrection, simply because both resurrections, without specifying order or time, are mentioned together. This has been sufficiently answered. 14. That such a reign of Christ as we hold, with “a splendid capital at Jerusalem,” etc., is not mentioned in the passage, so Barnes. Reply: If we are to adopt such a criterion to test the truth of any portion of Scripture, then we must yield up many a valuable proof of our Christianity. Our answer is, a comparison of Scripture must indicate what belongs to the period. The Spirit to test faith, etc., gives us truths in a disconnected form, often isolated, which we are to bring together. 15. That if this is a lit. resurrection, saints do not need the assurance “on such the second death hath no power,” so Barnes. Reply: This has been already answered. We add: It is not for us to prescribe what is needed. Besides, a resurrection of dead ones being mentioned, it appears exceedingly appropriate, since so many desire to doubt it, to declare it to be a resurrection unto immortality. 16. That there are two classes only, one who are resurrected, and another who are under the power of the second death; “into which of these classes are we to put the myriads of men having flesh and blood who are to people the world during the Millennium?” so Barnes. Reply: Into neither of them, for this passage only describes the dead, and not the living. Who the rest are can easily be ascertained. 17. If a lit. resurrection, then the rest of the dead must also literally arise “immediately after the thousand years are finished, but that is not stated,” so Barnes and Brown. Reply: The concession is made that if the first is literal the other must be the same; this at least indicates our consistency. But the rest does not follow, for the phrase “immediately after” is not in the text. If we can show, as we have done, that “after” the thousand years, even if some time after (for the text only alludes to their non-resurrection during the thousand years), a second resurrection, also literal (as Barnes himself admits), takes place, that is amply sufficient to sustain our position. 18. It is a symbolic representation, so Barnes, etc. Reply: Precisely so, and real, actual occurrences are symbolized, not figurative ones. Besides, the symmetry of symbolism must be observed, for e.g. it would be incongruous to make a violent death received, and dead ones, made so for the truth’s sake symbolize sin, evil, etc.370 [Note: 70 370.  Lord (Theol. and Lit. Journal, vol. 6, p. 453) concisely states this as follows: “As the apostasy of the soul to sin is the antecedent and cause of the death of the body, so the renovation of the soul is a necessary antecedent and prerequisite of the resurrection of the body to a glorious life. A resurrection of the body cannot therefore be used as a symbol of the renovation of the soul. It were to reverse the order of nature and of grace, and make a consequent the representative of an antecedent, an effect the symbols of an indispensable condition of its own existence, which were absurd.” Besides this, the objection is futile, for the simple reason that these same objectors interpret the concluding portion of the chapter, also largely symbolic, as denoting a literal resurrection. Lord falls into an inadvertency when in the context he asserts that no other symbol could be found to indicate the saints, for he overlooks the fact that he in another place makes “the stone” of Daniel 2 to symbolize the same (which latter statement we cannot receive, for the reasons assigned under another Proposition).]  19. All the dead, Revelation 20:l-l5, will be raised up at Christ’s Coming, so Brown, Barnes, etc. Reply: This proves too much, for some of the dead have been previously raised. Besides, concise passages which state in general terms and in juxtaposition the resurrection of both just and unjust must be interpreted by those in which the order is laid down; while in Rev_20:11-15 the dead then mentioned are those found in that condition at that period, for in no shape or form is it intimated that it is the only resurrection.371 [Note: 71 371.  Professor Sanborn (Essay on Millenarianism) makes even the extravagant assertion that “the Church has believed in all ages that there would be a simultaneous resurrection of the dead, both of the just and of the unjust.” A scholar acquainted with the history of the doctrine could not make such a declaration, so utterly opposed by the Jewish faith, the early Church belief for several centuries, and the expressed views of many eminent men in the Church. The passages alluded to by Prof. Sanborn merely assert the fact that both shall be raised, but says nothing of the order or of a simultaneous resurrection, leaving the order to be evolved by other passages relating to the subject, just as the Jews and primitive believers did in their teaching. It will not answer (as Dr. Hodge) to confine ourselves to one class of passages which, as all admit, can be referred to a resurrection of dead ones, both just and unjust, and ignore another class which teach a particular resurrection out of or from among dead ones, or which speak of the resurrection of the righteous as something separate and distinct from that of the wicked. If the resurrection is simultaneous, as our opponents claim, then we certainly see no propriety or force in Paul’s wish as expressed Php_3:11, viz., expressing undue anxiety about that which is inevitable. Perhaps the greatest inadvertency to be met with in a serious controversial article is that found in the Presby. Quarterly Review for 1853, where the writer in one place makes even Rev_20:12-14 “a resurrection or reappearance on earth of the old spirit of persecution,” and then in another place, a literal resurrection of the dead, arguing as if we did not also hold that the resurrection and judgment of Rev_20:12-14 was post-millennial. Some of our opponents, in charity, we trust, misapprehend our doctrinal position and ascribe views and interpretations to us that we do not hold.]  20. There is no Advent of Christ connected with this resurrection, so Barnes. Reply: There is; see preceding chapter. 21. “All the righteous and wicked will be judged together, and both at the Coming of Christ,” so Barnes, Brown, etc. Reply: Notwithstanding the assertion that “it is utterly impossible to explain these passages,” etc., given as proof, we unhesitatingly pronounce this doctrine pure assumption, a virtual adoption of old monkish views, irreconcilable with the facts stated in those very Scriptures, and antagonistic to the statements of the Divine Spirit. For full proof we refer the reader to the Propositions on Judgment (Props. 132 and 133), to the analysis (Prop. 134) of Mat_25:31-46 (the main proof text relied on), and to the order of Judgment which follows that of the resurrection (as e.g. Props. 161-164). Many of the proofs alleged simply refer to judgment of all men, which we receive; or to the judgment of the righteous and of the wicked at Christ’s Advent, which we also believe, and not one of them asserts that at the Coming of Christ both the righteous and the wicked dead shall be raised up, and a general judgment of these two classes will then be held. This is simply inferred, as we shall conclusively show hereafter. If the modern notion is correct, then the pious Jews and early Church groped in worse than Egyptian darkness.372 [Note: 72 372.  The critical reader will observe that this resurrection is already based on a previous judgment. To insure a first resurrection there must be a corresponding fitness, and the resurrection itself is evidence of the divine acceptance of the person experiencing its power. In the nature of the case there must be an antecedent estimate and judgment of character, worthiness, etc. The Popish notion of judgment, so largely entertained by Protestants, is one that is simply inferred from a few passages considered isolated from the general analogy of Scripture on the subject (comp. Props. 132, 133, 134, 135, etc.). Sometimes we are unjustly charged (as by Prof. Sanborn and others) as if we did not associate a final judgment of the quick and the dead with the Second Advent of Christ. But our entire argument shows that we thus connect them, observing an order in the judgment as well as in the resurrection. Indeed, in one sense, it might even be designated “simultaneous,” seeing that the non-resurrection of the rest of the dead until the thousand years are ended, implies already a judgment passed upon them by which they are accounted unworthy of the position and blessings entailed by the first resurrection.]  22. The rise of Gog and Magog is against the idea of a literal resurrection, so Brown and others. Reply: We fail to see it; for if God intends to raise up certain of the dead previously to Gog and Magog (whatever these names may denote), it will be performed. 23. That if the resurrection be literal, then some of the Apostles and other good Christians would be excluded, so Fairbairn. Reply: This has been answered, but we may add: This objection overlooks the fact that not all martyrs, but only those at a particular period of time (during the time of the beast and prophet) are specified, viz., those under the last persecution. Again, it reads this resurrection isolated, whereas to obtain the whole doctrine all the passages (as e.g. in Revelation 11; I Corinthians 15; Isaiah 25, etc.) bearing on the subject are to be recognized in their proper order, which, of course, includes the Prophets, Apostles, all saints. 24. “The rest of the dead neither awake nor live during the thousand years, nor at any other time,” so Bush and Paraeus. Reply: This is directly opposed by the text, as admitted by many-nearly all-of our opponents. The effort to sustain this objection by altering the text from “lived not again” to “lived not,” on the authority of a few mss., is a failure, since all the mss. more ancient are opposed to it, fully sustaining our version. Even if the change were allowed, it would still favor our doctrine. These are the leading objections urged against our interpretation, and the student can readily see that many of them are merely captious, i.e. seeking for difficulties and manufacturing them; others, nearly all, are inferential; while not one of them is based on a direct, positive, scriptural statement, unless Obj. 21 forms an exception. The value of the latter will appear as we proceed. Recent writers (as Hodge, Sys. Div., in part relating to Eschatology) have presented no new objections, but simply reiterate what have been repeatedly answered, without observing and replying to our line of argument founded in the covenant itself.373 [Note: 73 373.  We have presented and replied to the objections urged by Brown in Christ’s Second Coming, and in addition show how utterly erroneous is the declaration made by him, that if a first resurrection is taught at all, it can only be found in Revelation 20. The general analogy of Scripture on the subject speaks for itself. The plea that if taught it ought to be “a clear and unambiguous revelation,” is decidedly ambiguous after the clear statements of the Old Testament, which we have shown, God Himself condescending to explain. The concessions coming from such a source are worthy of notice. Thus he concedes that the word “souls” does not forbid in connection the idea of “a bodily resurrection,” for “‘they lived,’ not their souls, but themselves.” Again he fully admits that while there is no specific mention of “the earth,” yet that it is sufficiently “clear” “that the earth is the theatre of the Millennial reign,” thus rejecting the notion of Ash, Piscator, Moore, etc., of locating this reign in heaven above. He confidently remarks (p. 226) in reference to the second resurrection of Rev_20:12-15, that it is “a clear and unambiguous prophecy of the resurrection of all the righteous and wicked at once, and in proof of this I appeal to the all but universal voice of the Church. Has there ever been any testimony approaching to this, either in amount or harmony, in favor of the literal sense of the Millennial prophecy? No! there has not.” We refer the reader to the history of the doctrine (Props. 74, 75, 76, 77, and 78), which indisputably shows that in the first period of the Church Dr. Brown’s “all but universal voice” did not exist, but was brought into existence through the Alexandrian and Popish influence. Smith (Key to Rev.) spiritualizes the resurrection of the martyrs so that it “means the revival of the cause in which they lived and died,” but the weight to be attached to such an opinion is self-evident from the annexed assertion that none of the saints resurrected are “to be raised to dwell again on the earth,” so Gnostic is his feeling and so hostile to covenant promises. The spiritualizing and objections of Scott, Doddridge, etc., are sufficiently answered in our brief review of Barnes. Ralston (Apocalypse, p. 163) explains, “This is the first resurrection, or resuscitation of characters, resembling the ancient worthies; for John saw, not the bodies, but the souls of those martyrs, which must imply a resuscitation of spiritual powers.” And this is the only reason given for spiritualizing the resurrection, based on the passage itself. According to his system (to show how arbitrary) Rev_11:15-19; Rev_14:14-20; Rev_20:11-15 are synchronous, and descriptive of “the general resurrection and final judgment.” We asserted the danger of making the second, resurrection of Revelation 20 to be also spiritual, and thus to find no real resurrection in the Apocalypse whatever. This is done by many writers. Thus, e.g. Rev. Burdick in the N. Y. Evang., Feb. 3, 1876, says: “In the second resurrection, implied from the first, the fact described is an uprising of the spiritual forces in the Kingdom of Satan.” Strange and unscriptural as this view is, it at least is consistent with the interpretation of the first resurrection, for it makes the second one in kind to the first. To indicate how little the whole subject is understood, and yet how rashly and confidently some write concerning it, Lord (Theol. and Lit. Jour., Oct., 1853, p. 270) points out how a writer in the Presby-Quart. Review against Millenarianism positively asserts that the resurrection of Rev_20:12-14 denotes “a resurrection or reappearance on earth of the old spirit of persecution, which had slumbered or been kept in abeyance during the long and prosperous period of the Millennium;” and then on a succeeding page, forgetting his own interpretation thus given, the same author, to make out a general, universal resurrection, as positively makes it a real resurrection, saying that it means the following: “The dead observe, not the living, but the race whose probation is ended, and on whom death has already set his seal, are judged.” Some, as Butler(Lec. Apoc.), endeavor to patch up a kind of compromise, declaring this resurrection to be a raising up of disembodied saints to positions of honor and glory, without receiving a body-which is opposed to the covenant promises, the proper conception of a resurrection, the relation that the saints sustain to the Christ in the coming Kingdom, etc. Such views with but unimportant variations might be extensively quoted, but this is amply sufficient for illustration. And yet that the reader may have before him all that the most respectable and able writers opposed to us can produce, we select two of the most noted. Martensen (Ch. Dog., s. 281), in giving his “ spiritual” conception of the meaning of Revelation 20, refers to the first resurrection as follows: “A general historical resurrection will take place in the Church; the graves of Church History will be opened, and all the past will rise again in an all-embracing, living, and spiritual remembrance; and under the influence of this great consciousness the Church will display a universal activity, a universal development of her various gifts.” His entire exegesis is based on the preconceived idea, expressed by himself, that the Kingdom of God is to be established by and under “the conditions of historical development,” i.e. by existing agencies extending themselves in the way of progress. On the other hand, we hold, with Scripture and Early Church tradition, that it is to be established by Christ Himself at His personal Coming, not by man or through the present agency of man. When reading Martensen, one wonders how he would have spiritualized the promises relating to the First Advent, had he lived before its realization. Pressense (The Early Days of Christianity, p. 439) mixes concessions and inconsistencies as follows: “The triumph of the Church is connected in the Apocalypse as in the first Gospel, with the return of Christ. To proclaim that triumphant return and to describe its glorious results is the great object of the Book of Revelation, as to wait for it is the highest consolation left by the Master to His disciples. In the Apocalypse two distinct periods are marked in this final triumph of Christianity over Antichrist. The first victory is brought about by the direct and visible intervention of the Savior, taking up the cause of His people, and gloriously establishing the reign of His Church upon earth.” In reading this one would be led to suppose that Pressense was a pronounced Pre-Millenarian, being so directly opposed to Brown, Barnes, Hodge, etc., and so in unison with a cardinal doctrine of ours bitterly resisted by the great majority of our opposers. But in a foot-note he vitiates his concession by the following: “The idea of a Millennium preceded by a first resurrection is suggested by Revelation 20; but we must not forget the symbolical character of the book. The glorious triumph of the Church is in itself a judgment of the world. The world is judged by the saints whom it had made its victims; their victory is its condemnation. The writer of the Revelation, when he shows us the saints raised from the dead and sitting upon thrones, employs an image analogous to that used by him to describe the triumph of the two faithful witnesses in the Church, Rev_11:11. We may observe that at the close of Rev_20:12-15 mention is made of a general resurrection of the dead in which all are to be judged according to their works. The judgment had then yet to take place, and the Christians appointed to salvation were not yet raised.” The preconceived ideas of judgment, resurrection, the nature of the Kingdom, etc., are self-evident. It is strange that “the symbolical character” of the prediction does not forbid him to accept of the greater doctrine (viz., a personal Pre-Millennial Advent), while it urges him to reject the lesser (viz., a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection). It is also strange that he did not observe the fact that the general analogy of Scripture associates the resurrection of the saints with the future personal Advent of Jesus, His Second Advent, so that when He comes-whenever that is-those that sleep in Jesus shall experience His resurrecting power. Having carefully met all the objections urged, it is unnecessary to repeat.]  
Obs. 6. The subject of the resurrection is frequently referred to and implied in the Apocalypse, but it would be foreign to our design to enter into a detailed statement respecting each allusion. A few remarks respecting the more prominent will answer, and we can only specify, leaving the student to investigate. The resurrection of Rev_11:18, occurring under the last trumpet, and thus Pre-Millennial, has been sufficiently noticed (Obs. 1, with which compare the concessions of many of our opponents, e.g. Barnes, etc.). Rev_14:1-5, embracing the first-fruits preceding the harvest, includes necessarily a resurrection, and will be treated under the subject of the translation. The “man-child” of Rev_12:5 is by many able prophetical writers interpreted as symbolic or representative of the resurrected saints. Those who (like Dr. Seiss and others) hold to a literal day fulfillment, still future, of the Apocalypse, find the resurrection implied in the 4th and 5th chaps, of Revelation and in ch. 7, etc. The passages which obscurely refer to it or imply it are to be interpreted by the plain and decided teaching on the subject (comp. Prop. 130).
Obs. 7. Two things connected with Rev_20:4-6 may be noticed-the persons raised and the time when raised. 1. The persons raised are martyrs, and only martyrs. Mede was so strongly in favor to apply this to the martyrs and “confessors equipollent to martyrs” as “a prerogative to their sufferings above the rest of the dead,” that he inclined to the opinion “that all the righteous will rise during the course of the Millennial Kingdom.” Burgh, and many others, insist that martyrs only are designated. Brown and others make two classes, viz., martyrs and those who did not worship (although others, in our estimation, more correctly apply the latter as a characteristic of the martyrs and the reason assigned why they were martyred). Pre-Millenarians and Post-Millenarians make two classes or bodies, the former to include all saints in the first resurrection, and the latter as a mere exegetical addition, having more (so Barnes) than the martyrs intended. Even Witsius (Exer. Sac, p. 516) has a class beside the martyrs. Kliefoth (Offenbarung Johannes, p. 260) advocates a literal resurrection, and has, like Bengel, two bodies announced (not of the dead, but) one of the dead (martyrs) who are raised up, and another of the living (confessors), who are translated. But this evidently is designed to make it fit with 1Th_4:17 and 1Co_15:51-53; comp, also Sirr on The First resurrection, and works advocating the same view, and it will be found that under the impression that all the righteous are raised simultaneously, and in order to make Revelation 20 to correspond with other passages supposed to teach the same, two classes are introduced into the passage, and into the last body (confessors) the remaining righteous are crowded. We are not forced to this procedure, which is an evident violation of the passage, because it refers exclusively to “the dead,” as the phrase “the rest of the dead” plainly shows, and to a body of men who suffered martyrdom in view of their confession of faith and rejection of the still future Antichrist. Even if it were admitted, on exegetical grounds, that two bodies are included, these bodies could not possibly, by any legitimate reasoning, be made to include all the saints of this, and past centuries, seeing that it is entirely descriptive of those who pass through the yet future tribulation under the culminated Antichrist.374 [Note: 74 374.  Hence we cannot fully receive Dr. Schmucker’s (Exp. of Rev.) interpretation of Rev_20:4-6. He correctly makes it teach a literal resurrection, and one pertaining to martyrs, who “in their immortal bodies shall live again and reign with Christ as His associates in His universal Monarchy on earth,” but, overlooking that these martyrs designated are those only who fall under a still future tribulation, he includes among them all martyrs, of every age, ancient and modern. Martyrs before this period have already risen, and these follow them-both having part in the preeminent resurrection pertaining to the first-born.]  A misconception of the meaning of “first” (comp. Obs. 2) has a weighty influence in its application. The resurrection and translation of a select portion occurs previous to the fulfillment of this prediction, as seen e.g. in Revelation 14, as the first-fruits are similar in nature to the succeeding harvest, and precedes the rise and persecution of the culminated Antichrist. All these resurrections occur under the Second Advent in its secret or thief-like stage. But this will appear plainer by looking at the second subject. 2. The time when these martyrs are raised up is of course associated by all Pre-Millenarians with the Second Advent, but many, by not distinguishing between the stages, and by being exclusively wedded to some favorite year-day interpretation of the Apocalypse, apply its fulfillment to the period immediately after the open Parousia of Revelation 19. Now while, as against our opponents who deny a literal personal Second Advent, we can properly use (as we have done) this passage as one associated with the resurrection of the saints (for without a personal Second Advent there is no resurrection), yet when we come to consider the exact time in the period of the Second Advent when this resurrection of the martyrs is experienced, we find the most conclusive evidence that it also takes place during the secret stage, and previous to the open Parousia of Revelation 19. Let the reader consider, as introductory, two facts proven in detail in other places (Prop. 130 and Prop. 166, etc.), the two stages in the Second Advent, and the still future Advent of the last Antichrist (Props. 161-164), who causes the death of these martyrs and is overthrown at the open manifestation of King Jesus and His saints. Now turn to Revelation 15, and we find that before the seven last plagues, which fill up the wrath of God, are poured out, the identical persons described in Rev_20:4, who resisted the beast and his image and mark, are already exultant in acquired salvation, and this follows the gathering of the first-fruits as the enforced worship of the beast, image, and mark (Rev_14:9) also follows it. It precedes the open Parousia, as these victorious ones witness (Rev_16:2) the vials poured out upon “the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.” It precedes the open Parousia, because they, with all saints, shall be connected with the announced “marriage of the Lamb,” and they belong (as a portion due to them “to execute the judgment written”) to the armies that accompany the King of kings. In view, therefore, of the deliverance of these martyrs before the vials are poured out and their coming with Jesus at His open Advent, Rev_20:4-6 is retrospective. If the student carefully ponders the construction of the passage he will find (1) the binding of Satan and its duration announced; (2) then follows the reign of the saints in place of Satan’s previous dominion, and this is portrayed (a) by the “thrones” and “judgment,” a general announcement; (b) by a particular specification (as an encouragement, and to lead us not to limit these reigning ones) of the martyrs; (c) by expressions indicative of the nature of the reign, and that all who participate in it have the privileges and honors of the first-born.375 [Note: 75 375.  These martyrs have part in “the first resurrection,” and this implies that others also have part in it. Indeed, “this is the first resurrection” includes not merely the martyrs, but all to whom are given thrones and judgment or rulership. This may reconcile a historical difficulty in relation to the doctrine. The Primitive Church always associated the resurrection with the Second Advent, and held that (as we do) all saints, together with those martyrs, had a part in the first resurrection. Brown (Ch. Second Com., p. 224) objects to Burgh’s statement of a limited resurrection of believers being “generally held in the early ages of Christianity,” and says: “I have not been able to verify this statement by reference to the early Chiliastic Fathers. Probably Mr. Burgh gives as their actual belief the impression merely which their language conveys as a whole. But this is hardly fair, in opposition to pretty plain statements extending the first resurrection to believers generally, which may be adduced, for example, from Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Tertullian, high authority certainly on this point.” Dr. Brown is correct as to the historical fact that all believers have part in a first resurrection at the Second Advent, and Burgh as to the special reference to the martyrs, which, however, must, as the context and other passages show, be associated with that of other believers who preceded them. The evident distinction as to exact time, the decided reference to martyrs, and yet the associated nature and honor of the same kind of a resurrection, and the inability to explain and apply the same, has led to a confusion of ideas and contradictory statements, which our position avoids.
The critical student will observe that if we are to receive the renderings (e.g. Fairbairn’s and others) and interpretations (e.g. Brown’s and others) which emphasize two classes, viz., the martyrs “and such as had not worshipped the beast” (so Fairbairn), or martyrs “and of them who worshipped not the beast” (so Wordsworth), etc. (and we do not by any means discard them, for such a meaning may be intended), still our position as to exact time and the persons denoted remains the same. For then we have-not the saints of past ages, but-the martyrs and those associated with them under the last great tribulation of the culminated Antichrist. All that we contend for is, that the persons designated are persons who at a time still future experience this persecution and martyrdom, and that the rest of the saints are included in the “thrones,” “judgment,” and general affirmation respecting the first resurrection and the reign.
It may be well to notice, briefly, an effort to bend this passage against us by Prof. Bush (Anastasis, p. 309, with which comp. Gipp’s First Res., p. 133), who proposes to change the verbs into the present tense, in order to make out-according to his theory-a succession of persons who suffered and reigned, and to prevent the beheading and not worshipping to be antecedent to the reign. But such a change would not help their cause, for the reasons that the vision is described as passing before the seer, that the future is frequently spoken of as present, that each one having part in the resurrection is represented as reigning the thousand years, and that the passage itself must be interpreted by the general analogy on the subject.]  
Obs. 8. If Mede’s argument is once admitted, viz., that Rev_20:4-6 and Daniel 7 are synchronous, then it is impossible, without direct violation of the order laid down, to avoid a Pre-Millennial resurrection. Bush, in his Anastasis, admits Mede’s position, owing to the parallelism of the two prophecies, but endeavors to avoid our conclusion by making both to describe the Gospel dispensation. But in doing this, he not only makes a fearful Millennium of suffering and martyrdom (against all prophecy), but he reverses the facts of history. For, instead of such a removal of antagonistic powers-a sealing, binding, and detention of Satan so as not to deceive-the history of the Church and of the kingdoms clearly proclaim, in the persecutions endured, the tyranny exercised, the murders committed, the crimes and wars indulged, etc., that neither Daniel nor John have yet been fulfilled. It matters not whether we make the dragon a symbol of tyrannical dominion or of a personal devil; in either case the predictions of the Prophets have not been realized; and what is more to the point, in the order laid down by themselves, if followed in the evolution of history, it was impracticable, for the simple reason that before this exaltation, etc., of the saints, certain events, running down to the present and still extending in the future, must first be fulfilled. Any other position makes the Bible contradictory both to itself and to history.
Obs. 9. Those who deny a literal resurrection in Revelation 20 generally have much to say concerning the indefiniteness and obscurity of figurative and symbolic prophecy-the difficulty of understanding it until the fulfillment shows its intended meaning, being upheld by some-but when they come to explain it themselves, then all difficulties vanish, and no other interpretation can possibly be allowed. This, to say the least, is indicative that they have no confidence in their assumptions against us, and that, when necessity requires it, they esteem themselves fully competent to elucidate, with the utmost charming confidence, even “obscure” predictions. The reader may draw his own conclusions.
The careful reader must have noticed with what assurance this has been carried out in Christian Theologies, Biblical Dictionaries, Religious Cyclopedias, etc. The subject of the resurrection is at length introduced, and notwithstanding our scriptural argument, the early Church belief, the Jewish view, the concessions of opponents, the subject of a literal first resurrection is either entirely ignored or merely hinted at, just as if the popular interpretation of Revelation 20 was beyond all contradiction the correct one. Some who slightly advert to it claim the indefiniteness of prophecy, which disappears in favor of their own view. The truth is, that any work or intended complete article, on the resurrection which refuses to recognize our doctrine, and in some measure discuss it, is certainly un-scholarly and defective, seeing that it passes over that which the ablest men in the Church profess to be solidly based in Scripture and antiquity.
Another peculiarity may here be noticed. Brown (Ch. Second Com.) and others endeavor to make the impression that our opponents are in perfect accord in the interpretation and application of Rev_20:1-6, while Pre-Millenarians differ. And they carefully point out our differences, but with greater carefulness conceal their own differences. Now the fact, as the slightest comparison shows, is that far less unity exists among them than among us. While Pre-Millenarians differ as to the exact order, the persons resurrected, the duration and nature of the reign, and a few minor details, they are a unit on the grand outlines, respecting its being a literal resurrection, its eclectic nature, its realization at the Second Advent, its connection with a glorious following Millennium, etc., whereas our opponents differ on all these points. Some make the resurrection spiritual, others make it literal; some make it civil, others civil and religious; some make it illustrative of persecution, others a poetical effusion, and others a Jewish superstition; some make it past, others past and present, and others future. Surely our opponents ought to be the last to speak of differences of opinion.
Obs. 10. There is a resurrection of the wicked dead, Obs. 4. It will not answer, as many do, to assert a resurrection of just and unjust at the beginning of this age and none after; or to affirm, as others do, that there is no resurrection of the wicked whatever. Without discussing the destiny of the wicked, the passages that we have presented distinctly show that after the thousand years are ended the rest of the dead “lived again,” i.e. were raised up from the dead; that they, “after many days shall he visited;” that they shall “return,” and return at evening time: that they shall be made subject to the endurance of “the second death;” that those dead whose names are not found in the book of life are also raised up and judged; that there is a resurrection of some unto shame and contempt, which those that return in the evening experience; that the resurrection of the dead is affirmed in their order of all men, both just and unjust; that a prior, pre-eminent resurrection, etc., involves another of a lower class, which must include the wicked; and that the resurrection of the dead and a judgment to follow is held up as a motive of repentance to men. These considerations are sufficient to sustain the position, of John in Revelation 20. To quote the passages which speak of the wicked as “silent in the grave” as “not being,” “remaining in the congregation of the dead,” etc., to prove a non-resurrection, is only bringing forth part of the truth, viz., that there is a non-resurrection of the wicked for a certain period of time, and this is thus strongly, by way of contrast to the blessed condition of the righteous, presented. But the whole truth as given by the Spirit demands their “return,” their also “living again” Any other interpretation flatly contradicts divine statements.376 [Note: 76 376.  By pressing Scripture (“shall not be,” etc.) beyond all analogy, we could easily adduce proof that the believer, as represented by the Psalmist, will not rise again, when it is said, Psa_39:13, “before I go hence and be no more,” etc.]  Let us receive all that is written, observing the same order laid down by the Spirit. If it be asked, Of what practical use or benefit can such a resurrection unto condemnation and shame be? the answers are various; such as, to vindicate the justice of God; to prove the truthfulness and reality of His representations and mercy; to apportion “the few or many stripes” that the guilty merit; to fulfill His declaration that all the wicked shall see and acknowledge the Divine power; to show that death itself, as many fondly hope, is no refuge for the sinner; that a resurrection unto eternal life is the special gift of God through Jesus Christ; to contrast the condition of the resurrection saints with their own; to root out in the most effectual manner every remnant of evil; to give to the creatures of God, the universe itself, a sublime and abiding idea of the nature and consequences of sin. If it be asked, Why does God give the righteous so long a priority and cause the wicked only to “return” after so long an interval? the reason, as we gather it from intimations, here and there, seems to be this: This Millennial era is designed to fulfill covenanted promises; these require the resurrection of the saints and their triumphant establishment in the earth. To do this demands, as almost every Millennial description portrays, the removal of God’s enemies to clear “the inheritance” of its oppressors. Being thus removed, the triumph of the saints, their victory over death, the bestowal of dominion-in brief, the ample and continued fulfillment of God’s promises in real, actual experience is fully exhibited and tested during these thousand years, clearly and fully vindicating the truthfulness and faithfulness of God, and the honor, dignity, and power of David’s Son. Now, it is declared that this faithfulness, etc., is to be manifested not only to angels, to the glorified, to the restored Jewish nation, to spared Gentiles, but also to the wicked. The time selected is at the close of the Sabbath of the world’s week, in the very height of completed fulfillment of promise, and sway of saintly reign, and the accumulated glory of the rule of David’s Son; then the wicked arise and are filled with “sudden shame” and “confusion” when they behold the justly forfeited blessings in the possession of those whom they despised, rejected, and even persecuted. This resurrection is therefore delayed, not merely to give the saints an honorable precedence by way of reward, and as a punishment to the wicked for refusing Christ and His proffered mercy, but to place the saints, the inheritance, the world, yea, even Christ Himself in the covenanted position by which the majesty and glory of God is the more fully seen, felt, and appreciated in the then proven, tested immortality and reign of the saints, renewal of the earth or removal of the curse, etc. At the end of the thousand years, so faithfully is it proven that all the promises of God are “yea and amen” in Christ, that none can gainsay it, for the covenant is more than fulfilled, and to forfeited blessings additional and greater have been added. This is the time, gloriously, yea, sadly suitable, which God has appointed for “the rest of the dead to live again,” and behold with their own eyes the glory they have lost by not obeying God-a glory shining forth in the land, in the Theocratic government, in the subjects, in the immortal kings and priests, and in the exalted, enthroned Son of Man. Imagine just such a “return,” under such circumstances, and then tell us, are “holy men of old” wrong when they depict the shame, degradation, and unhappiness of the wicked at this period? Imagine Voltaire, Paine, Strauss, and a multitude like them to thus “return” and see what they ridiculed, and what must then memory and conscience say?377 [Note: 77 377.  How terrible the contrast of situation and doom! The haters and persecutors of believers, the scoffers of pious ones, then stand amazed and confounded at the shining glory of the once detested followers of Jesus. It is but reasonable that a Voltaire should be raised up to account for his blasphemy; a Strauss, to tell why he was so indignant at the Christ’s assumption of Judgeship; a Renan, to explain his detraction and disgusting allusion to “the Galilean girls;” ten thousand, thousand others, to meet the hypocrisy, malice, brutality, etc., exhibited-and then there will be (Luk_13:28) “weeping and gnashing of teeth, when they shall see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the Kingdom of God, and themselves thrust out.” It is but just that men should thus arise and witness to the utter falsehood and maliciousness of their detractions of Jesus and His Messianic claims. Eminent and talented men have written works specially designed to degrade Jesus; multitudes have jubilantly urged their defamatory statements; sarcasm, ridicule, blasphemy, etc. are devised and circulated by hosts of enemies, and it is but just that they should be raised up to meet an ample and shame-confounding manifestation of their willful and deliberate hostility to Jesus. How inquisitors, executioners, defamers, etc. will face their victims, then exalted and glorified, and especially the magnificent King of kings, is clearly and pointedly represented in the Word.
A few words of caution may be added. Rev_20:12-15 is not necessarily to be restricted (as by Dallas and others) to “the rest of the dead;” for it includes (so Lord and others) those who may have died during the thousand years. Lord (Sep. Apoc.) makes it to embrace “all the wicked dead of all ages;” but we would not dogmatically restrict it even solely to such, because it may, for aught we can tell, include far more. For, while translations, glorifications, etc. may result during the Millennial age as a reward for holiness, yet the mention of the book of life and the reference to all the dead then existing may imply that others, not accounted worthy of special honor and exaltation-although ultimately to be saved-are included in those dead. Again: in reference to a resurrection of the wicked, we add this: it is true (see e.g. Art. “Resurrection” in M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop.) that while the Jews held to a Pre-Millennial resurrection of the pious, some discarded the ultimate resurrection of the ungodly, but others (“the prevailing opinion”) held that the unjust would also finally be raised. Now observe how the language of Jesus and Paul accords with the latter prevailing view, as e.g. in “all that are in their graves,” etc. (Joh_5:28-29), “a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust” (Act_24:15). Such language is, of course, powerfully confirmatory of the then existing opinion; so corroborative that it can only be avoided by special pleading. Again: this resurrection of the rest of the dead is after the thousand years. We, therefore, have no account whatever of any other resurrection preceding the Millennial age. It has been pointed out (Obs. 4, note) how some endeavor to discard this verse as unauthorized, in order to make out (so Russell and Barbour, Three Worlds, etc.) a distinct and separate resurrection of the heathen at the beginning of the Millennial age, so as to give them another probation, etc. This view of a future probation for heathen, etc., is not new, for such men as Tholuck, Stilling, etc., adopted it, but inform us that the Bible keeps it in the background, teaches it only inferentially and not in a dogmatic form. Barbour, etc. make it very prominent, a corner-stone (as Rellyites) in their system, and largely build upon it. We are only concerned (passing by the stress laid upon “all men” and “all,” etc.) with this theory as it relates to a Pre-Millennial resurrection, and his main proof text in support of the same. To make out a Pre-Millennial resurrection they frequently quote the restoration of the Sodomites, Eze_16:55, arguing that the passage of necessity implies their resurrection, having been destroyed. But they overlook (1) how the word Sodom is used, viz., to designate others (of like character) besides the literal Sodomites as e.g. Rev_11:8; Zep_2:9. Even “the prophets of Jerusalem” “are all of them unto me as Sodom, and the inhabitants thereof as Gomorrah” (Jer_23:14; comp. Isa_3:9, and especially Isa_1:9-10). This usage enables us to appreciate Eze_16:55, for we have the warrant of Isa_1:10 that “rulers of Sodom” and “people of Gomorrah” exist independently of the literal Sodom and Gomorrah. If we observe Ezekiel 16 with care, we observe (2) that Jerusalem is the subject of prophecy-the earthly, as evidenced by Eze_16:3 -and God’s care and protection, as well as her perverseness, etc., are specified. The city, with its privileges, blessings, conduct, and punishment, is represented. Her supporters are designated: first, Samaria, i.e. that portion pertaining to the ten tribes (Samaria being the capital city); and second, Sodom, i.e. Judah (“the lesser than thou,” so marg. reading). Both return from captivity, Judah first, then the ten tribes; and they are given to Jerusalem as daughters (with which we need only compare, e.g. Mic_4:8; Zep_3:10; Zep_3:14; Zec_9:9, etc.). Hence whatever truth there may be in Tholuck’s and Stilling’s theory, it is evident that it can only be realized after the thousand years, if realized at all. The same is true of Barbour and Russell’s view, for the student will notice that their entire argument is purely inferential, being utterly unable to give a direct passage favoring it. The fact that spared nations (Isaiah 66) are mentioned refers to living (not dead) nations, and “the ruling with a rod of iron” is not over the resurrected heathen, but, as a comparison of passages clearly show, over the anti-Christian hosts and living nations at and after the Second Advent.]  
Obs. 11. Out of the abundant testimony favoring a twofold resurrection, and the literal, eclectic resurrection of Revelation 20, we select a few as illustrative. Dean Alford (Com. loci) remarks: “I cannot consent to distort the words from their plain sense and chronological place in the prophecy, on account of any considerations of difficulty, or of any risk of abuses which the doctrine of the Millennium may bring with it. Those who lived next to the Apostles, and the whole Church for three hundred years, understood them in the plain literal sense; and it is a strange sight in these days to see expositors who are among the first in reverence for antiquity, complacently casting aside the most cogent instance of consensus which primitive antiquity presents. As regards the text itself, no legitimate treatment of it will extort what is known as the spiritual interpretation now in fashion. If, in a passage where two resurrections are mentioned, where certain persons lived at the first, and the rest of the dead only at the end of a specified period after that first-if, in such a passage, the first resurrection may be understood to mean spiritual rising with Christ, while the second means literal rising from the grave; then there is an end of all significance in language, and Scripture is wiped out as a definite testimony to anything. If the first resurrection is spiritual, then so is the second, which I suppose none will be hardy enough to maintain; but if the second is literal, so is the first, which, in common with the whole Primitive Church and many of the best modern expositors, I do maintain, and receive as an article of faith and hope.” Van Oosterzee (Ch. Dog., vol. 2, p. 786) advocates “more than one resurrection; first a partial one and then an absolutely universal one. Of the former, not only does the Apocalypse seem to speak, Rev_20:4-6, but also the Lord, Luk_14:14, and Paul, 1Th_4:16, as also 1Co_15:23, as compared with verse 26, ” etc., and then, referring to the latter (the universal one), speaks of a poetic-prophetic grouping together of that which in reality will be seen realized, not side by side, but in succession.” Ebrard (The Rev. of John) advocates a literal Second Advent, a literal first resurrection, a literal reign here on earth over the spared nations, etc., and in his Gospel His. (p. 576, footnote Clark’s ed.), thus refers to Revelation 20: “Chaps. 18 and 19 (Apocalypse) depict the victory achieved over this Kingdom by Christ at His Coming. Then follows the first awakening, namely, of those who have died in the Lord, and now in glorified bodies live upon the earth, and maintain a spiritual rule over so much of humanity as is not yet glorified (just as Christ after His resurrection lived for forty days upon the earth in a glorified body). Then, after this last offer of salvation, follows the second resurrection to judgment.” Hagenbach (His. of Doc, vol. 1, s. 139) pertinently says respecting the spiritual interpretation: “The first resurrection (Rev_20:5) is explained by Augustine as the deliverance of the soul from the dominion of sin in this life; as, in general, an orthodoxy which maintains the authority of the Apocalypse, and yet will not allow Millenarianism, can only escape from its difficulties by an arbitrary exegesis, like that of Augustine on this passage.”
For the student wishing to see how others express themselves decidedly in favor of a literal resurrection, we append the following references. Aside from the Commentaries of Alford, Olshausen, Bengel, Gill, Steir, Lange, Fausset, Meyer, and others, many works endorse our position. Compare e.g. Dr. Kling’s Arts. “Eschatology” and “Resurrection of the Dead,” in Herzog’s Encyclop.; Dr. Fr. Volkmar Reinhard’s Dogmatik, sec. 189; Dr. Hofmann in Prophecy and Fulfilment; Starke’s Synopsis New Testament, vol. 10, p. 179, etc.; Lange’s Bremen Lectures, p. 244, etc.; Selnecker on Dan_12:2; Sirr on The First resurrection; Seiss, Last Times (who gives various references of value); Brookes’s Maranatha (who gives John Bunyan’s and Toplady’s testimony); Gordon on The First resurrection (paper before the N.Y. Proph. Conference); Luthardt’s Lehre von der Letzten Dingen; Koch’s Das Tausend-jährige Reich; Auberlen’s Prophecies of Daniel and the Rev. of St. John; Delitzsch on Genesis; Elliott’s Horae Apoc.; Mag Fred. Roos on Dan. and Rev.; Christlieb, Mod. Doubt and Ch. Belief, p. 452; Pfleiderer, Der Paulinismus, p. 264-5; Danhauer’ s Hodosophia, p. 1445; and, in brief, Pre-Millenarian writers in general (who are specified in the His. of the Doctrine). To give the testimony of a large portion of these would itself require an extended work, even if presented in brief extracts. In such references we must not overlook the remarks of Dr. Craven in Lange’s Com. (Amer. Ed.), or the writers (e.g. p. 440) quoted favoring our view. The old Berlenburger Bibel (t. 6, pp. 397-399) has a fair argument in favor of a literal first pre-eminent, Pre-Millennial resurrection, appealing e.g. to 1Co_15:23; 1Co_15:51-52; Luk_20:35; Luk_14:14; Heb_11:35, etc. Indeed we are largely indebted to old writers (like Mede in Clavis Apoc., Brightman in A Revelation of the Apoc., Goodwin in Exp. of Rev., and others) for keeping this doctrine before the Church. Even such testimonies as are given in The Crit. and Exp. Com. possess weight; while incidentally the concessions of a Chalmers (on Psalms 50), Wesley (Tyerman, Life of), and many others are to be regarded. We append the testimony of two persons, who cannot be accused of extreme partiality to our views. Spurgeon (quoted by Dr. Brookes, p. 50, Proph. Times, vol. 10) in his sermon on The First resurrection, says: “I do look forward to this with joy, that though I may sleep in Christ before my Master come, and I know not whether that shall be or no, yet I shall rise at the day of His appearing, and shall be recompensed at the resurrection of the just, if I have truly and faithfully served Him; and that recompense shall be to be made like Him; and to partake of His glories before the eyes of men, and to reign with Him during the thousand years.” “Meyer (so Lange’s Com. Rev., p. 441) remarks on 1Co_15:24, that Paul, following the example of Christ Himself, has bound up the doctrine of a twofold resurrection with the Christian faith” (comp. next Prop.).
Obs. 12. We have already referred to the astounding opinion entertained by Prof. Bush, Gipps, Waldegrave, and others, that this resurrection and Millennium is a portraiture of suffering and martyrdom in behalf of the truth. To indicate the amazing perversions of the passage, Rev_20:1-6, by our opponents in their efforts to wrest it from us, attention is called e.g. to Waldegrave’s statements (New Testament Millenarianism), and we select him purposely, because he has been eulogized (The Bib. Rep.) as a model of an interpreter and as a triumphant opponent. The binding and restrainment of Satan as well as the little season, both “set before us the working of Satan, for it is his working especially which is here exhibited to view during two distinct periods in the history of Christendom. The first-the longer period-said to last a thousand years, is one in which Satan, forbidden to launch forth into the world any fresh impostures, does, notwithstanding, prevail, with the aid of the civil power, to persecute even unto death those faithful souls who, being risen with Christ, are made kings and priests unto God and His Father. The second-the shorter period-said to last but a little season, is one in which, the number of God’s living saints being marvellously increased, and martyrdom being no longer the rule, Satan attempts by other means, even by the multiplication of religious delusions, to compass the destruction of the Church.” The resurrection of the martyrs, therefore, is simply a revival of the martyr spirit, made necessary by Satan’s reigning, and this too while the saints are reigning: “They are also sufferers at the hands of men-sufferers even to the extent of laying down their lives for Christ’s sake-sufferers, I say, even unto death, and that at one and the same time with their reigning.” “The thousand years will prove to be a period in which Christ’s witnesses are witnesses even unto death-a period, in short, of martyrdom, not of triumph-a period in which Satan (being precluded, indeed, from the invention of fresh delusions), is able, notwithstanding, to wield those already in existence with such effect as to make the Church of God to prophesy in sackcloth and ashes.” This caricature of the Millennium and the reign of the saints is presented by one largely eulogized as the champion against Chiliasm. No Chiliast ever produced anything so flatly contradictory to all testimony of Scripture, to all analogy on the subject; so plainly antagonistic to numerous predictions, that the large majority of our opponents recoil from it as unworthy of credence, because it actually reverses the blessed teaching of prophecy. It is utterly unworthy of serious refutation, and affords a sad illustration how good men, in their eagerness to wrest the passage from us, can fall into the most absurd interpretation.
Prof. Bush (Mill.) in accord with his theory of a past Millennial age, in which persecution, more or less, predominated, says: “We strenuously maintain that it is the same persons who live, and reign, and judge, and are beheaded, and all too at precisely the same time.” What a blessed reward! What a glorious Sabbatical period! He approvingly quotes the Jewish Midrash Tillin, fol. 42:1, where it is said that “upon the Coming of the Messiah the world shall be desolated for a thousand years” (which theory the Seventh-Day Adventists have recently revived), and adds: “This accords with the view we are now advocating, that this Millennial period is not intrinsically a prosperous era, but the reverse.”
Obs. 13. Sufficient has been said to vindicate our usage of the word “souls” to denote the person (Obs. 3), and yet in view of certain statements, it will be in place to add a few remarks. Fairbairn says that “it is quite frivolous to insist upon the term souls being often used to denote persons; no one doubts that it is; but the question is, can it be so taken here?” Now, the frivolity arises from the fact that a large class on his side-in fact nearly every work against us-gravely insist that because “souls” are mentioned it cannot mean persons. Of course, to meet such an objection, “frivolous” as it may be, we are forced in self-defence to show that the term is used to denote persons. Thus e.g. Barnes (Com. loci) lays great stress on the word “souls,” as if it alone denoted the spiritual nature, and carefully conceals from the reader this meaning, but when not controverting us, he in another place (Com., Act_3:20, on the phrase “every soul”) admits this usage, thus: “Every person or individual soul is often put for the whole man by the Hebrews, Act_7:14; Jos_10:28” (with which compare his remarks on Act_2:27, where he makes the term “soul” equivalent to “me,” and applies it to the corporeal resurrection of Jesus, thus flatly contradicting his comment on Rev_20:4-6). Indeed, our opponents contradict themselves in the same comment on this point, when e.g. they admit that “he” (Rev_20:6) and “they,” and “the rest of the dead” are declarative of persons and not simply of disembodied spirits, and speak of them as such. We insist that the reason why the Spirit, through human agency, gives us the term “souls” in preference to any other, is this: it is most in accord with scriptural usage, for not only is the resurrection of Jesus thus predicted and declared to be the resurrection of a “soul,” but it is predicted of, and promised to, individual believers, as e.g. Psa_99:15, “But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave.” Now then, when the resurrection is actually described, it is reasonable, it is strengthening, to find the same term employed, thus making prediction and fulfillment, promise and realization to correspond (comp. Obs. 3, note). 
Posted in Assemblies, Covenantal Sovereignty, Environment, History, Israel, Pilgrimages, Supportive Articles | Tagged , , , , , , , | Comments Off on pt3 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

pt2 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Part 2 All Saints will(are) Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Are you ready? The Bible tells us in dozens of places that all the old Saints of True Christian Israel (not the one tribe called Jews, but 13 Christian tribes of true Israel!) are going to ressurrect and come back before the Hebrew millennium. If you’re not ready they’re (or we are) going to kick your butt to get you ready for the coming of Christ who will rule on the earth from David’s throne for 1,000 years. He’s coming back for a church that is without spot or wrinkle and will step down when His enemies are made His footstool (and as in TCAWW’s study, all the Majesty/Elders/Marshals are feeding those that trust in YAHWEH).

I would like to send you the notes from Peters in his “The Theocratic Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
These writings about the ressurection may later become part 2 on His Ekklesia Will Be Stronger Than It Has Ever Been on christsassembly.com “
(You can download the full text of “Theocratic Kingdom” if you have e-sword (all freely downloadable). The best part is you can click on each verse if you have e-sword and it opens up the full reference Bible texts. Ignore most of these references to any Jews. None of the Bible text says “Jews”, I don’t know how he mixes that part up with the saints. However, it’s the part on the ressurection I want to share. There are several parts all below. )Rev Stephen MK
Minister, The Christ’s Assembly
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem

Prop. 126. In confirmation of our position, the Old Testament clearly teaches a Pre-Millennial resurrection of the saints.

OUR ENTIRE ARGUMENT, STEP BY STEP, LEADS TO THIS AS A NECESSITY, OTHERWISE THE KINGDOM AS COVENANTED AND PREDICTED CANNOT APPEAR, AND CANNOT BE INHERITED. LEAVING THE REASONS ALREADY ASSIGNED (UNDER THE DISCUSSION OF THE COVENANT AND MEMORIAL, SEE. PROP. 49), WE NOW APPEAL TO OTHERS WHICH SHOW THAT BEFORE THE MESSIANIC KINGDOM CAN BE REALIZED THE RIGHTEOUS DEAD MUST FIRST BE RAISED UP FROM AMONG THE DEAD.
Obs. 1. No one doubts that Isa_25:6-8 is descriptive of the Messiah’s Kingdom. If we regard it, as it ought to be, representative of a state here on earth to be witnessed during an appointed time, and if we do not take the unwarranted liberty of dividing and subdividing it, allotting portions of it to one time and other portions to another time, or, ascribing parts of it to earth and others to the third heaven, then it will be very easy to locate the period of its verification or realization on the authority of the Apostle Paul. In turning to 1Co_15:54, after a description only of the resurrection of the righteous, the apostle emphatically adds, “then” (i.e. at this very time of this resurrection) “shall be brought to pass the saying that is written ‘Death is swallowed up in victory.’” Isaiah’s Millennial description, which all agree is a delineation of Christ’s Kingdom, is, according to this testimony, to be fulfilled or brought to pass when a resurrection is experienced by the saints. This is corroborated by the statements given in Isaiah, corresponding with such, that we know are only to be realized after death is abolished. But Paul adds another saying which is also “then,” at that time to be brought to pass, viz., the one given by Hos_13:14 (gives the spirit of it), “O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” The question that arises here is this: Paul well knew that Hos_13:14 (as well as Isa_25:8) was a favorite passage of the Jews to support a resurrection of righteous Jews at the inauguration of the Kingdom by the coming of the Messiah-how, then, could he locate its fulfillment at a resurrection of saints, conjointly with the Kingdom description of Isaiah, unless he fully and freely endorsed such a Jewish view? This testimony is plain and convincing, unless we charge Paul with prevarication. As an inspired man, as a follower of Gamaliel, as a preacher of the Kingdom, knowing the Jewish views, he could not give them such an endorsement unless it was true.
If Paul had not in I Corinthians 15 explained the phrase, “He has swallowed up death in victory,” then spiritualizers would undoubtedly have explained it away as denoting, probably, comfort or hope in death, etc. Indeed, some not satisfied with Paul’s reference think that “death” in Isaiah denotes the woes or calamities of the Jewish nation, and this is done by Vitringa, Rosenmuller, Bush, etc., in order to make the Millennial predictions to correspond with the present state of the church. Against the express interpretation and application of Paul, they assert that “death” here is only “another term for all manner of grievous afflictions, persecutions, wars, pestilences, sicknesses, everything, in fact, of a deadly or desolating nature, everything which causes grief, mourning, and tribulation.” A specimen worthy of Origen! But the multitude of our opposers do justice to Paul’s quotation, and insist that a bodily resurrection is denoted. Barnes (Com. loci) only expresses the sentiments of these when he makes it refer to “death in its proper signification,” to the fact “that He will abolish death,” and that Paul’s quoting it “is sufficient proof that it refers to the resurrection,” etc. The context of Isa_25:6-9, as will be shown hereafter, forbids its application to the present existing dispensation, because the events connected therewith can only be realized at the Second Advent. We certainly cannot be censured for our application of Hosea when even our bitter opponent Jerome (Art. “Jerome,” Ency. Brit.) employs it (Hos_6:2-3) as referring to the resurrection of Jesus, and then to the regeneration of the human race through the same. Now the plural form “us” cannot refer to Jesus as an individual (unless we conceive Him as one of the brethren), but to the saints. He also applies Hos_13:14 to the death and resurrection of Jesus.
Obs. 2. In Daniel 12, we have, according to the early Church and many eminent writers, a literal, twofold, and Pre-Millennial resurrection foretold. The English version gives, Dan_12:2, “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.” That the language indicates a literal resurrection is fully admitted even by those who spiritualize it, or who apply it to the time of the Maccabees; that it is expressive of or drawn from the doctrine of a literal resurrection all critics confess.319 [Note: 19 319.  Surely we are correct when such men as Prof. Bush, who make a literal resurrection adumbrate “a moral quickening” and “future life,” apply this to the “resuscitation of the dead mentioned in the Gospels,” and especially to “that remarkable display of resurrection power put forth upon the many bodies of the saints that slept, which arose, and came out of their graves after his resurrection.” Or, when Grotius, Amner, etc., following the interpretation of the heathen Porphyry, yet admit that the language is such as “to hint at the mystery of the resurrection.” Besides this, the student well knows that a leading objection against the Book of Daniel by destructive critics is, that a literal resurrection is taught.]  “Sleep” used for death; “sleeping in the dust of the earth;” “awake” employed to denote restoration to life; this awaking of such sleepers to “everlasting life,” all in the phraseology and contrast enforce such a meaning. To avoid the charge of forcing an interpretation, we shall rely on the renderings given by our opponents. Prof. Bush, a critical scholar, gives the following: “And many of the sleepers of the dust of the ground shall awake-these to everlasting life, and those to shame and everlasting contempt.” He contends that the words in their precise meaning demand a twofold resurrection, one class being raised up to life while another are not then awakened. As to the latter part of the verse and the controversy originated by it, we may in this discussion pass it by, only saying, (1) if it has the meaning given by Bush, then it forms an additional argument in our favor; (2) but if the contrary, as Barnes and others, is to be received, viz., that the just and unjust are both raised at the same time, then it may be referred, as many do, to the resurrection of professed believers good and bad. The first part of the verse is sufficient to sustain our position, viz., that of a partial resurrection of the dead-a resurrection of some out of or from among all the sleepers in the dust of the earth. The awaking is predicated alone of the “many of” and not of all men. Those who resort to making “the many” consist of “all” are restricted by the peculiar, significant, and conclusive “many of.” Hence we find the candid confession of Dr. Hody (Res. of the Body, p. 230): “I fully acknowledge that the word ‘many’ makes this text extremely difficult. I know what expositors say, but I am not satisfied with anything I have hitherto met with. Some tell us that ‘many’ is sometimes used in the Scriptures to signify ‘all’ but this does not clear the difficulty; for there is a great difference between ‘many’ and ‘many of.’ All that sleep in the dust are many; but many of them that sleep in the dust cannot be said to be all they that sleep in the dust. ‘Many of does plainly except some.” In the examination of various writers, all, without exception, acknowledge this restricted import, declaring that its removal does violence to the passage. The language then expresses a literal, partial resurrection. Now in its connection it describes a Pre-Millennial one, briefly, for the following reasons: (1) It is placed at the end of certain prophetic periods, which, as nearly all commentators agree, precede, or run down to, the commencement of the Millennial period; (2) it is connected with a deliverance of the people of God, pre-eminently characteristic of the beginning of the Millennial era; (3) it is identified with a period of great trouble, distress, etc., which, as many prophecies declare, precedes the ushering in of that age; (4) it is related to the period when the wicked shall be rooted out, etc., which is descriptive of the commencement of this age; (5) and the identifying of the promise annexed by Jesus Himself to the time immediately after the harvest, “then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun,” for, as Joel and John show, the harvest immediately precedes the Millennial glory.320 [Note: 20 320.  Prof. Bush on “these” and “those” says: “The awaking is evidently predicted of the many and not of the whole; consequently the ‘these’ in the one case must be understood of the class that awake, and the ‘those’ in the other of that which remains asleep.” Many others coincide in this opinion. Barnes (Com. loci) forcibly says: “The natural and obvious meaning of the word ‘many’ here is, that a large portion of the persons referred to would thus awake, but not all. So we should understand it, if applied to other things, as in such expressions as these: ‘many of the people,’ ‘many of the houses in a city,’ etc. Gesenius states that the word ‘designates a part taken out of the whole.’” Hence we strongly object to some renderings which do not thus distinguish, as e.g. Knapp’s (Ch. Theol., p. 529), who concedes a literal resurrection, but renders: “Those who lie asleep under the earth will awake; some to eternal life, others to everlasting shame and contempt.” Such a version is evidently shaped by the opinion of a simultaneous resurrection of all the dead at the same time, and does manifest violence to the original, as urged by the best and most reliable of critics, and conceded (as shown) by the candid concessions of opponents. Prof. Whiting has: “And many from the sleepers of the dust of the ground shall awake, these to everlasting life, and those to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence.” Winthrop, and others, “And many from out of the sleepers of the dust,” etc. Brookes (Essays, p. 12, note), “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake; these (the many raised ones) are destined to everlasting life-those (who remain in the graves) to shame and everlasting contempt;” so also Carlton and others. Many renderings give the same sense, the only change being in substituting “some” and “others” for “these” and “those,” excepting Augustine’s (City of God, b. 20, c. 23), who translates: ‘And many of them that sleep in the mound of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life and some to shame and everlasting confusion.” In the Israelite Indeed, vol. 11, p. 210, Chaplin gives the following: “Many apart from those sleeping in the dust of the earth shall be awakened; these (the many awakened) shall have eternal life; and those (the remainder left sleeping) shall have the reproaches of eternity;” and Lederer (the editor) suggests: “And many from those who sleep in the earth-dust-or dust of the ground-shall be awakened; some to lives everlasting and some to shame and everlasting abhorrence.” The reader can readily verify such renderings in various leading commentaries given by others, and therefore we only append, as an illustration, another given by Tregelles (On Dan., p. 156): “Many from among the sleepers of the dust of the earth shall awake; these shall be unto everlasting life; but these (the rest of the sleepers) shall be unto shame and everlasting contempt” (comp. Smith’s Thoughts on Dan.), and observes: “I have given, I believe, the most literal rendering of the verse; it speaks of a resurrection, not the general when all shall be called forth, but of an eclectic character, ‘many from among the sleepers.’” “This passage has been understood by the Jewish commentators in the sense that I have stated.” Fausset (Cam. loci) endorses Tregelles, saying, “the Jewish commentators support Tregelles,” and remarks: “Not the general resurrection, but that of these who share in the first resurrection; the rest of the dead being not to rise till the end of the thousand years (Rev_20:3; Rev_20:5-6, cf. 1Co_15:23; 1Th_4:16). Israel’s national resurrection and the first resurrection of the elect Church, are similarly connected with the Lord’s Coming forth out of His place to punish the earth in Isa_26:19; Isa_26:21; Isa_27:6; cf. Isa_25:6-9” (Tregelles, p. 162, adds: “This translation is given as undoubtedly correct in Gerard Kerkherdere’s Prodromus Danielicus,” for “it is clearly not a general resurrection; it is ‘many from among;’ and it is only by taking the words in this sense that we gain any information as to what becomes of those who continue to sleep in the dust of the earth,” and quotes in confirmation of such a twofold resurrection Jewish authorities, R. Saadiah Haggaon and Aben Ezra.)
We are only concerned in insisting that a resurrection, and a twofold one, is clearly taught. That a resurrection is asserted is so plain that many (comp. Art. on “Resurrection” in M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop.) emphatically declare that it presents us “a clear and unequivocal declaration,” and even such commentators as Scott (loci), ready to spiritualize predictions and promises, unhesitatingly teach that a resurrection of the dead is most obviously taught, but over against the impregnable “many of” refers it to “the general resurrection.” The student will see for himself that any rendering approaching faithfulness to the original necessarily makes the resurrection of an eclectic nature. Dr. Brown (Ch. Second Com., p. 200) indeed makes “many of” to be “the multitude of,” and insists that two classes are included in these “many,” viz., “the good and the bad,” which is then transformed into “all,” and a simultaneous resurrection. Some writers take the position that this resurrection relates either to the Jewish nation or to the professing Church, or to both, and has the righteous and the mere professor raised at the same time, excluding the rest of the dead; others again think that a small moiety of the wicked are then raised up, as e.g. these who crucified Jesus, etc., while the vast body of the wicked dead remain until the close of the 1000 years; others again, the large majority, hold, as intimated, that only the saints are raised and the rest, who shall be awakened at some future time, remain in the dust of the earth. Still others, over against the implied awakening of both classes, make out that the last class never rise from the dead. Now the concise, abrupt language makes it requisite to interpret the passage according to the general analogy on the subject, which decidedly favors a partial, eclectic resurrection; the first clause referring exclusively to the righteous and their awakening as something separate and distinct from that of the wicked, while the last clause asserts the same fact given in Rev_20:5. Should, however, the last part include mere professors, or some noted wicked (as some think), yet the eclectic character of the resurrection is unmistakably indicated, and a distinctive precedence of the righteous. The special attention of the student is called to the Jewish view (Bickersteth’s Guide, p. 185, Brookes’s Essays, p. 12, etc.) which restricts the resurrection. Thus Aben Ezra in his Com., as quoted by various writers, says: “Those who awake shall be (appointed) to everlasting life, and those who awake not shall be (doomed) to shame and everlasting contempt.” Gaon says, “This is the resuscitation of the dead of Israel, whose lot is to eternal life, and those who shall not awake are the forsaken of Jehovah.” So also the Sohar, Midrash Mishle, 4 Esdras 2, Torath Adam, etc Pococke, Lightfoot, Mede, and others, have produced Rabbinical statements showing the Jewish belief in a limited corporeal resurrection when the Kingdom of the Messiah shall be instituted, and Lightfoot and others (under the misapprehension that the Christian Church was this Kingdom, and overlooking the Jewish restoration, etc., linked with this resurrection) have actually pointed to the cases of resurrection recorded in the Gospels as “parallel to the expectations of the Jews,” and therefore a proof that Jesus was the Messiah. Bertholdt, Kranichfeld, Füller, Köstlin (Lange’s Com. Dan. loci) and others refer these raised ones solely to the Jewish nation. While there is force in this exclusive notion (because Daniel’s predictions relate to the destiny of the Jewish nation), yet in it we must also (as hitherto shown in detail) include the engrafted, adopted sons and daughters of Abraham, accounted worthy of so high an honor.]  
Obs. 3. But we have stronger evidence than this even in the chapter, for the resurrection of the righteous being mentioned; God graciously assures Daniel himself that he shall be among those many thus favored. In Dan_12:13, we read: “But go thou thy way till the end be; for thou shalt rest and stand in thy lot, at the end of the days.” It being foreign to our design to discuss prophetic periods, it is only necessary to say that, taking the admissions of a host of Anti-Millenarians and others, these prophetical days being, in accord with prophetical usage, years, no matter what period is assigned to their commencement, they require many centuries before their close. And hence the promise to Daniel at “the end of the days” is to be witnessed, after a long series of years has passed, even, as many contend, extending down to the Millennial age. At least, if we limit these periods to literal days, there is not a particle of proof that the promise was realized in Daniel’s case.321 [Note: 21 321.  This is attempted by a class of interpreters who may be justly styled Antiochus Epiphanites, since they find nothing in these predictions (concluding part of Daniel 11 and 12) but what relates to Antiochus. They sustain about the same relation to us that Porphyry did to many in the third century. But they utterly fail to show such a fulfillment as the prophecy demands, both as to time and matter. It is to be regretted that some able writers have, more or less, received of their leaven. Even Auberlen (On Dan.) thinks that the mention in Dan_12:2 of the resurrection was merely to incite to faithful perseverance in the persecutions of Antiochus, because the phrase “at that time” is omitted, and hence that there is no chronological connection. But this certainly can only be adduced in support of the Antiochan theory, seeing that the emphasis being twice given in Dan_12:1, it would have been mere redundancy to repeat; that Daniel’s resurrection stands related to the same period; that the resurrection is associated in Scripture with the time of deliverance of the nation; that the general complexion of the prediction, as well as the unity of Scripture, demands a fulfillment in chronological connection. Some take the dates given as referring to days, but link them with the same periods in Rev. pertaining to Antichrist’s career (with good reasons), but there is one serious antagonism, viz., Daniel’s resurrection follows the end of these in Daniel, but (Apocalypse 11:18) precedes those of Revelation.]  Down to the present day Daniel has not yet stood up in his lot, and, if we leave due weight to one pregnant expression, we can plainly see the reason why it is not yet fulfilled-“when He shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.” Then the end of these days has come, and then God’s promise is verified; not sooner and not later. But look at history and the facts as they exist today. Are not the Jewish people still dispersed and their power scattered among the nations of the earth? Is not Jerusalem itself still trodden down by Gentiles? How, then, can it be said that God’s purpose in reference to this people has been accomplished in this respect, when we see it going on before our eyes? No! the end has not yet come, but as God’s promises are sure, and now Yea and Amen in Christ, when the end of Jewish tribulation and dispersion comes a glorious resurrection also comes in which Daniel will participate. In noticing the promise, it is legitimate to avail ourselves of the admissions of those who oppose our Millenarian views, and it ought to be accepted as impartial evidence. Barnes (Com. Dan. loci), after showing that Daniel could not possibly have lived during the entire period of the events previously enumerated without experiencing death, advocates the standing up at the end of the days to mean a literal resurrection, saying: “This is admitted by Lengerke, by Maurer, and even by Bertholdt, to be the meaning, although he applies it to the reign of the Messiah. No other interpretation, therefore, can be affixed to this, than that it implies the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, and that the mind of Daniel was directed onward to that. With this great and glorious doctrine the book appropriately closes.” The death of Daniel, before the events predicted come to pass, is announced in the “for thou shalt rest.” This is appropriate language in view of the previous “sleep in the dust.” But we again leave Barnes explain: “During that long interval Daniel would ‘rest.’ He would quietly and calmly ‘sleep in the dust of the earth,’ in the grave.” “I do not see that it is possible to explain the language on any other supposition than this. The word rendered ‘shalt rest’ would be well applied to the rest in the grave. So it is used in Job_3:13 ‘then had I been at rest,’ Job_3:17, ‘there the weary be at rest.’” The language of the promise, too, implies the personal presence of Daniel at the time the end shall be. More than this, it is requisite, for then he is to obtain his “lot.” Now, whatever meaning is attached to “the lot,” whether of station, rank, degree, etc., it is certain from numerous promises that Christians are represented as receiving their “lot” after the resurrection is experienced. Daniel receives his portion or reward allotted to him by God. But when? Turning to Rev_11:15-18, under the last trumpet, preceding the Millennial era, we find “the time of the dead that they should be judged and that Thou shouldest give reward unto Thy servants, the prophets.” Such is the striking harmony of the utterances of the divine Spirit, indicating a Pre-Millennial resurrection.322 [Note: 22 322.  Even Augustine (City of God, b. 20, c. 23) interprets Dan_12:13 as referring to Daniel’s literal resurrection. Daniel is among “the prophets” who are rewarded when the Millennial period commences. The happiness of the one class is mentioned, giving them a certain precedence, and is linked with the restoration of the Jews. The original division of the holy land by lot, led to all portions, appointments being called lots, and this has been introduced into the New Testament, as many critics have noticed. Daniel’s lot which he receives may be seen, e.g. in Act_26:18; Eph_1:15-16, etc., where the Greek word is either “lot” or “allotted portion,” as noticed by commentators. The resurrection of Daniel, it may be added, utterly disproves the theory of Universalists, Swedenborgians, and others, and recently advocated, as the teaching of Jesus, by Reuss (His. Ch. Theol., p. 221), “that there can be no interval between the present life and the future, between death and the resurrection,” for Daniel was to be raised up, not at or immediately after his death, but at the end of the days, i.e. after the interval of a certain, well-defined period of time. The same is confirmed by the resurrection of Jesus, the resurrection of saints at the resurrection of Jesus, the saints under the altar, which also had an interval. Faber (Diss. on Proph., p. 97, footnote), when he comes to this passage, is forced to admit that “it gives some warrant to Mr. Mede’s opinion, that the first resurrection, which precedes the Millennium,… will be a literal resurrection of the saints and martyrs.” Fausset (Com. loci) comments on the “rest” in the grave. He, like his people Israel, was to wait patiently and confidently for the blessing till God’s time. He “received not the promise,” but had to wait until the Christian elect saints should be brought in, at the first resurrection, that he and the other Old Testament saints “without us should not be made perfect” (Heb_11:46). Barbour (Three Worlds) endeavors to make the resurrection of Daniel 12, because the expression “thy people” is used, to refer exclusively to Jewish people according to the flesh and not to the Gospel Church (the book being “the writing of the house of Israel,” Eze_13:9). It is true that the resurrection refers to “the house of Israel,” Daniel’s people, but it is equally true (as our line of argument has proven step by step) that true members of the Christian Church are connected by virtue of engrafting and adoption with this house, being regarded as “the children of Abraham, ‘and hence participate in all the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. We dare not narrow down, as some do, “the first-born” to Christian believers and exclude the worthies of the Hebrews, when the covenant foundation, inheritance, etc., are the same. The prophets describe the house of Israel as amazed when through the power of the resurrection these “children of Abraham” are revealed and exalted. Zöchler (Lange’s Com. Dan. loci.) explains this passage relating to Daniel: “Thou shalt rest in the grave, in the quiet sleep of death (cf. Isa_57:2, and supra Dan_12:2),” “that thou mayest receive thy portion of the inheritance at the judgment of eternal recompense; cf. Dan_7:18; Dan_7:27; Rev_20:6.” He remarks respecting “the lot” that it refers to “the inheritance of the saints in light (Col_1:12), which shall be possessed by the righteous after the resurrection of the dead in the heavenly Jerusalem.” He says that with this view agree “a majority of interpreters.”]  
Obs. 4. However ultra it may seem to some,323 [Note: 23 323.  Because so many commentators, while admitting that the language is derived from the doctrine of the resurrection, yet, interpret it either as a moral or spiritual renovation, or an ecclesiastical or civil or national restoration. Jerome was one among the first who applied this vision to the restoration of the Jews, and yet he is forced to admit that it is “a similitude drawn from the resurrection.” But as these writers also profess to find but little of a resurrection in the Old Testament, how could a similitude drawn from such a source, if unknown, be of any force if the doctrine of the resurrection were not one already familiar?]  we are willing to, and readily do, accept of Eze_37:1-14 as teaching a Pre-Millennial resurrection. This view was held by the Jews (e.g. 2Es_2:16; 2Es_2:23; 2Es_2:31), by the early Church (being quoted by Irenaeus, * Against Heresies, Justin, in * Tertullian in chs. *, *, On the resurrection of the Flesh, and Greg. Nazianzen, Funer. Oration, e.g. by others), and by different writers from that period to the present. Some authors, not entirely satisfied with a figurative application, give a twofold fulfillment, one a spiritual or civil, and the other literal, as e.g. Dr. Clarke, Com. loci, who also admits that it has an ultimate reference to “the resurrection of the body.” Others, as Rationalists, etc., receive it as teaching a literal resurrection, but reject it as a “Jewish figment.” While still others, as Delitzsch (Sys. of Bib. Psyc., p. 485, in response to Hofman, who advocated that Isa_26:19 and Eze_37:1-14 contained figures of restoration), and many Millenarians, hold that such a literal resurrection is taught as covenant promises require. The reasons which influence us to such a belief are the following: (1) The explanation given by God Himself of the vision indicates a literal resurrection. The vision of the dry bones extends from Eze_37:1-10, and if this were all, then, indeed, we might be at a loss to determine its exact meaning, but God appends to it an explanation; and, like in all explanatory clauses, we have no right to spiritualize them away. It is weakness to place the vision and the explanation in the same category, and treat the one like the other. We dare not, without disrespect to the Divine explanation, make it denote something quite different from what the words truly and actually represent. Keeping in view the distinction, overlooked by the multitude, between the vision and its interpretation by the Spirit, how else can we receive the words, unless teaching the doctrine we claim, when it says: “I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your graves,” etc. (2) It is scarcely consistent for the resurrection of the body (whatever may be true of the simple word resurrection) to be taken as a figure or symbol of the renovation of the soul, seeing that in the Scriptures a moral change of the soul is uniformly held to be a prelude to a blessed resurrection of the body unto life. This would be reversing the order of events, and involving a certain incongruity. It is nowhere done unless this and Revelation 20 form exceptions to a general rule. (3) The language, “Behold they say, ‘our bones are dried and our hope is lost,’” shows that a corporeal resurrection is meant. For, if we turn to Psa_141:7, this is the expressive complaint of the house of Israel, “our bones are scattered at the grave’s mouth as when one cutteth and cleaveth wood on the earth,” and God here gives the assurance that these very “bones scattered at the grave’s mouth,” shall be again raised up. In the 89th Psalm, where this lost hope is plaintively presented, we have the covenant, and the assurance that David’s Son shall gloriously reign on David’s throne; then follows, however, the prediction of the casting down of David’s crown and throne to the ground, of the cast-off condition of the nation and the non-fulfillment of the covenant, and the question is asked, “How long?” Then follows: “Remember how short my time is; wherefore hast Thou made all men in vain? What man is he that liveth and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave? Lord, where are Thy former lovingkindnesses which Thou swarest unto David in Thy truth?” How is this hope so lost, even absorbed by the all-devouring grave, to be realized? The plain, God-given answer comes to us in this passage of Ezekiel, if we will only receive it. Here the question asked in Psa_35:10 is replied to; and prophet after prophet assures us that when this shall occur “those bones shall flourish as an herb.” It is in accord with this that David in Psalms 31 affirms that although his “bones are consumed” and in his “haste” he said, “I am cut off from before Thine eyes,” he will trust in God for deliverance, because the wicked alone shall “be ashamed” and “be silent in the grave.” This confidence is again and again declared, so that the bones given over into “the hand of the grave” shall “come up out of the grave.” God says that the house of Israel declares “our hope is lost and we are cut off.” In Lam_3:18, we read, “And I said, my strength and my hope is perished from the Lord,” but farther on the prophet again professes hope “for the Lord will not cast off forever… to crush under His feet all the prisoners of the earth.” No! some of those “prisoners of the earth,” which (as we shall hereafter show) are the dead that the earth holds in confinement, which are now “dwelling in the dust” (Isa_26:19), “the earth shall cast out.” The “prisoners of hope,” Zec_9:12, shall be delivered according to the “hope toward God,” expressed by Paul, Act_24:15. The analogy of faith, the appeal of God to words connected with corporeal death, and the stubborn fact itself that the covenant given by God to Abraham and David cannot possibly be realized until the enemy death, which holds its chosen ones, is overcome, these things prove, what so many pious have joyfully accepted, a literal resurrection, by which the grave is made to surrender those to whom precious covenant promises were made. Now, indeed, the enemy triumphs; they are cut off “from the land of the living;” faith and hope almost falters at the gloomy prospect; wise men here and there declare it is folly to expect its realization; scientists insist upon its impossibility; even good men think it too much to anticipate, and explain it away; but God, the Almighty, points to this very faltering faith and hope, produced by literal death, and in His gracious majesty speaks: “Then shall ye know that I the Lord have spoken it and performed it.” How can we change God’s words or challenge His work? (4) The emphatic language here is corroborated by other examples. Thus e.g. when we keep in view how the Jews understood this vision and explanation, then the language of Jesus addressed to Jews is a confirmation of a literal resurrection. For in Joh_5:28-29 the expression of Ezekiel is almost repeated “all that are in their graves” shall “come forth,” and this, too, in connection with what He said, that this raising up shall be (e.g. Joh_6:39-40; Joh_6:44) “at the last day” as the Jews held (comp. Joh_11:24).324 [Note: 24 324.  Even in Joh_5:25, while we need not discard the idea of a moral renovation yet it is not necessary for a consistent interpretation with existing facts, seeing that the “now is” may be referred to the literal resurrection of the actual dead raised to life by Jesus, and the dead raised by Him at His own resurrection, which occurred at this period. It may be added: Surely the partial quotation of Ezekiel and the application made of it by Jesus, should cause us to receive with caution the idea (Calvin, etc.) that it is a mere image or similitude drawn from the resurrection. In reference to the use of the word “graves,” while we hold this to be literal and for good reasons, we are satisfied with the concession and argument of one of our opponents, who by his reasoning on Christ’s language entirely demolishes his own interpretation given to Ezekiel. Thus Barnes, Com. Joh_5:29, says: “He speaks of those who are in their graves, evidently referring to the dead. Sinners are sometimes said to be dead in sin. but sinners are not said to be in a grave. This is applied in the Scriptures only to those who are deceased.” If this is true, what becomes of his own spiritualizing of Ezekiel’s vision? Augustine and others suppose that in Joh_5:25-26, because of the phrase “now is,” there is a reference to a spiritual or moral resurrection. But this is opposed to the facts as they took place. “The hour is coming” alludes to the great predicted time coming of a bodily resurrection; “and now is” indicates that even now, at that time, a bodily resurrection was to be experienced in the few raised by Jesus, in the resurrection of Himself and of the many at His resurrection. The entire connection and parallel passages show a reference to a bodily resurrection, for if it is to be limited, as Augustine, etc., it proves too much for their own theory, viz., it would confine moral renovation, etc., to the time after the First Advent and exclude that experienced previously.]  Again, Hos_13:14, “I will ransom them from the power of the grave,” etc., contains the same ideas, and Paul applies it directly to the resurrection of the righteous. Hence, in view of the application of similar language by Jesus and Paul, corroborating Jewish views of Ezekiel, we cordially accept of it in the same spirit. (5) The expression “bring you into the land of Israel,” which has led so many to apply this figuratively to a “national restoration,” under the supposition that mortal men in this life are only alluded to, is, instead of a stumbling-block, indispensable in such a resurrection. The covenant, if Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are to personally inherit the land, the covenant promises, if the meek are to inherit the land, etc., absolutely demands just such bringing of the dead ones into the land of Israel, the promised inheritance. Ezekiel only establishes what the Millennial descriptions present, viz., a return of the ransomed of the Lord to this identical land, as the most sacred of God’s assurances declare. (6) This description of the prophet is too sublime and wide-reaching in its sweep to be regarded as fulfilled in the weak and partial restoration of the Jews under the Persian kings and afterward. The facts are not equal to the representation; and the Jews themselves, who experienced this restoration, had no such idea of its performance. It is a belittling of the prophecy to confine it to such an event; it is a dwindling away of God’s appeal in reference to the knowledge obtained of His Omnipotence when this should occur; it is a frittering away of the promised gathering of “the whole house of Israel,” of the implied continued prosperity, of the union, strength, etc., then granted to them. No! greater, inestimable greater blessings than God’s people have ever yet realized are embraced in this precious promise, even those connected with a literal, Pre-Millennial resurrection.325 [Note: 25 325.  To give the reader an idea how this passage is interpreted we append two illustrations. Romaine (Crit. Review, vol. 2) has a sermon on Eze_37:4, etc., “The Parable of the Dry Bones.” He frankly tells us that every word applicable to a sensible object conveys an idea of some corresponding spiritual object, or teaches heavenly things under the garb of earthly (i.e. at the option of the interpreter). But after all it has two meanings: (1) That the Jewish Church, led away captive to Babylon, was restored to its civil and ecclesiastical life or polity; (2) that the dry bones indicate deadness in sin, and the resurrection a revival to newness of life-dryness is equivalent to exceeding deadness of the sinful soul, shaking is a perturbation in the soul of the sinner, coming together denotes merely externals and no life until the Spirit comes and converts. Waldegrave in his Lectures gives this as the signification: “They (the imagery) signify that the Israelitish people, which had long lain politically and ecclesiastically dead, should be, by the mighty hand of their God, recovered from that state, and become once more a flourishing church and state.” Strange that men can fritter away this magnificent prophecy in an application to the feeble condition and oppressed state of the Jewish nation after the Babylonian captivity. Take the spiritualizing method and apply it to any Scripture, and see the result. The plainest passages dwindle away before its transforming power. Thus e.g. apply it to Mat_27:52-53, and it may be said “the graves were opened” means delivered from bondage; “and many bodies of the saints which slept, arose,” denotes that “sleeping” they were ignorant, blind, deluded, but “arising” they were morally quickened; “and came out of their graves,” that is, out of their bondage, etc. This is, to say the least, a deceptive way of dealing with Scripture (comp. Prop. 4). The utter inconsistency of our opponents’ position is thus made manifest. Coming to Rev_20:4-6, they tell us that if a literal resurrection is meant, it should be stated that the saints come “out of the graves,” receive their “bodies,” etc. But that this, even if given, would make no material difference, and that it would be explained away like the rest, is made apparent from the treatment which Ezekiel’s vision meets with at their hands-for here, where the fact of coming “out of the graves,” etc., is mentioned, the resurrection is still denied. Many concessions, however, might easily be gathered from our opponents which vitiate their own system. Even Barrow (Works, vol. 2, p. 565), on the resurrection of the body, quotes Ezekiel 37 as sustaining the notion of a literal resurrection. Parallel passages are admitted to refer to a resurrection, as e.g. Augustine (City of God, b. 20, ch. 21) explains Isa_66:12-16, to be realized after the Second Advent, and that “your bones shall rise up as an herb” alludes “to the resurrection,” “a bodily resurrection.” The Jews (comp. e.g. Westminster Review, Oct., 1861, p. 246) held that Ezekiel 37 taught a literal resurrection, and Paul in Act_26:6-7, evidently alludes to this belief when (as Clarke Com. loci.) he speaks of “the hope of the resurrection of the dead,” to which hope realized “the tribes” expect “to come” (and to which Paul, as Bh. Pearce shows, using the same word, also hopes, Php_3:11, “to come” or “attain to”). Incidental proof abounds showing that this resurrection is linked with the Kingdom. Thus e.g. Luk_14:15 affords one. For after Christ had indicated to the Pharisee how to make a feast that he might “be recompensed at the resurrection of the just,” one who sat at meat, associating, as the Jews were accustomed to do, this allusion to the resurrection with the Kingdom, said: “Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the Kingdom of God.” Christ in His reply confirms this association of ideas, for instead of correcting it as erroneous, He virtually endorses it by stating that all are invited to such blessedness, but that many reject it, etc. Jerome, Scott, Lowth, literally hundreds, while spiritualizing or misapplying the prediction, declare that “it was also a clear intimation of the resurrection of the dead,” being “a similitude drawn from the resurrection.” But is it a similitude? And if such where then was the doctrine of a resurrection taught?
To indicate how the earliest fathers of the Church interpreted this and other passages, we quote Irenaeus (Ag. Her., ch. 37) as follows: “Isaiah plainly declares (Isa_26:19) similar happiness at the resurrection of the just: thus saying, ‘Thy dead men shall arise, and those in the tombs shall rise, and they shall rejoice who are in the earth. For thy dew is salvation to them. Ezekiel says (Eze_37:12; Eze_37:14) the same, ‘Behold, I will open your graves, and lead you forth from your tombs, in order that I may lead forth from their sepulchres my people, and I will put the Spirit in you, and ye shall know that I am the Lord.’” This he applies to the Pre-Millennial resurrection of the just, in order that covenant promises may be verified. Many learned men, under the lofty self-exalting influence of spiritualizing, smile at the alleged simplicity and ignorance of such Fathers, when the latter evidence a far greater logical consistency than the former. Perhaps the most flippant of all objections is that urged by Schröder (Lange’s Com. Ezek., p. 354) in declaring: “They are, however, not the bones of deceased men, but of slain men, as expressly stated in Eze_37:9.” A mere tyro need only refer to a concordance under the words “slay,” “slain,” etc., and he will find that all that fall under the enemy death are also thus represented. Besides he does not, in his attenuated interpretation, show how such slain ones are restored. In reference to “the whole house of Israel,” we only now say that it includes the dead of Judah and Israel, together with all the engrafted “children of Abraham.”]  
Obs. 5. Numerous passages plainly teach a Pre-Millennial resurrection. Thus, e.g. Jer_31:15-17, “a voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping for her children refused to be comforted for her children, because they were not. Thus saith the Lord: Refrain thy voice from weeping and thine eyes from tears; for thy work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy. And there is hope in thine end, saith the Lord, that thy children shall come again to their own border.” This is applied (Mat_2:17-18) to a literal slaughter, and the resurrection promised is also literal. But this does not fulfill the entire promise; for it includes not only a raising up from the dead, a return from the land of the enemy death, but a return, a “coming again to their own border,” to the very land where the enemy triumphed over them. The time when this is to take place is specified in the context, Mat_2:10-14, when Jacob is “redeemed and ransomed from the hand of him that was stronger than he.”326 [Note: 26 326.  The application made by Matthew of the passage in Jeremiah forbids our receiving the common interpretation that the prophecy refers to the captivity of the Jews, etc. The phraseology is indicative of death, and deliverance from the same; a reunion with Rachel is implied, and in their own land, thus corresponding with covenant promise. Fausset (Com. loci.) correctly declares that this is “to be fulfilled ultimately, when Rachel shall meet her murdered children at the resurrection, at the same time that literal Israel is to be restored.” This is in agreement with Moses, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and others. This passage is intensely interesting, because it answers the question whether little children (comp. with Matthew) will participate in this resurrection. The answer is given by God Himself in the affirmative. Those who apply it to the past restoration from captivity belittle the promise.]  The same spirit characterizes Hannah’s prayer (I Samuel 2), which the Chaldee version (Dr. Clarke) says, “And Hannah prayed in the spirit of prophecy,” in which the resurrection is pointedly predicted, “the Lord killeth and maketh alive; He bringeth down to the grave and bringeth up.” The Jews (see Targums, quoted by Dr. Clarke, Com. loci) so understood it. But this is connected even with a period when vengeance comes, the righteous are exalted, and the “wicked are silent in darkness;” and if reference is made to the parallel passage in Deu_32:39, it is also connected with a time of vengeance, deliverance of God’s people, and God’s land.327 [Note: 27 327.  Dr. Etheridge’s Targums gives the following: The Targum of Palestine, “When the Word of the Lord shall reveal Himself to redeem His people, He will say to all nations: Behold now, that I am He who Am and Was, and Will Be, and there is no other God beside Me; I, in my Word, kill and make alive; I smite the people of the Beth Israel and I will heal them at the end of the days; and there will be none who can deliver them from my hand, Gog and his armies whom I have permitted to make war against them.” The Jerusalem Targum, “See now that I in my Word am He and there is no other God beside Me. I kill the living in this world and make alive the dead in the world that cometh; I am He who smiteth and I am He who healeth, and there is none who can deliver from my hand.” See the context.]  The faith that David expressed in Psalms 142, 116, 27, etc., of finally walking before, or in the presence of, the Lord “in the land of the living,” is one in such a resurrection. This is seen by noticing the context, and by comparing of Scripture. Thus in Psalms 142 he describes his trouble by which he is brought “very low,” even into “prison” (which a comparison shows is the grave), for his enemy is stronger than he. But he expresses the hope that God will be his “portion in the land of the living,” and that God will “bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise Thy name; the righteous shall compass me about; for Thou shalt deal bountifully with me.” In Psalms 116, he is plainer, telling us that “the sorrows of death compassed me and the pains of hell got hold upon me.” He then prays that God would “deliver my soul,” adding his trust: “Return unto thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with me. For Thou hast delivered my soul from death, mine eyes from tears and my feet from falling. I will walk before the Lord in the land of the living.” This faith, in an ultimate happy deliverance from the power of death, causes him to say: “Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints;” and, exulting in the hope set before him, declares, “Thou hast loosed my bonds,” and that he, David, shall praise “in the Lord’s house, in the midst of thee, O Jerusalem.” Here, then, death is an enemy; David fell under this enemy and is bound by him in a prison; but he shall yet triumph over this enemy through the power of God; he shall return again to the promised rest, praise God, associate with all the righteous, and enjoy the blessings of Jerusalem.328 [Note: 28 328.  The reader will notice how this was interpreted as relating to the resurrection by the early Church and retained as late as a.d. 476, as seen in the extract we have given, Prop. 75, taken from Gelasius of Cysicus. If the Psalms, etc., are examined from this covenanted standpoint many allusions are based on this doctrine of a resurrection assumed. Thus e.g., in Psalms 52, we have the wicked “rooted out of the land of the living” and the righteous in safety and exalted, corresponding with the tenor of the Word. In Psalms 56, after asserting that God would “deliver my soul from death,” it is “that I may walk before God in the light of the living.” Psa_41:8; Psa_41:10, which even Augustine (City of God, b. 17, ch. 18) refers to a resurrection, implies it by “the raising up” and “by this I know that Thou favorest me because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.” In the Analysis of Psalms 118, Dr. Clarke, Com. loci., refers the day of Psa_118:24 to the day of resurrection, but we would rather refer it to the Millennial day, the blessed day of Christ, preceded by a reference to the resurrection in the words: “I shall not die,” i.e. shall not always be under the dominion of death (comp. Joh_6:54; Joh_6:58), “but live and declare the words of the Lord. The Lord hath chastened me sore; but He hath not given me over to death.” The “prisoners of hope,” Zec_9:11-12, are released out of “the pit” in virtue of “the blood” of the “covenant.” This we have shown, and therefore Christ has power over death to deliver His own. The context shows when these prisoners are released, viz., at a period of restoration.]  The detention in the grave is figuratively represented by “a prison,” “prisoner,” “captive,” “captivity,” etc. In Isa_42:7; Isa_61:1; Isa_49:9, etc., where it is promised that Christ shall “bring out the prisoners from the prison and them that sit in the darkness out of the prison house,” that He shall bestow “liberty to the captives and the opening of the prison to them that are bound,” these things primarily describe the resurrection, for the simple reason that “the year of the Lord” and the restoration and blessings promised in immediate connection cannot be inaugurated, according to the tenor of prophecy, without such a resurrection.329 [Note: 29 329.  If we take the English version of Isa_53:8, Jesus Himself was “a prisoner,” i.e. as many explain it, experienced “a detention by death.” Bush (Anas.) argues at length that the passage refers to the resurrection of Jesus. Admit this, and the reader can see how much Scripture receives new light and direction from Christ’s death and resurrection thus represented. It may be added that Calmet and others think that the phrase “Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints” means that “the saints are too precious in the Lord’s sight, lightly to give them over to death,” for “death shall be swallowed up in victory,” etc.]  The people now are given up as a prey to the enemy death, and are forcibly represented as “hid in prison houses,” Isa_42:22, as “prisoners resting together” Job_3:18, as “prisoners of the earth,” Lam_3:34, as “the lawful captives,” or (marg. reading) “the captivity of the just,” Isa_49:24, etc. This idea accords with Psalms 79, where, after describing the desolations of Jerusalem, the fact that “the blood” of the saints has been shed and their “dead bodies” have been exposed, the Psalmist significantly asks: “How long, O Lord?” Then praying for God’s help, he says: “Let the sighing of the prisoner come before Thee; according to the greatness of Thy power preserve Thou those that are appointed to die.” What the Prophet means by this is apparent from Psalms 102, where, after complaining that “days are consumed,” that he is “cast down” and “withered like grass,” he relies on the blessed truths that God “endures forever,” that He shall “arise and have mercy on Zion,” adding “when the Lord shall build up Zion, He shall appear in His glory” (not humiliation), “He will regard the prayer of the destitute and not despise their prayer. This shall be written for the generation to come; and the people which shall be created shall praise the Lord. For, He hath looked down from the height of His sanctuary; from heaven did the Lord behold the earth; to hear the groaning of the prisoner; to loose those that are appointed to death (Heb. the children of death); to declare the name of the Lord in Zion and His praise in Jerusalem; when the people are gathered together, and the Kingdoms, to serve the Lord.” What else, if the prayer of these prisoners is ever answered, but a Pre-Millennial resurrection is to be anticipated? For, taking such passages together, what have we here but a reference by the prophet to his own death and to dead saints, to the ability of God to raise them up or deliver them, to “the set time to favor Zion,” which is to come when the Lord shall appear the second time unto salvation, and this prayer to be released from death shall be answered, to a joyful gathering of the people to praise the Lord in Jerusalem, when “the children of death” shall be loosened? If we were only prepared to receive it, we would find the Bible full of this Divine Purpose, and that the unity of the Spirit teaches it again and again, sometimes briefly, or concisely, or even obscurely, and sometimes openly and more fully. Even in such a Psalms as the 69th, faith grasps the resurrection, in the words: “The Lord heareth the poor and despiseth not His prisoners,” for death is brought before us in the preceding verses, when suddenly the strain is changed into exultation, and we are told that the prisoner shall be released, and they shall return with praise to the holy land. 
Obs. 6. So interesting is this subject and abundant the material (showing how the Spirit regards it), that the reader will pardon us, if additional illustrations are given. Thus the word “hell” is used to denote the grave.330 [Note: 30 330.  Christ was delivered from it, Psa_16:10, comp. Act_2:27; Act_2:31; the saints are delivered from it, 1Co_15:55, marg. reading (German Version, etc.). Any commentary or concordance will give examples. Our argument has nothing to do with the question of other meanings, but with the simple fact that the words Sheol and Hades are used to denote the grave or the place of the dead. Many writers correctly infer that Mat_16:18, “the gates of hell shalt not prevail against it,” includes a direct reference to the resurrection, viz., that the power of death, decimating the Church, shall be destroyed-its prisoners being released. Lange presents the view of such in the following: “The leading thought in these words, is the triumph of life over death, of the Kingdom of the resurrection over the usurped reign of the Kingdom of Hades.”]  If we turn to Psalms 86, the hope is expressed, “Thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest hell” (marg. reading is “grave”), and while praise is tendered for such deliverance, the wicked shall be “ashamed.” Other passages could be adduced, but let us take a clearer one, the representation of the grave by “the land of darkness,” “the shadow of death,” “darkness,” etc. (Job_10:21-22; Psa_88:18; Ecc_6:4; Psa_143:3, etc.). In various predictions the saints are to be delivered from this darkness, just as the Millennial era is to be ushered in, and this prepares us the better to appreciate the force of Col_1:12-13, “Giving thanks unto the Father which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; who” (at the time the inheritance is given) “hath delivered us from the power of darkness” (the grave or place of the dead), “and hath translated us into the Kingdom of His dear Son.” That this “power of darkness” refers to the enemy death or grave is proven by the use made of the expression by Jesus, Luk_22:53, who, when the Jews came with stones and swords to take Him, knowing the predetermined result death and the grave, said: “This is your hour and the power of darkness” (comp. Joh_12:27; Mic_7:8, etc.). So the reverse of darkness, viz., “light,” is employed to denote the removal of the darkness of the grave at the resurrection morn, and forms a remarkable feature in the opening, etc., of Millennial descriptions. The manner in which the Spirit introduces the words “enemy,” “sleep,” “prey,” “pit,” “awake,” “dust,” “quicken,”331 [Note: 31 331.  Thus e.g. in reference to sleeping and awaking, Knapp (Ch. Theol., 151, 1) remarks: “Death was compared with sleep and the dead body with a sleeping person. Hence the terms which literally signify to awake, to rise up, to rise out of sleep, are also used to denote the resurrection of the lifeless body.” This was well understood by the early Fathers, so that Justin Martyr (First Apol. c. 38) and Augustine (City of God, b. 17, c. 18, b. 16, s. 41) thus interpret Psa_3:5 (to death of Christ), and the latter also, in the expression “who shall awake him.” The same is true of Dan_12:2, etc. As to “quicken,” compare e.g. Barnes Com. on 1Pe_3:18. Our opponents, themselves, give us the proper interpretation and application, although they cannot logically fit it into their system.]  etc., shows how prominently the notion of a Pre-Millennial resurrection is incorporated in the Scriptures. Let us e.g. take “quicken,” which Paul forcibly employs in Romans 8 to prove that God will fulfill His promise to Abraham to be “heir of the world,” and that “the promise might be made sure to all the seed,” by saying: “God who quickeneth the dead.” (Comp. Rom_8:11; Rom_4:17; Joh_5:21; Psa_3:18.) Now, allow this New Testament confirmatory usage to be adopted as an interpreting guide, and we have Psalms 71 pointedly expressing this resurrection: “Thou shalt quicken me again and shalt bring me up again from the depths of the earth;” and then speaks of his “greatness” being increased here on the earth. Comp. Psa_80:17-18; Psa_143:11, etc., keeping in view the key note given by 1Pe_3:18, where Christ Himself is raised from the dead, being “quickened.” This becomes decisive when the fact is observed that the resurrection from the dead is represented as “a birth,” “a begetting,” “a regeneration.” Notice that Christ’s resurrection is (Heb_1:5-6, comp. with Act_13:33; Rom_8:29, etc.) a begetting or being born again, so that He is, in virtue of this second birth, called, Col_1:18, “the first-born from the dead,” and in Rev_1:5, “the first begotten of the dead.”332 [Note: 32 332.  The reader will of course notice the reason that such a title is given to Jesus; because, as some think, while others were raised from death before Him they were again subjected to death. He is the first one raised who was never again under the dominion of death; or if, as others think, they were not subjected to death, then it is given because He pertains pre-eminently to the firstborn and is the cause of their being included among them.]  What a flood of light this phraseology throws on the Pre-Millennial resurrection; for surely, if the appropriate figure of a birth is thus applied to the resurrection of the Head, designedly too, we are not perverting the Word if we accept of the same in reference to the members. Let us see what the Spirit says, e.g. in Isa_66:7-9, “Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a manchild.333 [Note: 33 333.  For the student of prophecy we append two considerations: (1) This preeminent resurrection takes place before the last tribulation. (2) Has not the “male child” a reference to the priority of the resurrection and the special honor of these resurrection saints, because it seems to be foreshadowed by “the male being the Lord’s” of the firstborn (Exo_13:12, etc.) and had to be redeemed. Tertullian (On resurrection, ch. 31) and many others refer this passage to a resurrection over against Baldwin’s (Armageddon, p. 87) absurdity, who makes the United States to be “a nation born at once” on July 4th, 1776. Fausset (Com. loci.) and others apply this to the sudden restoration of the Jewish nation, but far more is intended. For, in connection with such a restoration (as in Isaiah 26, Daniel 12, Ezekiel 37, etc.) a glorious resurrection is related, and there is no reason why the same should be ignored here, for Augustine even (City of God, b. 20, ch. 21) quotes “and your bones shall rise up as an herb,” as “alluding to the resurrection” and “a bodily one.”]  Who hath heard such a thing? Shalt the earth be made to bring forth in one day? Or, shall a nation be born at once? For, as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children. Shall I bring to the birth and not cause to bring forth? saith the Lord; shall I cause to bring forth and shut the womb? said the Lord,” etc. Here we have the earth (not church) bringing forth at the appearing of the Lord (Isa_66:5), at a time of vengeance (Isa_66:6), at the ushering in of Millennial glory (Isa_66:10-14), at a time when the wicked are to be ashamed and utterly removed (Isa_66:5; Isa_66:15, etc.), at the time new heavens and new earth are created (Isa_66:22), at a gathering and overthrow of nations, etc. And, moreover, those thus born are to enjoy this very Millennial blessedness, while the wicked are so cut off as to become “an abhorring to all flesh.” This corresponds precisely with the statements of events preceding the Millennium; while the suddenness of the event, the brevity of time in which it is accomplished, the astounding and unexampled nature of the occurrence, all confirms its denoting the resurrection. Then Mic_5:3-4 has a remarkable disclosure on this point; for after describing the smiting of the Judge of Israel, the very Ruler of Israel that came to them, the result of that smiting, as witnessed by us in the rejection of the Jewish nation during the times of the Gentiles, is alluded to: “Therefore will He give them up until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth.” This birth is delayed during the dispersion of the Jews; it is not to be experienced until the time when their restoration comes; it is connected with a revelation of the strength and majesty of Christ’s rule. Hence this being born again, this regeneration is referred by Jesus to the future in Mat_19:28, to the period when “the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory,” and the apostles shall “sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” For the word translated “regeneration” means “born again,” and was anciently employed to denote the resurrection.334 [Note: 34 334.  The Jews represented a resurrection under the figure of a birth, and Knapp (Ch. Theol., s. 151, 1) says (referring to Michaelis’s Com. on Heb_1:5): “The Jews were also accustomed to speak of the resurrection of the dead under the image of a new or second birth, to which they were led by the passage Isa_26:19, ‘the earth will again bring forth her dead.’” The critical student will not fail to see that such a usage leads us to believe that much more than a mere moral regeneration is meant in Christ’s conversation with Nicodemus, for appeal is made to Nicodemus’s knowledge of the Scriptures respecting the mode of Israel’s regeneration, what it included (comp. Art. on “The New Birth,” vol. 12, p. 116, Nathaniel). Reference to this birth is also made in Isa_54:1, and “the times of restitution” imply it. “Regeneration” (Mat_19:28) embraces it so clearly that it is used by writers as the equivalent of resurrection, as e.g. Eusebius’s His., b. 5, ch. 1., Lactantius, vol. 2, p. 181, in the letter of the churches of Vienna and Lyons.]  Now, the reader is prepared for an additional reason for believing Ezekiel’s resurrection to be a literal one, viz., the clause, which above all others is supposed to teach a spiritual one, “And shall put My Spirit in you, and ye shall live.” This Spirit is put in these dead ones that are in their graves, and this corresponds with Rom_8:11. Therefore, this Spirit is called in I Corinthians 15, “a quickening Spirit” (Barnes, loci, “a vivifying Spirit, giving or imparting life”). This quickening or birth is performed by Christ (Joh_5:21; Joh_5:26, etc.), and Paul in II Corinthians 3, in his argument to show that the covenant is to be fulfilled by the Spirit giving life, says: “Now the Lord is that Spirit;” and when this is done we find announced in Php_3:20-21, “from whence (heaven) we look for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto His glorious body, according to the working whereby He is able to subdue all things unto Himself.” It is this resurrection Spirit that God promises in Ezekiel to give, that the dead may live, for they, too, are (Eph_1:13) “sealed with the Holy Spirit, of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession.” This again is confirmed by the use of “redeemed,” “ransomed,” etc., and the phraseology of Hos_13:14, “I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death,” and of Paul, Rom_8:23, “the redemption of the body,” is amply sufficient to illustrate the meaning of the prophet. Thus to apply it to Isa_51:11, “the redeemed of the Lord shall return and come with singing unto Zion; and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; they shall obtain gladness and joy; and sorrow and mourning shall flee away.” Preceding this we have this people consumed by the worm (Isa_51:8), and following it this is said to be done that the captive exile “should not die in the pit;” and when they return they enjoy what only is to be realized in the Millennial period. The parallel in Isa_35:10, “the ransomed of the Lord shall return,” etc., also teaches that this is performed when “God cometh with vengeance,” to “save you,” and forms thus what Paul calls “the day of Redemption” for fulfilling the covenant, for as Psa_111:9 forcibly puts it, “He sent redemption unto His people; He hath commanded His covenant forever.”335 [Note: 35 335.  Job_19:25, owing to the division of critics respecting its reference to a resurrection is passed by;* so also Augustine’s rendering (b. 18, c. 33) of Zep_3:8, “Wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, in the day of my resurrection in the future,” etc.; Theodoret’s citing Psa_104:29-30, as a proof text in favor of a resurrection, but which is, perhaps, as Knapp observes, too obscure to be thus used; Dahler and others, referring to Jer_31:26 (comp. Jer_31:11) as expressive of the prophet’s allusion to his own death and resurrection; the Targum’s explanation of Isa_57:16 as expressive of a restoration, “I will restore the souls of the dead;” Clement in his first epistle (ch. 27) quoting Psa_3:6 and Job_19:25-26, as applying to a literal resurrection. The student will observe that as the Pre-Millennial resurrection is associated in the Divine Purpose with the introduction of the Kingdom, with this key before us many passages are seen to be framed in such a manner that a reference to the resurrection is implied or indirectly intimated, as e.g. in Mal_3:18; Psa_102:18-21; Psa_102:30; Jer_31:11. Thus e.g. “the adoption” being connected (Rom_8:23) with “the redemption of the body” implies a previous resurrection in order to be fitted for the chosen kingship with Christ (comp. Prop. 154). So that even in the preceding (Rom_8:21) phrase “the glorious liberty of the Sons of God,” there seems to be an allusion to deliverance from “the prison house”-the grave. Even Fuller (Strict. on Robinson, Lec. 3) says: “Probably the apostle alluded especially to the redemption of the bodies of believers at the resurrection,” thus making it accord with the usage of the prophets and of the Jews. Such declarations as are contained in Joh_8:36 are not merely to be confined to freedom from sin because of the previously announced fact that the heir, the Son (and with Him, of course, the co-heirs, i.e. those made free), abideth in the house (understanding the covenanted one) forever. We sometimes overlook the depth of meaning conveyed in such expressions, by neglecting to take that broad, comprehensive view of Redemption as given by the Spirit-forgetting that the freedom imparted by the Son embraces, as a multitude of passages show, also a deliverance from the bondage of the grave. Lange (Com. Mat_24:31) correctly instances this far-reaching implication, when e.g. he finds the same expressed in the phrase “And they shall gather together His elect,” saying “Here the resurrection of the elect (the first resurrection primarily) is declared;” Some writers (Fausset, Com. etc.) draw the same inference from Php_2:11, “things (i.e. beings, persons) under the earth.” New force and beauty is given by this doctrine to various passages. Thus, e.g. in Isa_40:6-8, the prophet, after delineating first briefly the realization of covenant promise, suddenly surveys the intermediate universality of death and impressively announces the sad fact that all must die. How then can the covenant be fulfilled? The answer, which implies a resurrection, is: “But the word of our God shall stand forever,” i.e. death, now triumphant, cannot defeat the Divine Purpose-these dead ones shall arise, etc. (comp. 1Pe_1:24-25; Psa_103:15, etc.). In Psa_9:13-14, David says that he shall be “lifted up from the gates of death, that I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion: I will rejoice in thy salvation,” expressing his hope of a resurrection and future glory. It is interesting to notice that this psalm is entitled by the Vulgate, Sep., Ethiopic, over a hundred mss. and printed editions (and endorsed by Houbigant and many critics), “A Psalm of David for the end; concerning the secrets of the Son;” the Syriac, “A Psalm of David, concerning Christ’s receiving the throne and the Kingdom, and defeating His enemies;” Arabic, “concerning the mysteries of the Son, as to the glory of Christ,” etc., thus referring it, as the destruction of the enemies of God and the reign of Christ indicate, to the period of the Millennial age.
The student, carefully observing this feature in the Divine Purpose, will observe allusions to this resurrection in various other passages. Thus e.g. the Psalmist evidently expresses a well-grounded hope in a resurrection (Pre-Millennial, as the context indicates) in Psalms 90. After showing the universality of death, the shortness of life, the certainty of its approach, etc., the Psalmist suddenly changes the theme and encourages himself by the covenant hope expressed in the words: “Return, O God, how long? and let it repent thee concerning thy servants. Oh, satisfy us early with thy mercy; that we may rejoice and be glad all our days,” etc. Now in view of what preceded and the covenant promises, there can be no doubt whatever but that the Spirit implies a deliverance from the power of death, from the result of God’s wrath, through a resurrection. In Psalms 102 the lament is made that “I am withered like grass,” which is afterward explained as being” appointed to death, but deliverance is anticipated from this sad condition, and this is based (1) on the unchangeableness and mercy of God; (2) His faithfulness to hear prayer; (3) His fulfillment of covenant promises, evidenced, (a) in His appearing in glory to build up Zion, (b) in the time having arrived when His promises shall be realized, (c) in the gathering of His people and the submission of all Kingdoms. In Psalms 30 we have the positive assertion that the Psalmist (speaking for believers) was “brought up from the grave;” and he exults and rejoices in the greatness of his deliverance, attributing the same (marg. reading) “to the memorial” (comp. Prop. 49), which necessitates a resurrection in order that God may be faithful in His promises. To apply this simply to deliverance from grievous sickness is to weaken its sublime power, and to make it untruthful, seeing that David died, entered the pit, and became dust. But let it be studied in the light of a glorious Pre-Millennial resurrection, and it receives a beauty and force that nothing else can present-teaching us how then he will indeed be “girded with gladness,” praise God in His glory and realize in God’s favor that His “mountain” is made “to stand strong.” We think, therefore, that that class of commentators (Fausset, Gill, Alford, Berlinb. Bible, Bengel, Nast, Olshausen, Stier, Bonar, Ryle, Jones, Lillie, Lange, and others), who allow such references to a Pre-Millennial resurrection, are far more Scriptural and logical than the class that ignore or deny them. Even conservative writers allow such decisive applications, as e.g. Dr. Nägelsbach, Lange’s Com. Isaiah, who interprets Isa_26:5-19 to refer to a literal first resurrection, for (p. 289) he justly claims that with the aid of the Apocalypse we can distinguish between “a first and a second resurrection.”
* While we hold with the early Church that it refers to a resurrection, yet after the declarations of Barnes (Com. loci.), Knapp’s Theol., p. 528, M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop., Art. “Resurrection,” etc., who explain the passage to Job’s confident conviction that his distressed body would be restored to soundness, etc., it would be better, perhaps, to omit it, although much could be said in favor of a resurrection.]  
Obs. 7. This doctrine of a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection we admit, is “Jewish.” This term of reproach (given in this sense by man) we cheerfully accept, for it is a distinguishing feature of our faith, seeing that we find it in the covenant given to Jews, in Jewish Prophets, in the teaching of a Jewish Savior and Jewish apostles, and in agreement with Jewish statements of doctrine; and that only such who are engrafted into the Abrahamic stock and become members of the Jewish commonwealth, shall participate in it. It belongs pre-eminently to the introduction of that Theocratic-Davidic Kingdom promised to the Jewish select nation. Even Rabbinical lore is fall of intimations respecting it. That, therefore, which forms such an objectionable feature to many, is only an additional reason for retaining it. (Comp. e.g. Prop. 68.) 
Comp. Props. 69, 116, 123, 126, 127, etc., for the Jewish aspect, but especially Prop. 49 relating to the covenant. In the first part of this Proposition references have been made to the Jewish faith and instances given of expressed belief in a Pre-Millennial resurrection-one introductory to the Messianic Kingdom. In the Talmud (quoted by Lederer, in Israelite Indeed) the resurrection is found in Moses, for it is said: “Every one of Israel receives a portion of the world to come; for it is written: ‘Thy people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever, the branch of my planting; the work of mine hands, that I may be glorified,’ Isa_60:21. But the following have no part in the world to come: those who say the resurrection from the dead cannot be proved from the book of the law (the Pentateuch).” In the German: “He who denies that the resurrection from the dead can be proved from the book of the law (though he may admit the fact that a resurrection shall take place), shall have no part in the resurrection, because God rewards and punishes measure for measure,” etc. (Comp. references under Prop. 49.) Milman (His. Jews, vol. 1, p. 232) refers to the Rabbins (Tract Sanhedrin, 2) as quoting such passages as Deu_31:16; Deu_1:8 in favor of a resurrection. In his His. Christ (vol. 1, p. 75, etc.) he speaks of this Jewish belief, and states a well-known fact, viz., that such a faith was more clearly and distinctively held after the return from Captivity. Buckle (Mis., vol. 3, p. 136) endeavors to take advantage of this fact as an indication of derivation from an acquaintance with “eastern philosophy”-but how it is derived, when all who hold it constantly appeal to the Jewish Scriptures, he (and others who press this matter) have not informed us. Let us only add: One reason, apparently, why the resurrection is more prominently given by Daniel, Ezekiel, and others is the following: The resurrection is allied with a restored Theocracy; now as long as the Theocratic Kingdom in the Davidic line existed, that prominency was not given to it which, as a great source of comfort and encouragement, appertained to it when the Kingdom was overthrown and faith and hope were directed to its restoration. Augustine (City of God, *) finds the first intimation of a resurrection even in the name of “Seth” signifying “resurrection,” and if one of our opponents can find it so remotely, no one can censure us for our findings. For the Jewish faith in a resurrection of the dead, compare Prayer 2, in the Nineteen Prayers (Shemoneh Esreh), Horne’s Introd., vol. 2, p. 107. Also articles on the resurrection in Bible Cyclopedias, and in Commentaries, especially comments on Mat_22:23; Mat_22:31, in Lange, Meyer, etc.
Obs. 8. We see what estimate to place on Reuss’s assertion (His. Ch. Theol., p. 57): “It is a fact admitted in our day by all unprejudiced exegetes, and which should never have been denied, that the doctrine (of the resurrection) was never taught by the prophets previous to the exile, especially in any close association with the idea of a future reward.” This is abundantly refuted by what we have produced from the Pentateuch, the historical books, the Psalms, Isaiah and Ezekiel. Even if this language is to be spiritualized (which these men do, and, therefore, cannot find a resurrection), critics fully admit that the language is based on, or the figure is derived from, a doctrine of the resurrection, which must then have been well known. But over against Reuss, Jesus Himself told the Sadducees that it was taught even by Moses; so Peter, in proving the resurrection of Jesus, affirms the same respecting David; and so Paul, Heb_11:35, concerning the ancients generally. It was taught both directly or inferentially, but, of course, if the most direct passages are to receive Origenistic interpretation and manipulation, then it cannot be found-the doctrine is prejudged. The Jews themselves appealed to passages in the writings before the exile for their belief, and found it even, where all Scripture places it as necessarily implied, viz., in the Covenant itself. Even Stanley (His. of Jew. Ch., 2 Ser., p. 170) speaks of “the defects” of the Psalms in this particular, and adds: “Hardly in the silence of the Pentateuch or the gloomy despair of Ecclesiastes, is the faintness of immortality more chilling than in the 30th, 49th, and 88th Psalms.” The “defect” in this case is in the interpreter, and not in the Psalms. For what can be more significant and cheering than the plain statement in the 30th that he will praise God, “for Thou hast lifted me up and hast not made my foes (death and the grave as he afterward explains) to rejoice over me”-“O Lord, Thou hast brought up my soul from the grave; Thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit,” i.e., remain there as the wicked. And this comes to pass owing (marg. reading) “to the memorial,” which we have shown (Prop. 49) pledges God to a resurrection to insure the fulfillment of the Covenant promises. This, too, takes place in “the morning,” see Prop. 139. Then again he refers to death, to his happy deliverance from it, to the establishment of his “mountain” or Kingdom, to the fact that he would “not be silent” as the wicked then will be. Whether others can see it or not, the Psalm is radiant with hope of blessed immortality. Psalm 88 is, as has already been shown, jubilant with the same hope, while Psalm 40, not so distinctive, gives, as parallel passages will indicate, evidences of the same.
The efforts made by Amner (On Dan.) to make out-which many now follow-the passages referring to a resurrection to denote mere temporal deliverance, have been fully exposed by others, as e.g. Brit. Critic, O. Ser. vol. 13. Fiske (The Unseen World, p. 105) very confidently asserts that the doctrine of a resurrection was devised after the Babylonish Captivity to meet doctrinal contingencies, and that it was not original with the Jews but was “borrowed from the Zaratheustian theology of Persia.” Clarke (Ten Religions) and many others repeat this, as if repetition was proof. It is reasonable to expect such statements from unbelievers, but when they come from professed believers they are unreasonable. Thus e.g. Beecher (Ser. “The Future Life,” in Ch. Union, Sept. 5th, 1877), speaking of the hope of a future life as expressed in the Old Testament, says: “It (the Old Testament) is dumb, and utters not a word on the subject. There is no teaching of a future existence in the Old Testament, not from the beginning to the end.” He qualifies this afterward by saying that there might have been “glimpses,” “speculations,” or “hopes.” Again: in the Art. “Resurrection,” in M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclop., it is said: “It is admitted that there are no traces of such a belief in the earlier Hebrew Scriptures. It is not to be found in the Pentateuch, in the historical books, or in the Psalms; for Psa_99:15 does not relate to the subject; neither does Psa_104:29-30 although so cited by Theodoret and others.” Now over against all these is the simple but positive statement of Jesus, and Paul, and Peter, whose declarations are amply supported by the facts adduced.
Obs. 9. From what preceded, it is evident that the unbelief of those is inexcusable, who, in a measure, removed from gross Rationalism, still, like Lücke in his Introd. to the Apoc., and Bleek in his works on Daniel, make these prophecies a kind of poetical fiction; or, like Reuss in his Analysis of the Apoc., speak of them as a resume of exploded Jewish expectations. So rooted are they in the Divine Plan, so entirely embedded in the Plan of the Redemption, that to deny their validity is to sacrifice Divine Unity, to deal a blow at one of the most vital parts of Salvation. We see, too, in the union between Paul, the other writers, and the Apocalypse, how fanciful is the opinion of the Bauer school that they are in opposition to each other, when, in fact, they mutually sustain each other in “the one hope.”
Many theologians, simply on account of their spiritualizing system, can see no faith of a resurrection in the Patriarchs and others (although expressed, e.g. in the case of Isaac, in faith in covenant promises, in hope when dying, etc.), and such, of course, can find no Pre-Millennial resurrection, or if, peradventure, found and admitted, dismiss it as Jewish superstition. When not immediately concerned in opposing our views, we often find the most remarkable concessions, as e.g. Fairbairn (Typology, vol. 1, p. 290) positively asserts that the Antediluvians looked for no other domain than this earth, renewed, etc., for an inheritance, and this to be obtained “through a resurrection of the dead,” which hope was afterward confirmed. When opposing us, then the plainest references to the resurrection are all figurative, as e.g. Brown (Christ’s Second Com., p. 251) makes Eze_37:12-14; Hos_6:2 – Isa_26:19; Isa_26:14, figurative in order to show that Rev_20:4-6 is the same. We may well ask then, if such declarations are figurative, where is the resurrection taught? We need not wonder that many writers (e.g. Fowle in “Science and Immortality,” Pop. Science Monthly, May, 1872) can find not “a shadow of a trace” in the books of Moses concerning a future life, and base it upon the fact that Moses lets his aspirations concerning the future relate, not to the third heaven, but to this earth. Precisely so, for then Moses in his reference to this earth as the future glorious inheritance is in full accord with the truth (comp. Props. 49, 131, 137, 141, 144, 146, 151, 154, etc.). His teaching regarding that future life we have already fully expressed.
Obs. 10. This Pre-Millennial restoration aids in solving a difficulty (unnecessarily such) felt by theologians, viz., that the first books of the Bible are only confined to temporal, earthly blessings, or rather, as it should be worded to be correct, blessings here on earth. The question deduced is: Why is the hope constantly held up to the Jews of living in their promised land and none presented of rewards in the third heaven? The substance of the answer given by those who reject the key afforded by the Covenant and this resurrection, is this: that the Jews were not then prepared for other promises, and that the real hope and destiny was to be gradually revealed as they could bear it, etc. Learned dissertations are tilled with just such nonsense, or “worldly wisdom.” Such reasoning places both man and God in a false position. The former, as if he were then so intellectually and morally weak as to be disqualified to appreciate his own destination, and now, even in the case of heathen or all men, so strong as to be able to bear such knowledge; the latter, as if He would conceal the true destination of those who trusted in Him and excite their hopes, etc., by either false or temporary motives. No! never does God thus deal with man. The true reason, and the one underlying the Covenant and all these promises, is, that the land, the earth, is truly-as always affirmed-their inheritance, and that God will raise them up out of their graves and fulfil the promises given by bringing them into the land; and, moreover, God never changes from this divine purpose, for the promise (Prop. 142) exists today, as it ever did, “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit” (not the third heaven but), “the earth.” The language of Moses and others is the best that could be used, for it is the truth-the truth of God which in His own time He will see is realized. We are not to come to God’s Word and gauge it by a monkish third heaven theory, which makes the third heaven the saint’s inheritance instead of the one that God uniformly through every prophet has promised, and then by it judge of the propriety and truthfulness of the Divine utterances. Would that Abrahamic faith were more characteristic of believers! (comp. Props. 144, 151, etc.). 
Posted in Assemblies, Covenantal Sovereignty, History, Israel, Pilgrimages, Preparedness, Supportive Articles | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on pt2 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

pt1 All Saints Are Literally Coming Back BEFORE the Millennium to FULLY Restore Order

Are you ready? The Bible tells us in dozens of places that all the old Saints of True Christian Israel (not the one tribe called Jews, but 13 Christian tribes of true Israel!) are going to ressurrect and come back before the Hebrew millennium. If you’re not ready they’re (or we are) going to kick your butt to get you ready for the coming of Christ who will rule on the earth from David’s throne for 1,000 years. He’s coming back for a church that is without spot or wrinkle and will step down when His enemies are made His footstool (and as in TCAWW’s study, all the Majesty/Elders/Marshals are feeding those that trust in YAHWEH).
I would like to send you the notes from Peters in his “The Theocratic Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
These writings about the ressurection may later become part 2 on His Ekklesia Will Be Stronger Than It Has Ever Been on christsassembly.com “
(You can download the full text of “Theocratic Kingdom” if you have e-sword (all freely downloadable). The best part is you can click on each verse if you have e-sword and it opens up the full reference Bible texts. Ignore most of these references to any Jews. None of the Bible text says “Jews”, I don’t know how he mixes that part up with the saints. However, it’s the part on the ressurection I want to share. There are several parts all below. )Rev Stephen MK

Minister, The Christ’s Assembly
Grand Marshal, Priory of Salem

Prop. 125. The Kingdom to be inherited by these gathered saints requires their resurrection from among the dead.

WE HAVE CONCLUSIVELY SHOWN THAT THE COVENANT NECESSITATES A RESURRECTION; THAT THE DESCRIPTION OF DAVID’S SON, WHO IS TO REIGN, DEMANDS A DESCENDANT OF DAVID POSSESSING, IN SOME WAY, IMMORTALITY, SEEING THAT HIS RULE IS EVERLASTING, THUS IMPLYING A RESURRECTION-THAT A RESURRECTION IS PREDICTED OF HIM, ETC.-AND NOW THE FAIR INFERENCE IS THAT THOSE SELECTED TO BE HIS CO-HEIRS, BEING GATHERED OUT DURING A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, AND HAVING DIED “WITHOUT RECEIVING THE PROMISES,” MUST ALSO EXPERIENCE THE POWER OF THE RESURRECTION BEFORE THEY CAN INHERIT THE KINGDOM OF GOD.
Obs. 1. Leaving the proof of this union of resurrection and Kingdom for the following Propositions (as we only desire now to introduce the subject of the resurrection), every reader, keeping in view that Christ’s appearing and Kingdom are united, 2Ti_4:1, that a resurrection follows His Second Advent, and that an inheriting of the Kingdom succeeds this appearing and resurrection, must concede that when the righteous “are recompensed at the resurrection of the just” (Luk_14:14), this also includes the inheriting of a Kingdom. So that, for the present, we are content with the general tenor of the Word, indicating first a resurrection and then the reception and enjoyment of a Kingdom. And, as food for reflection, it is suggested that if the appearing and Kingdom are synchronical, then, as Mede observed, “The appearing must precede the Millennium, for” (taking now the doctrine of our opponents for granted) “at the final resurrection the Kingdom does not commence, but is ‘delivered up,’ then cometh the ‘end,’” etc. Refuge indeed may be taken in a Kingdom in the third heaven, but this, as shown, is not the Kingdom of covenant or prophecy, which is a Kingdom here on earth.
Obs. 2. All along, the position has been taken that, owing to the postponement of the Kingdom, a preliminary dispensation of grace to us Gentiles has intervened, and that even the dead saints, whatever their position in this interval, are waiting until “the day of Redemption,” the time of the resurrection for their inheritance, etc. This is confirmed by the language of Paul in 1Co_15:32, who lays the greatest stress on the resurrection as the necessary and appointed means by which the blessings that are covenanted can be obtained. The memorial, the Abrahamic covenant, the Davidic covenant, promise after promise, involve a resurrection from the dead, and the resultant reception of blessings; and hence the emphatic language of Paul, because of this very relationship, “what advantageth me, if the dead rise not.” He well knew that inheritance, crown, and Kingdom belonged to the period of the resurrection. Auberlen (Div. Rev., p. 208) justly argues that one of the doctrinal defects of the Reformation was, that the resurrection of Christ was not made sufficiently prominent as compared with His sacrificial death, while in the apostolic preaching the Crucified and the Risen held equal place. And this feature extended finally in an undue exaltation of the intermediate state, until the resurrection is almost practically ignored as of comparative little consequence to the honor, glory, etc., of the deceased saint. To appreciate the force and pertinency of the resurrection, there must be a return to the scriptural presentation of the matter.
The Liturgical services for the dead, commonly used among the various denominations, being mostly derived from ancient sources, and having a close relationship to Scriptural language, are in sympathy with our position. From many sources, also, do we receive statements confirming the importance of the resurrection on the ground stated by Dr. Nast (Lange’s Com., p. 401), viz., that the intermediate state is “something imperfect, abnormal,” etc. Something may be added respecting the doctrine that death is the result of the fall of man. The favorite argument employed by Free Thinkers is derived from the geological assertion that it is firmly proven that before man trod this earth death raged under the rulership of the mastodon, the dinotherium, etc. Therefore it follows that “the root doctrine” that death follows from the fall of man is an error. But the Scriptural statements are not in antagonism with the alleged proofs of geology, and still consistently make death entailed by the fall. For (1) the Bible only refers to the fact that man was created mortal (hence what preceded him, being a lower creation, was also mortal), and had life offered to him in virtue of obedience; (2) that having disobeyed, the means of life-so that he should not see death-was withdrawn, his mortality-conditioned by faithfulness-was entailed. This is the Scripture teaching, and not the old theological opinion against which the argument is leveled. Hence death, in view of disobedience, is a penal entailment as the Bible represents, because the means of escape from it originally present are withdrawn, and now can only be obtained through the Savior provided by God. Hence, being penal and a result of the fall, perfect redemption through a perfect Redeemer must recover us from the same. (Comp. Prop. 163.)
Obs. 3. This resurrection includes a resurrection of dead saints, or, in other words, is a corporeal, literal resurrection. The changes or modifications that the body may undergo in the process of glorification, or the question whether the whole body or a portion, etc., is raised up, we leave for other works (e.g. art. “Resurrection,” McClintock and Strong’s Cyclop.) to discuss, the point under consideration being merely that of an undoubted, veritable resurrection of the bodies of dead saints, sufficiently distinctive to preserve personal identity, and to make it recognizable to others as a real restoration from the dead. A line of argument can only (owing to lack of space) be indicated. 1. The resurrection necessitated by the covenant promises requires the personal resurrection and continued identity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 2. That applied to David’s Son demands the same, and the distinctive preservation of His humanity, so as to sustain a continued relationship to David as His Son. 3. The belief in a literal resurrection of the body, according to numerous writers, was a common one among the Jews at the time of Christ (Matthew 22; Luke 20; Act_23:6-8; Joh_11:24, etc.), and the language of Christ and the apostles is pre-eminently calculated to confirm them in their belief. 4. That the language of Christ and the apostles taught such a resurrection, is confirmed by the fact that all the early churches distinctively proclaimed it as their faith, thus corroborating the views entertained by the Jews. And this general belief was not confined to Jewish but was embraced in the Gentile churches. 5. Seeing what immediately preceded and followed the First Advent in attachment to this doctrine, if an error, it seems reasonable to anticipate either from Christ or His apostles a plain and unequivocal denial of it. 6. But the Scriptures themselves establish the doctrine. This they do, (1) in the usage of words which denote both in classical and scriptural writings a revivification of the dead. (2) In applying these words to deceased persons in their graves. (3) In representing those “asleep in the dust of the earth,” those “whose flesh rests in hope” etc., as the ones who shall experience it. (4) In speaking of it as something well understood, as e.g. Act_14:2; Act_23:6, etc. (5) In declaring that the unjust (Act_24:15), “all in their graves,” Joh_5:28-29, shall undergo its power, removing the idea of simple moral regeneration. (6) In appealing to us not to think it incredible that God should perform such a work, Act_26:8; Heb_11:19. (7) In the examples of dead persons being restored to life (e.g. Mat_27:52-53), which is a sign of what will be done at the Second Advent. (8) In the body being specifically mentioned, as e.g. Rom_8:23 in “the redemption of the body,” Php_3:10; Php_3:21. (9) In the contrast made between death and the resurrection from the dead (1Co_15:21-22), and in the effects of death and the consequences following the resurrection (1Co_15:42-54). (10) In the rejection of those who spiritualized the resurrection, 2Ti_2:17-18. (11) In the removal of it to a certain fixed period, Eph_4:30; 1Co_15:23; 1Th_4:14; 1Th_4:17, etc. (12) In the fact that “the first begotten of the dead” underwent a literal, corporeal resurrection, as the various Gospels prove; that even in the process of glorification following it He retains His personal identity sufficiently that when He comes again He comes emphatically as “the Son of Man,” David’s Son, and that His resurrection is represented as a pattern for that of His saints, Rom_8:11; 1Co_4:14; 2Co_4:14; Rom_6:5; Php_3:21; 1Jn_3:2. (13) In the mortal, i.e. the part subject to death putting on immortality, 1Co_15:52-53; Rom_8:11. (14) In the effects of Paul’s preaching the doctrine on Athenians, etc., Act_17:32; Act_26:6; Act_26:8, etc. (15) In the fact that if the body is not also redeemed, restored to its forfeited condition, then the Redemptive process is in so far incomplete. Such considerations, with especially the deeper and more significant one that the Davidic-Theocratic arrangement necessarily by covenant insists upon it, are amply sufficient to cause us to retain the old form of doctrine.
The “changing of our vile bodies,” the “quickening of our mortal bodies,”-completed redemption (comp. remarks, Art. 1, Luth. Quart. Review, July, 1874) requiring the raising up of the body, etc., ought certainly to influence every one who receives the authority of the Word to believe in a corporeal resurrection. It is most reasonable to believe that the body which suffers by the fall, which has been honored by the Spirit, which has honored God by its labors and toils, will be saved as well as the soul, and will be honored by God in a glorious manner. No spiritualizing or prevarication can remove the force of numerous Scriptures, as e.g. “He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live” (for the connection shows a direct reference to corporeal resurrection, so Barnes Com., etc.). Redemption of the body is something recovered or restored that was alienated in the power of evil; if, therefore, the body itself is not in some way resurrected and restored, there is no redemption of it. Redemption cannot be predicated of a body wholly rejected (as some believe), or of an entire new body substituted (as others hold) in place of the old one. If the reader will but reflect over the Jewish phraseology of 1Co_15:20, “But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept,” this naturally and forcibly recalls the first fruits of a coming harvest of the same kind of product. In view of the identity of the first representative of the harvest with that of the harvest itself, it seems impossible to refuse our assent to a similarity of resurrection. If the one is a resurrection of the body, the rest must be the same, or else the illustration loses its force. Such passages as Rom_6:5; Rom_8:23; Php_3:21; 1Co_6:14; 2Co_2:14, etc., are decisive, and corroborate the statement of Jesus, Joh_6:39-40; Joh_6:44, that He will lose nothing, but raise it up again at the last day; that He will raise up believers (not at death) at the last day. So decisive is this Scriptural proof that nearly all creeds and confessions affirm “the resurrection of the body;” meaning by it an actual revivification of the sleeping or dead body, forming again a reunion of soul and body, and preserving the personal identity of the believer. In this way alone do they consistently hold forth the Scriptural promise, that every believer shall be “ransomed from the power of the grave,” and that “God bringeth down to the grave, and He raiseth up” (1Sa_2:6).
The Church is rapidly drifting away from the idea of a corporeal resurrection. The old-fashioned faith-even evidenced by the Patriarchs-does not suit modern notions. Thus e.g. Dr. Nisbet (The resurrection of the Body. Does the Bible teach it?) refers to Nelson, Hodge, Robinson, and others as declaring that the future body is not derived from the present body, or as Robinson (quoted) says: “Few, if any, intelligent persons can at this day, I think, suppose any part of the body laid in the grave is to rise with us at our resurrection. “To this we only say that, admitting a change or transformation, it certainly then is strange to have a resurrection of the body announced at all, and stranger still to connect it at some future time with our decayed bodies, and strangest of all that the resurrection of Jesus (our pattern) should be really and truly identified with His deceased body. If it is true, as Nesbit quotes Dr. Hodge, that “not a particle of one need to be in the other,” this is due, not to the resurrection of the body, but to the glorification of the body afterward. Many writers confound the resurrection and subsequent glorification, speaking of the future body as the resultant only of the resurrection, when it is one of the resurrection and the subsequent transforming (making the mortal immortal, etc.) power of God. If Nesbit, Robinson, and Hodge are right, then the body of Jesus might have remained in the sepulcher untouched, and its removal, under the idea of resurrecting power, was simply a deception. White (The Redeemer and Redeemed, p. 21, etc.) makes the resurrection of the dead a re-creation simply out of the dust of the earth without any reference to the body itself. His sole Scriptural proof is based on 1Co_15:35-38, especially the phrase “thou sowest not that body that shall be.” But he presses this beyond its connection-for the context proves that while (as we firmly believe) the resurrection body (glorified) is something very different from the body sown (owing to the powers that it receives), yet the resurrection body is in some way connected with the body that has died, as seen e.g. in the phrase, “Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die.” No wheat, no grain of any kind, is produced unless it sustains an intimate connection with the previously sown grain; so it is with the resurrection, otherwise the Apostle’s illustration fails-and this is confirmed by the allusions to “the graves,” coming up “out of the graves,” etc. A friend (Prof. Breckenridge, with whom many agree) takes the position that the same body is raised only in form, for God preserves the idea of form and in the resurrection restores it and revitalizes it, so that not any of the particles are raised which composed the original form, but the form itself is restored by the rehabilitation of other particles. This is the resurrection of an idea, and when applied to the resurrection of Jesus, and to others, fails in applying the Scripture statements respecting the “flesh,” “the dust,” “this vile body,” “this mortal,” this “seed,” etc. Lee, indeed, in his Eschatology, admits a literal, corporeal resurrection of Jesus-forced to it by the facts, but then contends (p. 198-9), that it was a resurrection only to a mortal life for a few days, and that afterward the resurrection to immortal life was accomplished by His Spirit leaving the body, (1) for “the animal body had answered its purposes, and the Spirit might now take its departure into the spiritual world to live forever a Spirit without a body.” Hence, according to this theory, Jesus died a second death! and as death is the consequence of sin, He endured the penalty of sin twice! There is nothing in the Record to support such a view, and it never would have been entertained if it were not needed to bolster up a preconceived opinion (comp. next Observation and note). Strange how far men will proceed with the Scriptures in order to establish a favorite theory, to which the former must bend. Thus e.g. Rev. Hequeinbourg (Plan of Creation) follows Swedenborg, Bush, Lee, etc., in making the resurrection to be an investiture of new bodies immediately or soon after death, and then asserts respecting the impression or doctrine of a corporeal resurrection: “But if the impression should prove correct, it would be fatal to the inspiration of the New Testament” That is, if the Scriptures do not sustain his theory of a purely spiritual resurrection succeeding death, he denies the divine inspiration-when the Jews, the early Church, and multitudes have found a corporeal resurrection in them and held to their inspiration. When men thus affirm themselves, in the light of the teaching exhibited by us concerning this doctrine, as judges to decide whether it ought or ought not to be received, and inspiration with it, we instinctively feel that their views are unscriptural and dangerous. The resurrection of Jesus is a stumbling-block to all purely spiritual theories, and hence Clamagerau, Fontanes, and others, in some way, against the most positive of Records, make out even a spiritual resurrection of Jesus, defining it to be “the rising of the soul to a higher life,” etc.
Obs. 4. The views of the Gnostics relating to matter, and the consequent rejection of this doctrine, has influenced many to imitate Hymenaeus and Philetus. From Manes down to Eckermann, Henke, Ammon, Priestley, Des Cotes (Knapp’s Ch. Theol., p. 532), Bush, Owen, etc., men have endeavored either to spiritualize the language, or to explain it away as an accommodation, or to refer it to the bestowment of something new immediately after death. Indeed, this leaven has so far worked through the mass, that concessions are made by our theologians which virtually vitiate the whole doctrine so far as its relationship to the future is concerned. An illustration may be in place. Dr. Dwight in expounding (Ser. 64, On resurrection) Mat_22:31-32, not seeing how the covenant promises give the key (Prop. 49) to its meaning, opens wide the gate of arbitrary exegesis; and of his exposition Prof. Bush, in his Anastasis (denying the resurrection of the body) gladly avails himself. Dwight asserts that the word here translated resurrection denotes throughout the New Testament, “existence beyond the grave,” or “a future state or existence.” It is a matter of amazement that so able a writer, to make out a special case of interpretation, should commit himself so erroneously, and thus aid the efforts of those who deny a bodily resurrection. This assertion has no weight with himself afterward, as he advocates a literal resurrection, indicates that it is applied to the corporeal resurrection of Jesus, and admits that the Jews, etc., employed it (as e.g. Joh_11:24) to denote a revivification of the body.313 [Note: 13 313.  Dr. Russell’s estimate (Bib. Sac, Oct., 1860, p. 775, given by Hudson, p. 25 Reviewers Reviewed) of Dr. Dwight’s definition may be referred to; when e.g. speaking of those who “quote the loose and rickety statements of Dr. Dwight in full on the meaning of ‘anastasis,’ and then blink the whole question of the usus loquendi of the language itself.”]  Why, then, make so sweeping a declaration, which is abundantly disproved by even the simplest passage relating to the resurrection; for, if he is correct, and Bush is right in indorsing it, then his interpretation is synonymous with the word, anastasis or resurrection. Let it be tested as a synonym with Joh_11:25; 1Co_15:42, etc., and its absurdity will appear. Hence, our ablest critics and most talented theologians, as a matter of simple consistency, accept of the word “anastasis” or “resurrection” as legitimately denoting a revivification of the dead, a restoration to life. The student need not be reminded that innumerable testimonies derived from ancient and modern writers can be adduced to support this meaning. To give but a recent illustration: Thompson (Theol. of Christ, ch. 14), following Knapp and others, declares that the word was used by the Greeks, by the Grecian-Jews, and by the Scriptures to denote a restoration to life of the dead. This leads us again to remind the reader that in the following discussion, such candid admissions from those who have no sympathy with our doctrine possess considerable weight, in view of the fact that the selection of such a word which Christ and the apostles well knew was thus employed, indicates, that if a spiritual resurrection or existence beyond the grave is meant by the resurrection, no word could have been selected better calculated to deceive hearers and readers.
It is not surprising that “Reformed Judaism” (Art. on, by Felix Adler, in North Amer. Review, Sep.-Oct., 1877), “inspired by the philosophic (Rationalistic) teachings of the day,” should set aside the doctrine of the resurrection in the flesh, and with it all kindred doctrines, as e.g. the Advent of a personal Messiah. But it is surprising that those who accept the authority of the Word, should virtually deny the same. The Unseen Universe, relying simply on the expression that “there is a natural body and a spiritual body” (overlooking Paul’s statement that the one is a result of the other, for the former must first die, etc.), teaches that we now have the frame or the rudiments of the frame of the spiritual body, which connects us with the invisible world. A writer in the Cin. Enquirer, a Spiritualist, affirms that, at death, mediums have seen it coming out of the person dying, thus leaving the body. The Shakers (Art. on, by Evans, Appletons’ Cyclop.) make it spiritual, and by way of pre-eminence style themselves “the children of the resurrection,” and hence do not marry, as marriage is inconsistent with their professed state. Swedenborgianism (Barrett’s Lectures, etc.) has no resurrection of the body, for “continuation of life is what is understood by the resurrection.” With these and others there is no resurrection out of the graves, unless figuratively. Over against all these mystical conceptions, aside from other considerations (see previous Observation) it is amply sufficient and conclusive to say that as the natural body of Jesus was transformed into a “glorious body,” so, says the Apostle, Php_3:20-21, “shall He change our vile body, that it,” the vile body, “may be fashioned like unto His glorious body.” Philosophy, science, spiritualizing may speculate and tender objections, but faith accepts the asserted fact that the body itself-like Christ’s-shall undergo this change or transformation, just as it is represented that the bodies of the living at the Second Advent, when translated, shall also undergo a wonderful transformation. Any other view forbids the cordial reception of the promises relating to the resurrection, in their plain grammatical sense. Greybeard, in Lay Sermons, No. 104, opposes the resurrection of the body on the ground that it is “folly” to assume that “the same identical particles of matter composing the body that is sown ‘in corruption’ are to form the body that is to be ‘raised in incorruption,’” basing it on the declaration, “thou sowest not that body that shall be,” etc. But how does he know-for has the modus operandi of the resurrection been revealed to any one?-that some, if not all, the particles will be utilized and form the basis upon which is exerted transforming power? Cannot God take, if such is His will, the very mortal body and clothe it with transcendent power and refined glory? If his theory is true, then, as no particles of the body of Jesus were needed in the resurrection, the empty sepulchre was merely a pious deception, and the proof given to Thomas of a resurrection was a mere pious fraud. No! the Record is too explicit. Besides, in reply to Greybeard’s proof, it must be observed that Paul speaks of the body (natural) as the basis from which springs the incorruptible (just as in the body of Jesus), and holds up the resurrection body in its completeness with the positive declaration that the body is as its “seed.” Hence, while the oak is not the acorn, the same particles, yet the oak proceeds from the acorn through the transforming power of nature. So also the natural body-whether entire or in part we cannot tell, it being also complex-must form the basis, the groundwork of the resurrection body, for it is on the dead bodies in their graves that the transforming power of resurrection will be exerted, so that the dead ones undergo a transmutation; there being a veritable coming out of the graves, and, therefore, a necessity for the graves, the earth, and the sea to give up its dead. When Beecher (The Future Life, sermon, Ch. Union, Sep. 5th, 1877) rejects the resurrection of the body because “flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom,” he only confuses the wonderful transforming power which accompanies the resurrection with the resurrection itself; because the resultant of resurrecting power is the glorification of the body-a conversion by which flesh and blood is excluded-in order to qualify it for inheritance in the Kingdom.
The “germ theory, which assumes that the soul at death retains a certain ethereal investiture, and that this has by virtue of the vital force the power of accreting to itself a new body for the celestial life,” is virtually the Swedenborgian view as advocated by Prof. Bush (Anastasis), Universalists (Works), Joseph Cook314 [Note: 14 314.  Cook (Lectures on Biology) in his Lecture “Ulrici on the Spiritual Body” (which contains highly interesting matter relative to the latest German thought respecting the enswathement of the soul in an ethereal, non-atomic fluid, etc.), makes out a present spiritual body of which the soul is an occupant, and that immediately after death, or at death, the soul continues to exclusively occupy this body, and then jumps to the conclusion that this is “the spiritual body” denoted by “the inspired doctrine of the resurrection.” But was this all that Jesus experienced? Is it a coming out of the graves, etc.? Is it a resurrection limited, as the Scriptures do, to the Second Advent? Does it not virtually make the resurrection of Jesus a pious fraud, and deny the union of the resurrection with the Second Coming of Jesus? Russell (Our Lord’s Return, p. 47), in behalf of his spiritual theory, remarks: “A spiritual body coming out of the grave will not make any more of a hole in the ground than Christ’s spiritual body made in the door when ‘He came and stood in their midst, the door being shut.’” This, however, is to make resurrection (i.e. revivification of the dead) and glorification identical, which they are not. If Russell is right, why such a parade over the grave of Jesus, the missing body, etc.? Why expressly assert that the graves themselves are opened as e.g. Mat_27:52; Eze_37:12; Joh_11:41; Joh_11:44, etc.?]  (Lectures), Spiritualists, and others. But this makes the resurrection to be at death when the Scriptures make it still future; it is opposed to the contrast in I Corinthians 15; it is not in accord with the figure of the grain (change), I Corinthians 15; it makes the future body independent of and not the offshoot of this body; it does not really make the whole body to die, but retains a bodily (ethereal it may be) investiture, and is opposed by the plain record of Jesus’ death and resurrection (as we have shown), for to be resurrected there must be a real death in order to be made alive: thus it was with Jesus, 1Pe_3:18, and thus it is with the saints, Rom_8:11. (This germ theory probably is a refinement of an old view-see McClintock and Strong’s Cyclop., Art. “Mohammedanism”-for the Jewish Haggadah had a certain bone (“Bone Luz”), and Mohammed the rump bone (“Bone Al-Ajb”), which would be uncorrupted until the last day, from which the whole body would spring forth anew). If the theory were true that the resurrection is thus only a continuation of life by virtue of this inherent constitution, then a resurrecting Savior need not be provided, for it would not be true that “by man came also the resurrection of the dead,” seeing that, according to this opinion, it would be a result already established by the law of creation, and required no special divine interposition to be secured. Williamson (Theol. and Moral Science, ch. 28) and others of the same class, to make out a purely spiritual resurrection immediately after death, with no relation to the body in the grave, lay special stress on I Corinthians 15, “With what body do they come?” and in the discussion coolly assumes what remains unproven, the time of the resurrection, omitting all reference to the passages which relate to a resurrection still future. He informs us that the body must die or else there can be no rising of the soul from it (how about the translated ones?), and this constitutes the resurrection, which the Patriarchs and all others have already experienced, for it is foolishness to say that the dead come in the same bodies, etc. Now, as there is great mystery connected with the modus operandi of resurrecting and transforming power, we are, of course, utterly unable to answer the questions and objections that may be alleged against the Scriptural idea, but we, unhesitatingly, because declared by God, receive it as follows: Paul’s reasoning includes the outcome or the result, and not the mode of operation; but this embraces so much, viz., that the future body sustains some relation to the dead body in the grave, although when raised and glorified it is very different from this mortal body, having other powers, qualities, attributes, etc., to fit it for its intended glorified use. The analogy of the grain clearly teaches such a relationship, and this is sustained by the references to a still future resurrection at the Second Advent. Take e.g. such a reference as 1Th_4:15-17, and the resurrection is predicated, not of those just deceased (immediate), but of “them who are asleep” in their graves, who are actually to arise from their sleep in the dust of the earth, and which is united with the Second Coming and a connected translation of living bodies. The question, “How are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come?” refers to the future, and the proof is found in the simple fact that all the churches established by the Apostles East and West universally held to such a reference. How account for so general a belief? Any representation, however plausibly put, which disconnects the resurrection from a future second personal Advent of Jesus, and which separates it from any relationship to the deceased body (although moldered in the dust), is erroneous. For Paul’s reasoning shows that the very body which dies is the one quickened (and not another that is quickened because the body dies), but the quickening process (as in grain) gives a body not like that which was sown, it having different properties, powers, etc. The contrast, expressive of relationship, is distinctly and impressively given as follows: “It (the body) is sown in corruption; it (the same body, with the changes introduced) is raised in incorruption,” etc. The repeated references to “this corruptible, this mortal,” and hence this body as the one undergoing a change is so clear that no one, unless prejudiced by preconceived opinions, can fail to see and appreciate the force; thus repelling the notion that our mortal bodies experience no real, literal resurrecting power, which is capable of making the mortal immortal, the vile glorious, etc. A great deal of nonsense is written respecting “the spiritual body,” and because the word “spiritual” is used, many jump to the conclusion that the body is “spirit.” No one mistakes concerning “the natural body” as one under the influence and control of nature, and no one should misapprehend (after the usage of “spiritual”) “the spiritual body” as one under the influence and control of the spirit.315 [Note: 15 315.  Hodge, quoted by Nesbit in another place, has some good, sensible remarks on “the spiritual body” in his Com. on I Corinthians, in which he does (1) connect the resurrected with the dead body, and (2) insist upon a body under the influence of the spirit. Probably this influenced Whedon (Com., 1Co_15:44) to coin a new word, making “spiritual” equivalent to “soulical,” i.e. something combined with, directed and controlled by, the soul. Many able writers contend that by “natural body” is meant one that is influenced, etc., by nature, and that by “spiritual body” is denoted one which is the organ of the spirit and the instrument of its operations (thus e.g. comp. Lange’s Com. loci).]  But the latter still arises from the former as its basis, being shown by the evident contrast and relationship, thus: “It (the body) is sown a natural body; it (the same body but now changed) is raised a spiritual body.” If death retains the body so that it will not be raised and changed, we fail to see how then “Death is swallowed up in victory.” The critical student will observe the force of the Apostolic position in this respect. If (e.g. Killen’s Anc. Church, with which comp. Neander’s remarks) the Gnostics resisted the notion of a resurrection of the dead because of the principle that evil was inherent in matter, it is exceedingly strange that, if there is no resurrection of the mortal body, the Apostle should not, to this extent at least, have conciliated and incorporated the view, instead of directly affirming against them a resurrection, as e.g. Paul saying to the Corinthians (1Co_15:12): “How say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead?” Why compare death to a sleep out of which the dead one should awake and directly refer to the bodies themselves? Why give such a decisive rebuke to deniers of a future resurrection (2Ti_2:18)? Enough has been said on this subject to sustain the Pre-Millennial view of the resurrection of dead ones, and the subject may be dismissed with two remarks. First, men are too eager to quote as authority for their views others who really differ from them. Thus e.g. the Universalist Quarterly, p. 150, Ap., 1877, on Luther as a Preacher, quotes him as saying concerning the resurrection of the body, to make it appear that he endorsed the Universalist view of the resurrection: “That the human body after death is not that body that shall be.” But this we also receive, and Luther’s view, as repeatedly taught, was that of a resurrection of the body, but that the resurrected body was one totally changed from the corruptible body buried, and that such a change was only to be realized at the future Second Advent. Second: the interpretation of a passage is made to fit a preconceived opinion. Thus, to take a favorite one. Augustine, and many who follow him, quote Joh_5:25-26, “The hour is coming and now is when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live. For as the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself.” Because the expression is used, “The hour is coming and now is,” they suppose that it refers only to a spiritual or moral resurrection. But this is opposed to the facts. This announcement on the face of it expresses something as unusual, whereas such a resurrection as these advocate has, according to their view, always existed. Again: “the hour is coming” alludes to a future time coming when a bodily resurrection shall be experienced, and the “now is” indicates that although the resurrection is promised in general as future (at the last day) to those living, yet even now, at that time, a bodily resurrection was experienced in those few who were raised from the dead by Jesus, and the many who were raised up at His own resurrection, including, as the next phrase shows, the resurrection of Jesus Himself. And then the expression “He hath given to the Son to have life in Himself,” shows, as the parallel passages evince, that allusion is made to a resurrection of the literal dead, because we are expressly told that it was in view of this self-lodged power of life that death could not hold dominion over Him. That the Gentiles deemed the doctrine of the resurrection a thing “incredible” (as many now do, pronouncing our view “foolishness,” etc.), did not influence the inspired men to soften it down in order to make it palatable and accommodating to modern notions and unbelief, as is now the fashion, following in the lead of Gnosticism, Priscillianism, etc.
Obs. 5. An important feature that ought to be noticed in this discussion, is this: Commentators and others quote largely from the writings of the Jews, showing that they derived from the Old Testament the belief that the pious dead would be raised up at the Coming of the Messiah, and that they would remain with Him here on earth in His Kingdom. A few specimens will suffice: Eisenmenger (Bush, Anast., p. 221) states that the Jews held that the souls of pious Israelites were in a state of detention until the resurrection, awaiting a deliverance which was to be wrought for them by the Messiah, the Son of David. Bush quotes (Anast., p. 225), as favoring such a resurrection, R. Joshua Ben Levi, who thus applies Hos_13:14 and Isa_35:10, and also the Bereshith Rabba ad Gen, thus interpreting Mic_2:13. Priest (View, p. 40) says that J. Ben Uziel when referring to the prophecies of Eldad and Medad concerning Gog and Magog “in the last days,” adds: “All the dead of Israel shall rise again to life, and shall enjoy the delights prepared for them from the beginning, and shall receive the reward of their works.” R. Eliezer speaks of a resurrection preceding the Millennial age or thousand years. In the Testament of Simeon (Twelve Patriarchs) when “the Lord God, the Mighty One of Israel, shall appear upon earth as man,” it is added: “Then will I (Simeon) arise in joy and will bless the Most High for His marvellous works, because God hath taken a body, and eaten with men, and saved men.” In the same work, in the Testament of Zebulun, he is represented as saying: “And now, my children, grieve not that I am dying, nor be troubled in that I am passing away from you. For I shall arise once more in the midst of you, as a ruler in the midst of his sons; and I will rejoice in the midst of my tribe,” etc. Having given Jewish testimony in various places, and reserving others for following propositions, this, in connection with the collections given by Burnet (Theory), Lightfoot (Works), Mede (Works), Manasse Ben Israel (On resurrection), Herzog’s Cyclop., Smith’s Bib. Dic, and found in our commentaries, is corroborative of the notion entertained by Jews themselves of a corporeal resurrection, and of its occurrence at the appearing of the Messiah. And, what is remarkable, this very expectation of a resurrection at the time of the reign of the Messiah, a Pre-Millennial resurrection, a resurrection deemed indispensable to fulfill the prophets and the covenant itself to Abraham, etc., is so fully incorporated in the phraseology of the New Testament that not the slightest disconnection is to be found existing, so that Paul himself, Act_26:6-7 (comp. Act_23:6), links “the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers, unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come,” with the resurrection itself; and John in the Apocalypse, as many writers have admitted, gives a representation of the resurrection in full accord with Jewish opinions. At least the language chosen in its natural, grammatical meaning confirms these hopes not only in Jewish but in Gentile converts. The latter circumstance is to be considered the stronger in our favor, since, as many authors have shown, the doctrine of a resurrection from the dead was particularly absurd and offensive to Greeks, Romans, etc. Surely this continued reception of “Jewish conceptions” by Gentile churches must have its significance. This doctrine was taught by the apostolic Fathers and their successors as indispensable to their system of faith; and it was regarded as cardinal and exceeding precious, owing to the covenanted Kingdom and blessings being identified with it. Justin Martyr (Dial. with Trypho, *) gives the general view held when he says: “But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead (or as Newton, of the flesh), and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and enlarged, as the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare,” quoting Isa_65:17-25; Psa_90:4; 2Pe_3:8 and the Apocalypse in confirmation.
While this doctrine was almost entirely confined to the Jews and the first Christians, yet traces of it are to be found in several directions. Thus e.g. a resurrection of the body was taught even by a sect of Magians several centuries b.c. A great prophet was to arise toward the expiration of this world, who would be “the Conqueror of death and the Judge of the world,” and after this revival to life the once dead but now “become immortal with a fine ethereal body, would lead a life of bliss upon an earth forever freed from the corrupting influence of evil.” (Quoted by Thompson, Theol. of Christ, p. 182.) The Sibylline Oracles, as many have noticed, teach a resurrection preceding a Millennial age and reign of a Mighty King. However we may account for the advocacy of the doctrine outside of the Jews and Christians, one thing is certain from the constant appeal made to Scripture, that both Jews and Christians derived their belief from the express declarations of God’s Word, so that, e.g. Lactantius (Div. Insti.) when adverting to this Pre-Millennial resurrection connected with the personal Advent of the Messiah, only expresses a uniform sentiment when he says (*): “this is the doctrine of the holy prophets which we Christians follow; this is our wisdom.”
For other references to the Jewish and Primitive belief, see Ante-Nicene Library, Comentaries of Meyer, Gill, Clarke, etc. Articles on resurrection in Kitto, Calmet, writings of Russell, Dodwell, Greswell, etc. Observe the language of Clemens Romanus in his Epis. to the Corinthians. The Apocrypha, as e.g. Maccabees 2:7, 14; 12:45, etc. The Karaites (the party opposed to the Rabbinical) hold to a resurrection of the dead, as seen in their articles of belief (Milman’s His. of the Jews, p. 224). So also the Mohammedans, who (Upham’s His. of Mahomet’s Successors, Greenbank’s Period. Library, p. 247) specially honored Palestine, “as, according to their traditions, it is the place whither all mankind will be summoned at the resurrection.”
Obs. 6. But in view of the variety of theory concerning the resurrection, something more must be stated. Many writers refine the resurrection by using it as a figurative expression, so that it is constituted something coeval with the history of the Church; or as an accommodation denoting the unfolding of greater capacities and newer powers; or as indicative of an inner body or life continued after death, making death not penal, but necessary and friendly to the development of life; or, as the reception of something exclusively spiritual, either the complete transformation of the material into spirit or the union of two spiritual natures into one. There is no end to the variety and scope of mystical language in this direction, and under the guidance of men of learning and genius, it becomes bewildering. But all such notions, however learnedly and eloquently expressed, are opposed to the simple idea of the resurrection as entertained by the Jews and early Christians, and as represented in the Scriptures. We frankly admit that the subject is one of faith, and thus accept of it; but, at the same time, a solid foundation sustaining such faith is produced. Leaving the connection that it has with the body itself in the grave, with the corporeal resurrection of Jesus, with the meaning of the word anastasis as aptly given by Pearson on the Creed, with the corporeal resurrection of some after the crucifixion, etc., we plant ourselves on the “redemption of the body” (Rom_8:23), which clearly teaches that not another body is given and glorified, but the same body, made subject by sin to death and corruption, is raised up again and given immortality and renewed (even spiritualized) powers and capacities. We still have faith to accept of the scriptural statements that death is penal in its nature, that it is an enemy and not a friendly messenger to introduce a spiritual resurrection, or to bestow the inheritance, crown, and Kingdom. We are old-fashioned enough in our belief to cling with hope to that day beyond the intermediate period or state, when the redemption of the body will also be effected. And this, because we rest on a perfect, complete Redemption. Our Savior is a perfect Redeemer; and the early Christians evinced not only faith but logic when they claimed in and through Him “the Redemption of the body.” Everything else that man and the race forfeited by sin is restored through Christ, and we can make no exception in favor of the body, given over to death and corruption, without making Redemption in so far incomplete, and giving in this particular the victory and triumph to Satan. “We dare not limit the redemption of the believer, seeing that God designs and has promised, through Christ, a complete restoration to all forfeited blessings; and even superadds to the same, in virtue of relationship to the Redeemer, increased exaltation and glory. Hence, every theory, however plausible, and no matter by whom advocated, that proceeds to limit Redemption, the work of Christ, must be rejected as irreconcilable with the honor, power, etc. of God in Redemption.
An editor of a prominent religious periodical, in a recent article on the resurrection, complained that some gave it undue prominency in the pulpit, etc., and suggested that one sermon a year was amply sufficient to give it all the prominency that it needs. Some eminent commentators and theologians of his own denomination correctly take a different view from that of the editor, who makes so much of “the intermediate state” that he does not see much necessity for a resurrection. Over against such a loose method we commend the excellent remarks of one of the editors (either Dr. Brown or Dr. Valentine) of the Evang. Quarterly Review, Art. 1, July, 1874, p. 337, insisting upon its fundamental importance and necessity (corporeal) for completed redemption. Sir Thomas Browne (Relig. Medici, S. 47) quaintly says: “The life, therefore, and spirit of our actions is the resurrection, and a stable apprehension that our ashes shall enjoy the fruit of our pious endeavors; without this all religion is a fallacy, and those impieties of Lucian, Euripides and Julian are no blasphemies, but subtle vexities; and atheists have been the only philosophers.” The critical student will find that by “the adoption,” Rom_9:4, Paul refers to this resurrection (for proof, see the preceding chapter, Rom_8:23), making it equivalent to “the redemption of the body” (comp. Judge Jones’ Notes, p. 284, footnote). But it is something distinguished from the general resurrection, being a peculiar and distinctive one, belonging to “the Sons of God;” for by the resurrection of saints is the adoption both perfected and manifested. Jesus is declared to be “the Son of God” by the resurrection from the dead, Rom_1:4, and His Sonship being vindicated and manifested by that sublime manifestation of power, it is employed, Act_13:33, as proof of the resurrection. But the identical principle involved in “the manifestation of the Sons of God,” to become such fully and really, they also, like their Head, must be declared such by a resurrection from among the dead-one peculiar to themselves; and this the Apostle declares, Romans 8, where the formal adoption is linked with the resurrection, for they are born again (as Jesus was born from the dead) as His children. (Query: Can we thus apply “the Sons of the living God” in Hos_1:10?) Brown (Com. Mat_12:25), in confirmation of what we previously said respecting the memorial (Prop. 49, Obs. 2, note) expressing a resurrection, forcibly says: “A beautiful clause is added by Luke, ‘and are children of God’-not in respect of character, which is not here spoken of, but of nature-‘being the children of the resurrection,’ rising to an unending existence (Rom_8:21; Rom_8:23), being the children of their Father’s immortality” (1Ti_6:16). (Compare Rom_1:4, etc.) It will be profitable for us to ponder in our hearts what this means, viz., that if we are so happy as to be “the children of the resurrection” we thus are manifested as God’s children, He calling us out of the dust of the earth by supernatural power and imparting to us. God-like powers. The expression in its relationship is so indicative of a new birth with added capacities and powers, so full of contemplated glory entirely derived out of the ordinary course of nature, that it ought to stimulate our faith and hope to grasp such a distinguishing, peculiar resurrection of saints.
Attention is called to Psa_16:10 : “Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt Thou suffer Thy Holy One to see corruption.” The mss. have the plural form “holy ones,” and Rosenmuller, De Wette, Gesenius, Bruno, Stange, Fischer, etc., decide that it must be retained. Our version and many commentators follow the Keri or marginal reading, and retain the singular. This has led to some discussion among critics. Some, as Fischer, etc., call it a plural of intention having reference only to Christ. Others, as Hengenstenberg, conclude that “the plural here must have been extremely welcome to the Jews because it furnished them with the best means of refuting the Messianic interpretation of the Psalms.” Some, as Dr. Alexander, contend that even the singular reading in the margin “is collective and includes the whole class of God’s chosen and favored ones, of whom Christ is the Head and Representative” (whereupon a writer in the Bib. Sacra., Oct., 1851, p. 808, asks the Dr., “Is it a fact that God does not suffer His ‘holy ones’ to see corruption?”). Now, so far as the plural form is concerned, if insisted on, we are willing (gladly, as authoritative) to adopt it, but need not necessarily endorse Hengstenberg’s idea. For notice, (1) it is quoted in the New Testament as expressly applicable to a resurrection; (2) Christ being the Head of the brethren or “holy ones” is necessarily included, and therefore the application to Him; (3) that the suggested question whether His brethren, “holy ones,” do not experience corruption, is not stated in the text if we allow due latitude of meaning to the word “see.” For it has also the meaning of sufferance or enduring, of continued experience or under the possession of, etc., as e.g., “It was not meet for us to see the King’s dishonor,” “If a man shall keep my saying he shall never see death,” “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God,” etc. Hence it is not necessary even to contend that any saint, including Jesus Himself, has not experienced corruption, seeing that the text only asserts that they shall not be suffered to endure corruption, remain under its power, but shall obtain a resurrection. With either reading it is a proof of Christ’s resurrection, and with the plural form it embraces that of His members, and thus makes the resurrection of all a bodily one.
In reference to the body itself it is sufficient to add, that, being something beyond present experience and reason, it is not particularly described, but in general it is asserted that being transformed, made like unto the body of Christ, glorified, it becomes “a spiritual body,” i.e. a body perfectly controlled by Spirit and not dependent any longer on nature for its support (although like angels, because of future supping with Jesus, etc., food and drink may be partaken of-not as a matter of necessity, but rather of pleasure). It is a body freed from weakness, disease, and death, having immortality, perpetual youth, angelic and even Christ-like powers. It is a strange notion of Burnet’s (Com. State of the Bead, and resurrection, ch. 7) that this glorified body will have no members or organs of sensation. Reason would imply the exact contrary, and even largely increase them as means of enlarged happiness (without e.g. interfering with the power of rapid transmission from one point to another), which Scripture supports in that it invariably links the unbounded happiness of the righteous with the period of their resurrection, and conveys the decided impression that the body itself will form an instrumentality through which increased pleasure will be afforded to the soul. We may well imagine, as Scripture intimates (Luk_20:36, etc.), that the future body in its glorified form will vary from the present body in that it is specially fitted for a new and enlarged state or ordering. The description of Jesus glorified, the representations of the saints, all evidence the greatness of the transformation, yet in such a way as to preserve a continued personal identity linking it with that which had previously existed. The critical student will ponder in this connection that (already intimated) glorification (which qualifies for honor and station) follows the resurrection. It is supposed from I Corinthians 15 that glorification and resurrection are one, but a little reflection and comparison will show that Paul in the general subject of the resurrection of the saints, which includes their glorification, unites both, giving the result, under the one general head. The production of the natural body is not instantaneous, and it does not follow that the production of the glorified and spiritual body is. a sudden, instantaneous one. Let the reader consider that the resurrection of the saints leads to a speedy, determined incorruptibility, etc., because a resurrection, same word, is also predicted of the unjust, who certainly are not transformed because resurrected, thus showing that the act of resurrecting or vivifying the dead is one thing and that of glorifying quite another. Men are to be judged for the deeds done in the body, and it would be an incongruity to judge them when already, as evidence of previous judgment, in possession of their reward in a transformed body. The resurrection of Jesus is in point, for we have no evidence that He assumed the glorified form until at His ascension, thus showing a resurrected one can exist restored to life, for some time independent of glorification. The rewarding being at the resurrection of the just, and as the future position, station, etc., of the believer in the Theocratic Kingdom is then assigned to them, and as differences exist, etc., we have every reason to believe that while all glorified bodies are fashioned after Christ’s, some are more like Christ’s than others, or in other words, that a diversity will thus exist even in the glory of the body as in the glory of the soul.
Obs. 7. If charged with credulity in our belief, we answer, that it requires far more to spiritualize away the plainest of facts. Thus, e.g. if the resurrection consists merely in a continued spiritual or future life, why is so much said of the burial of Christ, of the grave, the sealing, the stone rolled away, the rising on the third day (and not after death), the visitation to indicate no absence of the body, etc.? How can these facts be reconciled with such a theory? Again: the precise idea is conveyed of a resurrection “from among or out of the dead,” as all critics admit (as e.g. Php_3:11, etc.). Prof. Bush (Anast., p. 139), noticing this peculiarity in Luk_20:25, says: “This usage is very remarkable, and must be founded upon some sufficient reason.” The reason he assigns is, that it denotes a moral or spiritual resurrection from among or out of the dead in sin, or a future state. But the facts in reference to this usage are decidedly against such a view, for the identical language is employed to denote Christ’s resurrection from among or out of the dead as is seen in Act_4:2, comp. Act_17:31; and hence, if the pleading is valid, it denotes in Christ’s case a moral or spiritual regeneration or a continued future life. How, too, reconcile this usage of language, with precisely the same employed by the Jews to signify, as the words indicate, a separate and distinct resurrection of some of the dead?
Compare Prop. 128. We are satisfied with the charge of credulity, so long as the same is supported by the plain statements of God. The difficulties alleged in the scattering of the dust, in the assimilation of the flesh of martyrs by beasts, etc., have no force to him who believes in the unlimited Omnipotence of God. The question simply is, has God declared that He will raise the dead? If He has, then He will perform it, no matter how incredible, how impossible it may be to man. We are not concerned in replying to objections at length, simply because not knowing how it is accomplished, how the transformation is performed, we might readily be led in our short-sightedness, into error. It is sufficient that a cause efficient enough to produce it is assigned, even Jesus, David’s Son and Son of God, and that the efficiency was practically demonstrated in His own dead body. The illustrations generally employed, however favorites, to show forth the resurrection, apt as they may be in one respect, fail in others. Thus e.g. the change of the ugly caterpillar in its silken cocoon into the beautiful butterfly, lacks the analogy of death and the sudden exertion of power in its behalf; it is simply the product of nature’s laws, while the other is the glorious resultant of supernatural power. The silver cup dissolved by acid and mixed in a large quantity of liquid in an invisible state, so that even the microscope cannot perceive it, and then again by science reduced to visibility, to a compact mass, and formed into another silver cup of greater shapeliness and beauty, this may indeed teach us to have faith in the ability of the great Chemist and Scientist who established and organized the vast laboratory of nature, but its analogy utterly fails because it does not touch the problem of death and life. The only light and illustration that has the requisite force and beauty is that found in Him who is “the resurrection and the life.” It is such that childlike faith can grasp, appreciate and apply with comfort and hope. It preserves, however accomplished and whatever modifications exist, the personal identity of the believer, even as respects his body, as implied by the dead ones being called forth from their graves, etc. Bh. Butler (Analogy) may go too far, as Tyndall (Pop. Science Monthly, Oct., 1874) accuses him, when he says, “Our organized bodies are no more a part of ourselves than any other matter around us” (urged to the statement by his eulogy of the soul and illustrating it by limbs removed, body diseased, and yet the mind active, etc.); but Tyndall goes to the opposite extreme when, retaliating with his Lucretian theory, he makes matter supreme (illustrated by the brain, vital organs, etc., being requisite to sustain a person), for the truth seems to be in a medium, both being essential to constitute the personal identity of a believer, and consequently, as we have shown, there is a redemption which includes soul and body. As to the philosophical and scientific questions that this may suggest, it is again sufficient to say, that this whole matter being beyond our experience and knowledge, we must be content with the general statements which include both, making it satisfactory and comforting (just what we need) at the mouth of the grave, when it receives the mortal remains of a loved one. Simple faith in God’s Word imparts hope and joy, when supposed superior wisdom gives only despair and anguish, or, at least, painful doubt and perplexing suspense diminishing happiness. When we see Christ’s body, the body itself, raised up so that it should not experience corruption; when we consider this requisite to prove His resurrecting power over death itself; when we contemplate the assurance that His resurrection is a pledge, the first fruits, of our own, then we are satisfied, and willing to remain in ignorance of its modus operandi, awaiting its glorious power.
Obs. 8. Candor requires the brief examination of the only passage which can, by careless concessions, be adduced as favorable to this notion of a purely spiritual resurrection immediately after death, viz., that of 2Co_5:1-8. If we entertain the opinion, given by various writers, that this change of body is experienced at death, we are at once plunged into difficulties, for then, (1) we make Paul contradict himself in his teaching concerning the resurrection. For he not only in other places teaches a corporeal resurrection, but he precisely locates this resurrection and transformation at the future Coming of Christ (e.g. I Corinthians 15, and I Thessalonians 4), when “the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven,” etc. (2) In consoling those who lost friends and endured tribulations (1Th_4:13; 2Th_1:4-10, etc.), he refers them to an experience of the power of the resurrection at the same period, and professes the same respecting himself (Rom_8:23). (3) That none of the churches established by him, or their immediate successors, believed, so far as we have any knowledge, that believers experienced such a change immediately after death, which omission of faith is corroborative evidence that the passage was apprehended without such an interpretation. If we concede that the change is after the death of the believer, then the concession is seized by Swedenborgians, Universalists, etc., as proof of the non-resurrection of the bodies of the saints. Is this concession necessary, or is it demanded by the passage? The reasons just assigned have already sufficient weight to urge us to avoid it for the sake of consistency; and the solution, if we allow the general analogy of Scripture to speak, is not difficult. It is only a forced comment to say, as some do (e.g. MacKnight, Hodge, etc.), that the resurrection body is not denoted, but only “the heavenly mansions” or places in the third heaven, for then the contrast is not preserved. It is contradictory to profess a belief in a bodily resurrection at the end of the age, and yet when we come to this passage, give the saints (as Barnes) in this intermediate state a body and even “a glorified body.” To say that Paul desired to be with Christ in a disembodied state does violence to the desire as expressed, or to say that a temporary body is given until the day of resurrection is opposed to its being “eternal.” The explanation of Locke that Paul expected the speedy coming of Christ, and desired a transformation, without dying, although plausible, as Barnes admits, is not necessary to reconcile the passage with other statements of Paul. The opinion of that class of commentators who advocate that the resurrection body is denoted, is the only one that accords with the tenor of the resurrection doctrine. Paul is accustomed, owing to the inheritance, etc., being linked with the Second Coming, to pass over the intermediate state, examples of which are found (e.g. Rom_8:30; Heb_12:22-23, etc.) in several epistles. Before entering upon the words of the passage, he expresses his strong faith in the things not seen, in the things eternal, and among those things he had just enumerated (1Co_4:14), “knowing that He which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise us up also by Jesus, and shall present us with you.” Hence, grasping by faith the blessings connected with the resurrection by Jesus, he, passing by the intermediate state as not worthy of comparison with what follows it, makes a general affirmation of the resurrection, his desire to experience it, and his safety and blessedness whether he presently, or not, experience it. That his mind was impressed by the desire for a bodily resurrection appears, (1) that this body is “eternal in the heavenlies” (see Prop. 107), which accords with the position and rank of the Rulers after the resurrection; (2) it occurs here on earth for “the house is from heaven,” i.e. the change, etc., is made by God through His Son Jesus (for our “resurrection” even is in heaven); (3) this change is made “that mortality might be swallowed up of life,” i.e., the body itself, the mortal part, is endued with immortality, otherwise it is not correct to say that the mortal receives or attains to life, but it should be (if spiritualized) that the mortal body gives place to another and different body never susceptible to mortality; (4) the “earnest of the Spirit,” given as a pledge for the performance of this, indicates it, as a comparison with Rom_8:23; Eph_1:14; Eph_4:30, etc., will show. Such considerations, to say the least, are ample enough, whatever view we may entertain respecting particular parts of the passage or concerning it as a whole, to prove that we need not endorse a spiritual endowment or resurrection immediately after death, making the resurrection of the body unnecessary and redundant; for, admitting the apostleship of Paul, the writer does not contradict himself, which he inevitably does if we force such an interpretation upon his words.
Rev. Wilson (Proph. Times, N.S., 1875, vol. 1, p. 223) and others simply make the body reserved in heaven to be the body of Christ, the pattern of ours, after whose body ours is to be fashioned, just as He is now in heaven our life. We shall be clothed with this body at His Coming, etc., and as Paul saw this very body, hence his intense longing for it, thus nervously expressed. Lange’s Com. loci refers the reception of this body to the resurrection at the Parousia of Jesus, and Dr. Wing (footnote) endorses and enforces (over against Hodge’s view) the opinion expressed by Dr. Kling. The passage, too, as numerous writers observe, distinguishes between the soul and the body, so that the latter is not pure spirit, but an organized vehicle under perfect control of the spirit. Comp. the excellent remarks of Fausset (Com. loci), who heads his comments with “The Hope of Eternal Glory in the Resurrection Body.”
Obs. 9. Attention is called to the circumstance that many of our op-posers frankly acknowledge that a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection is taught in the Scriptures. Of these we have several classes, (1) such as receive the inspired Word, and profess themselves forced by philological and exegetical reasons to receive the doctrine, but very carefully have these resurrected saints removed to the third heaven. Such are Prof. M. Stuart, Priest, etc.; and the Com. of Stuart and his Excursus on Revelation 20 are commended to the special consideration of the reader, because his candid admissions are particularly valuable both on account of his known hostility to our doctrine, and by reason of this concession of a literal resurrection being antagonistic in spirit and principle to his own theological system.316 [Note: 16 316.  Among these may be classed those who express themselves in a hesitating, undecided manner. As e.g. Henry’s comment in the (Compreh. Com. loci, which says: “They were raised from the dead and restored to life, either literally or figuratively,” but then proceeds, owing to preconceived views of judgment, Kingdom, etc., to favor the figurative sense. Among such may also be reckoned those who occasionally give a most decided utterance in our favor, but are largely given to spiritualizing. Thus e.g. Dr. Tomlinson, in his Sermon on the Millennium, is forced to acknowledge a literal resurrection After mentioning the view of a resurrection of a mere spirit of the martyrs, he adds: “Others contend, and, in my opinion, with much more propriety, that it should be interpreted according to its obvious import; and that the martyrs will literally rise from the dead at the beginning of the Millennium, and continue on the earth throughout the whole of that period,” and then approvingly quotes Bh. Newton. To these may be added such writers as Spurgeon, Talmage, and others, who in one place utter the most emphatic Pre-Millenarian views (some we quote in this work), and then weaken the same in other places by indecisive, hesitating, or spiritualistic utterances, showing that a clear, uniform system of Eschatology is lacking.]  (2) Then there are some hard to understand and contradictory; admitting in one place a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection, without the Advent of Christ, and in another place rejecting it. Thus, e.g. Kurtz (Sacred History) admits, s. 196, a literal resurrection to precede the Millennium, as his reference to Mat_27:52-53 indicates, and yet in sections 198 and 199 he speaks as if all the Scriptures pertaining to the dead of Christ were only fulfilled at the close of that age. He, too, is guarded in placing those resurrected ones preceding the Millennial age in an “invisible and celestial” reign, just as if the predicted Kingdom of the prophets was an invisible one. The concession, however feebly given, is worthy of notice, as in so far it coincides with “the ignorance and folly” of Jewish expectations.317 [Note: 17 317.  To this class Dr. Chalmers may be added (having occasion to quote him occasionally), who at times is hard to understand, unless we allow him a Millenarian bias (comp. his letter to Dr. Bonar, Memoirs, vol. 5). Thus e.g. on Psa_50:1-6 (Posth. Works, vol. 3, p. 51) he remarks upon its being in “the domain of unfulfilled prophecy,” and adds: “And I am far more inclined to the literal interpretation of this Psalm than to that which would restrict it to the mere preaching of the Gospel in the days of the apostles. It looks far more like the descent of the Son of Man on the Mount of Olives, with all the accompaniments of a Jewish conversion, and a first resurrection, and a destruction of the assembled hosts of Antichrist.” Even Origen could not entirely rid himself of the Primitive view, and occasionally utters sentiments in accord with Chiliastic views, as e.g. in his 13th Homily on Jeremiah, he says: “If any man shall preserve the washing of the Holy Spirit, etc., he shall have part in the First Resurrection; but if any man be saved in the Second Resurrection only, it is the sinner that needeth the baptism by fire. Wherefore, seeing these things are so, let us lay the Scriptures to heart, and make them the rule of our lives; that so being cleansed from the defilement of sin before we depart, we may be raised up with the saints and have our lot with Christ Jesus.” (The student will observe that Barbour’s system is Origen’s revived, viz., future salvation of sinners.)]  (3) Another class are those who, imitating some ancient opponents of Chiliasm, reject the Apocalypse mainly on the ground that it teaches a twofold resurrection, the first of the saints at the beginning of the Millennial age, the second at its close. So Lücke and others, see Prof. Stuart’s Introd. to Apocalypse. (4) Some, as Prof. Bush (Millennial and Anast.), Neander (Works), admit that the language is well adapted to teach a Pre-Millennial corporeal resurrection, that such an opinion was entertained by the early Church, that it was well suited to sustain the martyrs, etc., but that its true spiritual conception was to be developed by the growth of the Church. (5) Rejectors of Revelation, as Gibbon (History, vol. 1, p. 534, etc.), admit it, and in various works and periodicals it is presented and derided as decidedly too “Jewish.” A writer, e.g. in Westm. Review, Oct., 1861, p. 261, speaking of this doctrine, portrays it thus: “The subjects of this long-desired theocracy are primarily the decapitated martyrs, and then all the true adherents of the now triumphant Messiah. Their restoration to a happy and sinless corporeal existence constitutes the first resurrection,” but pronounces it after all only a splendid idea derived from Jewish Messianic expectations, unworthy of credence. Very recent attacks on the Apocalypse by talented men correspond with this in tone and spirit. (6) Still others fully admit the literalness of the Pre-Millennial resurrection, but injure its force, and materially affect the harmony of prophecy, by linking with it, and regarding as identical in time, events which are separated by the Millennial era. Thus, e.g. Keith in his Harmony of Prophecy. Thus from various sources, antagonistic, and some even hostile, to us, we have the important admission made, so requisite to our system of faith, that a literal Pre-Millennial resurrection is taught in the Scriptures.318 [Note: 18 318.  Dr. Keith, in many respects an instructive and valuable writer, connects passages (Har. of Proph.) as descriptive of the same period of time which the Spirit applies to different eras of time. Thus e.g., overlooking the plain fact that the judgments of God fall upon living nations and not upon the dead at the Second Advent (comp. Prop. 134), and the additional fact that the dead in Christ only experience a resurrection at the beginning of the Millennial age and the rest of the dead are not raised until its close (comp. next Proposition), he unites with Rev_20:5-6, etc., such passages as Rev_20:12-15. His objection that we nowhere find “a second” resurrection spoken of, is irrelevant, for two reasons, (1) the term “first,” as shown in next Proposition, has not so much reference to time as to privilege; and (2) the resurrection of all is asserted, but a certain precedence given to the righteous, which necessarily involves precedence in time, etc.]
Obs. 10. An objection, urged by Barnes and others, may as well be noticed here. It is to the effect that in more detailed descriptions of the Resurrection, as in I Thessalonians 4, and I Corinthians 15, Paul does not connect the personal reign and Kingdom of Christ as following here on earth. But if this proves anything, it proves too much, for it would exclude other things also mentioned as occurring, such as the creation of new heavens, etc., the resurrection of the unjust, the last judgment, etc. The omission is decidedly in our favor, for (while Paul in other places unites “the appearing and Kingdom”), he here takes it for granted, from the universally entertained views that the Kingdom is joined to the appearing of this Son of Man, that the parties addressed will supply the order of events omitted, and discusses only that part of it, viz., the resurrection of the dead, which to Gentiles, like the Thessalonians and Corinthians, was the most incredible, etc. If the objection is appropriate, then we might frame another in the same spirit, and ask, Why then, seeing that these Thessalonians are charged by Neander and others as holding to “Jewish forms” of the Kingdom, did not the apostle, when on the subject of the resurrection, refute their Jewish notions of the Kingdom? The one objection is as pertinent as the other.
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